Immediately, my mind flashed to the apropos film and television references, from Lindsay Weir attempting to hide her Mathlete past on "Freaks and Geeks" to Cady Heron heeding the advice of her new friend Damien in "Mean Girls," who blurts, "You can't join Mathletes; it's social suicide." Still, Lindsay and Cady's quests to become "cool" ultimately result in newfound appreciation of their gifts, perhaps prompting other young women watching them to realize their "limit does not exist!" as well. We all have Tina Fey to thank for that line.
To gain new insight into these questions and more, I asked four women involved in STEM fields to share their thoughts and personal experiences in bridging the gender gap.
Veronica I. Arreola, Director of the Center for Research on Women and Gender's Women in Science and Engineering Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
On gender bias: "The literature clearly shows a bias against women, by both men and women, in STEM. As for how it plays out in the classroom...it plays out in different ways. We have seen women delegated to secretary positions, men doing the actual experiments. Men often yell out answers, women raise their hands and wait to be called on. There are ways to minimize these examples, but it takes additional work. The tough thing about bias is that we often feel like we don't have them, so we don't work to minimize them. But we're all biased."
On the lack of women pursuing higher math and science degrees: "There are many theories. The one I focus on is awareness of the different careers in STEM. For example, I work with a lot of pre-med students, who might be better suited as researchers versus clinicians. Our society does not do a great job at exposing young people, boys or girls, to the wide range of careers available. When students are debating leaving, I often hear, 'I want to work with people.' Which is exactly what scientists and engineers do — they work with people to solve problems for people. From climate change to curing cancer, it's all teamwork. I also hear that there aren't enough jobs. For some fields, it may be true, but tech companies and banks cannot hire enough computer scientists fast enough, yet fewer men and women go into computer science. Lastly, the family-work juggle does get mentioned. For some reason, science and engineering does not come across as family-friendly. I remind students that until we have a national child care system and paid family leave, few careers are truly family-friendly. Plus, the women in academia do have much more control over their hours than women in almost any other field."
Colleen, Northwestern University graduate with a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics and a minor in Earth and Planetary Sciences.
On studying physics at Northwestern: "The majority of my peers were male, and I'm sure I wanted to stand out and prove to everyone that I was capable and that I could do physics just like them. But when I joined a lab, it felt like everyone knew more than I did, and everyone who was working on a research project had brilliant ideas right away. By not meeting those standards from the start, I saw myself as being behind; but the truth is, there was far more collaboration and discussion than I realized. I could have been asking for help, but to me that felt like admitting I wasn't good enough to contend with the 'big boys' in the lab... I eventually decided that pursuing a Ph.D. was not for me. In talking with other female graduates of STEM fields, it sounded like I was not the only person who felt lonely working through her degree. I think if I had figured out the keys of positive collaboration and had managed to boost my confidence earlier in my college career, I might have graduated with a different outlook on what a life of academia would hold for me."
On gender roles in an academic setting: "This certainly isn't true for everyone, but to me, it appears that young women are appealing to the popularized notion that they should be polite, considerate, and soft spoken rather than being loud and roaring with competitive opinions. I think something about our educated culture results in men being more willing to ask questions and find solutions without encouragement; so, it's not that they're any more capable of problem solving, men are just more visible while they're doing it. I'm sure this trend can be traced all the way back to young boys: something about young male culture makes it cool to be the "class clown," to confidently disrupt class and be loud. I did not experience a young female culture that would support or encourage those traits. If there is a confidence curve, then in my experiences, young girls are positioned to be playing catch-up from an incredibly early age."
On dating: "Outside of individuals in a traditional STEM field, I have yet to introduce myself to someone who upon learning that I earned my degree in physics didn't respond with a double-take or a 'Wow really? You must be really smart.' I'm never sure how I should respond to that, so I usually mumble a, 'Yes, maybe? I just really liked physics.' I don't know if this has ever deterred the potential pursuit of a significant other, but if the prospect of dating a physics major is intimidating to the point of deterrence, then I probably wouldn't be happy dating them anyway."
On pop culture reinforcing stereotypes: "In 'The Big Bang Theory,' there is a lot of physics jargon and complicated topics that Sheldon, Leonard, and Raj talk about that I feel aren't even meant to be understood by the audience. However, I think that Amy and Bernadette's careers are presented in a much more palatable, 'dumbed-down' version and are generally less referenced. Aside from maybe one or two times, I think Amy's research topic is presented as tobacco addition in monkeys—which is a very easy-to-understand topic, unlike many of the physics topics studied by the male characters. Also, what is presented about Amy's research is often inaccurate or comical. To name a few off the top of my head, Amy having a cigarette-smoking research monkey in her apartment (which goes against so many animal research federal regulations) and eating lunch/answering her phone while dissecting a brain in lab. Aside from Bernadette being a microbiologist and doing drug development, I don't think much is ever really mentioned about her science career."
Jessica, Ph.D. candidate in Mechanical Engineering.
On gender discrimination: "I've heard from a number of women that they've been told by male professors they shouldn't be an engineer or don't belong in the field. There are also a number (very few) classmates who refused to work with female students, because they don't feel that they pull their weight. Those same men sometimes accuse their female classmates of being able to get answers or help on homework easier then men because of their looks or a damsel-in-distress act. I had one classmate who acted this way, but then would ask one of my female classmates for help."