WBEZ | society http://www.wbez.org/tags/society Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Pretty Girls Make (Higher) Grades http://www.wbez.org/news/pretty-girls-make-higher-grades-114488 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/attractiveness_slide-2d8ec0120feb806ae9f01dd7d0e3c75f5440c512-s1600-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res462942524" previewtitle="Lipstick tube"><div data-crop-type="">Ring, ring.</div></div><p>Hello?</p><p>It&#39;s reality calling. People are shallow, and life isn&#39;t fair.</p><p><a href="http://pirate.shu.edu/~rotthoku/Liberty/Student%20Appearance%20and%20Academic%20Performance%20_v3.pdf">In a new paper</a>, a pair of researchers looked at the student records of tens of thousands of students at their university. They compared the students&#39; class grades to ratings of their physical attractiveness, as judged by outside observers from their student ID card photographs.</p><p>The researchers found that the women judged as least attractive earned significantly lower grades, after controlling for their ACT scores. The best-looking women earned higher grades. And male professors were more likely than female professors to give better-looking women higher grades.</p><p>But here&#39;s what the study&#39;s lead author, Rey Hernández-Julián, calls the &quot;key finding&quot;: When these same exact students took online courses, where appearance is not an issue, the benefits of being pretty all but disappeared.</p><p>&quot;The main results in our paper were not about whether there is a return to appearance, but whether it would be smaller in online environments, where the student is not seen,&quot; he told NPR Ed.</p><p>The study by Hernández-Julián and Christina Peters, both professors of economics, took place at Metropolitan State University of Denver, a broad-access university with a diverse student population.</p><p>A large body of social-science research already supports the advantages of being really, really good-looking.</p><p>Better-looking people tend to make more money. They are more liked and trusted by others. They marry other good-looking people who are also better educated than average.</p><p>A classic study from the 1970s showed this effect holds true in academic settings as well. Given identical course transcripts, teachers&nbsp;<a href="http://math.coe.uga.edu/prime/Methods/Expectations.pdf">judged prospective students</a>&nbsp;to be more intelligent if they appeared more attractive in a photograph.</p><p>Rachel Gordon, a professor of sociology and public policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago, has published papers with similar conclusions to this latest one &mdash; although her work has shown that better-looking men, as well as women, also receive a grade premium. That wasn&#39;t the case in the Denver study.</p><p>Gordon calls this idea of comparing the same students&#39; performance in both online and in-person courses an &quot;interesting and clever design.&quot;</p><p>Previous studies left unclear whether people are reacting to some relevant quality that goes along with looks, or merely looks alone. Maybe students are rated unattractive because they are ill or depressed, which also tends to hurt their course performance. Or maybe good-looking students have more confidence and are more outgoing because they&#39;re good-looking, and that leads to better performance.</p><p>But if that&#39;s the case, why don&#39;t we see the same effects in online courses?</p><p>Hernández-Julián is the first to point out that the overall variation in grades on the basis of looks is small. Math class is not modeling school.</p><p>But, he says, giving all students a chance to compete academically in an arena where looks don&#39;t matter might allow more of them to shine.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/01/14/462135458/pretty-girls-make-higher-grades?ft=nprml&amp;f=462135458" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Thu, 14 Jan 2016 15:49:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/pretty-girls-make-higher-grades-114488 Henry Dumas wrote about black people killed by cops. Then he was killed by a cop. http://www.wbez.org/news/henry-dumas-wrote-about-black-people-killed-cops-then-he-was-killed-cop-113143 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/HenryDumas.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>&quot;A young black man, Henry Dumas, went through a turnstile at a New York City subway station,&quot; reads an invitation by Toni Morrison for a posthumous book-launch party she threw for Dumas in 1974, six years after he died. &quot;A transit cop&quot; &mdash; who was white &mdash; &quot;shot him in the chest and killed him. Circumstances surrounding his death remain unclear. Before that happened, however, he had written some of the most beautiful, moving and profound poetry and fiction that I have ever in my life read.&quot;</p><p>In the nearly 50 years since Henry Dumas was killed, not much more has come to light about what happened on the night of his death. No witnesses came forward to testify. Police records were lost in a bureaucratic shuffle. Harlem, where Dumas moved as a young man after growing up in rural Arkansas, had&nbsp;<a href="https://www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/disasters/riots-harlem_1964.html">erupted</a>&nbsp;in large-scale protests over the police killings of black and brown men several times before the writer was killed. But Dumas&#39; death hardly made the news. With so little information to draw from, it&#39;s as if the last pages of his life were torn out.</p><p>Dumas&#39; final scene echoed a theme he turned to again and again in his writing: violent confrontations between white men and black men. The work he left behind &mdash; short stories that range from hard realism to science fiction, an almost finished novel, volumes of poetry, and even a few accompaniments to the work of the mystical jazz legend Sun Ra &mdash; contains bitingly sharp depictions of racial tension in America that, in an almost unbelievably eerie way, speak to his own fate.</p><p>It is, of course, a fate that many black men and women had and would suffer under dubious circumstances &mdash; from&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/harlem-riots-1943-echo-today-article-1.2216788">Robert Bandy</a>&nbsp;in 1935,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.vice.com/read/race-riots-then-and-now-501">James Powell</a>&nbsp;in 1964, 10-year-old&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/17/nyregion/fired-at-queens-boy-fatal-1973-police-shot-still-reverberates.html">Clifford Glover</a>&nbsp;in 1973, and&nbsp;<a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1999-09-12/news/9909120226_1_officers-lawyer-chicago-police-supt-joseph-roddy">LaTanya Haggerty</a>&nbsp;in 1999 to the more recent deaths of Michael Brown,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/crime/article15728675.html">Janisha Fonville</a>, Eric Garner,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2015/01/tanisha_anderson_was_restraine.html">Tanisha Anderson</a>&nbsp;and Freddie Gray, to name only a few.</p><p>&quot;His work and, in fact, his death, investigated and illustrated the ways in which black lives were at best peripheral to most white people &mdash; especially those running and policing the country,&quot; says James Smethurst, a University of Massachusetts, Amherst professor who has written extensively about 1960s and &#39;70s black writers.</p><p>Much of Dumas&#39; writing is considered to be a part of the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/blackarts/historical.htm">Black Arts Movement</a>&nbsp;&mdash; the artistic manifestation of the Black Power struggle of the 1960s &mdash; an effort that Smethurst believes has a lot of resonance with the Black Lives Matter movement. While interest in Dumas has increased somewhat in recent years, he says, &quot;We still have a long way to go before he gets the sort of attention he deserves.&quot;</p><p><strong>&#39;The People Get Tired Of Dying&#39;</strong></p><p>One of the only known accounts of the night Dumas was killed comes from an obituary in&nbsp;<em>The Amsterdam News</em>,&nbsp;a black-owned newspaper in New York City that was founded in 1909. &quot;Police said Dumas and an unidentified man were scuffling in the subway when the officer walked up to them and attempted to stop the fracas,&quot; the obit reads. &quot;Police said Dumas, resentful at the interference, slashed the officer who shot and killed him.&quot;</p><p>Without the benefit of photographic evidence or firsthand witnesses to accompany the official police report, it is impossible to know the full story of what happened that night. It&#39;s also impossible to take in Dumas&#39; story without acknowledging that the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/07/samuel-dubose-cops-corroberating-unarmed-black-death">track record of believability</a>, when it comes to official accounts of black deaths at the hands of law enforcement,&nbsp;<a href="http://kxan.com/2014/08/22/family-of-woman-shot-killed-by-bastrop-county-sheriffs-deputy-seeks-damages/">isn&#39;t a clean one</a>.</p><p>Dumas wrote stories that echo cases like that of Tamir Rice, a 12-year-old boy in Cleveland who was killed&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-30220700">seconds after</a>&nbsp;a police vehicle pulled up to where he was playing. &quot;When a Negro boy is shot and killed by policemen who do not check the situation before pulling their guns, the people get angry. It is a simple law of nature. ... The people get tired of dying,&quot; says one of Dumas&#39; characters in a short story called &quot;Riot or Revolt.&quot;</p><p>Published most recently in a 2003 collection of Dumas&#39; work called&nbsp;<a href="http://www.amazon.com/Echo-Tree-Collected-Fiction-Movement/dp/1566891493">Echo Tree</a>, that story follows a young black man named Harold through the aftermath of violent public protest across Harlem:</p><blockquote><div><p><em>&quot;The police barricades squatted on the sidewalk surrounding each place where mobs had struck.</em></p><p><em>&quot;Harold stood on the ramp in the middle of Seventh Avenue and 125th Street and surveyed the area which the night before had swarmed with police and angry Harlemites. A youth had been slain by the police in Brooklyn.&quot;</em></p></div></blockquote><div id="res437321514"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="A view of the National Memorial African Bookstore in Harlem circa 1970." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/03/national-bookstore-getty_custom-263741acaf9cdad5decfc88cff572694dce03c46-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 397px; width: 600px;" title="A view of the National Memorial African Bookstore in Harlem circa 1970. (Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images)" /></div></div><p>Those who have studied Dumas&#39; life and work believe the fictional LeMoor Brothers&#39; Bookstore in that story was modeled on the real National Memorial African Bookstore, which stood a short walk from the 135th Street subway station where Dumas was killed. Owned by Lewis Michaux, a bookseller and black civil rights leader who encouraged his neighbors to read the books he stocked on African history, culture and philosophy even if they couldn&#39;t afford to buy them, the store&nbsp;<a href="https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/vaunda-micheaux-nelson/no-crystal-stair/">attracted</a>&nbsp;figures like Malcolm X, Langston Hughes and Muhammad Ali.</p><p>Not unlike Dumas&#39; LeMoor, Michaux had a lot to say about black Americans&#39; struggle for power. &quot;We&#39;ve been neglected for three hundred years,&quot; <a href="http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1966/09/03/the-professor-4">he</a><a href="http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1966/09/03/the-professor-4">&nbsp;told</a><a href="http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1966/09/03/the-professor-4">&nbsp;a<em> New Yorker</em>&nbsp;reporter in 1966</a>. &quot;As much as I hate to see what&#39;s going to happen, I believe that when the Negro knocks this time and nobody open the door, he&#39;s just going to knock it right down.&quot;</p><p>In &quot;Riot or Revolt,&quot; city officials stop in to speak to the owners of LeMoor Brothers&#39; Bookstore, which had been left untouched by the looters who ravaged nearly every other store on the street. The officers want to know what made his shop so exceptional, but its owner, Micheval LeMoor, takes issue with the fact that city officials seemed to visit Harlem only when its frustrated residents reached a breaking point:</p><blockquote><div><p><em>&quot;You want to come visit here and get the notions about things being better, while right now some disrespectful guardian of the citizens beats a black man&#39;s head in. It doesn&#39;t matter if he&#39;s guilty or not anymore. Your honor, what you are facing is the full anger of a man who has been under attack for years. Unless you call off the attackers, be they merchants, disrespectful policemen, or the American majority, then the black minority is going to tear your house down.&quot;</em></p></div></blockquote><p>While &quot;Riot or Revolt&quot; may have been closely inspired by actual people if not actual events, other Dumas stories are imaginative forays into allegorical fables and otherworldly realms. Dumas&#39; vast range captivated many of his fellow writers, before and after his death. The poet and civil rights activist&nbsp;<a href="http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/haki-madhubuti">Haki R. Madhubati</a>&nbsp;called him &quot;a poet of complex melodies,&quot; and Amiri Baraka called him an &quot;Afro-surreal expressionist&quot; who delivered &quot;a new blackness.&quot;</p><div id="res444198122"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Three of the published works of Dumas." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/28/dumas-books_custom-a24dcbd804e2efd2e6d60adc2472052f719f56b9-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 289px; width: 600px;" title="Three of the published works of Dumas. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" /></div><div><div><p>&quot;I was impressed with his boldness of language and his boldness of breadth,&quot; Maya Angelou said in a 1988 interview published in an issue of the&nbsp;<em>Black American Literature Forum</em>&nbsp;dedicated entirely to Dumas&#39; work. &quot;Dumas continued to set us up for the loneliness, aloneness, and desperation, sometimes even desolation. But he never leaves us there. With him as our guide, we&#39;re always brought through to a better place.&quot;</p></div></div></div><p><strong>&#39;Part Invitation, Part Consolation&#39;</strong></p><p>By the time Dumas died, just a few of his poems and short stories had been published in small literary journals, geared toward a black audience. Writers and critics who knew him say he would have followed the uphill trajectory of his friends &mdash; including Robert Pinsky and Baraka &mdash; had he lived.</p><p>&quot;I think he would&#39;ve been a lot more famous in some respects if he had been able to live and write for 50 more years,&quot; says Smethurst, the University of Massachusetts professor. &quot;What if Toni Morrison had died after she wrote&nbsp;<em>The Bluest Eye&nbsp;</em>and only had a few stories?&quot;</p><p>In fact, Morrison played a role in inspiring what Smethurst calls the &quot;cult&quot; of Dumas. She first encountered Dumas in the form of a slim collection published posthumously by Southern Illinois University, where he taught an experimental program during the last year of his life. Then an editor at Random House and the author of&nbsp;<em>The Bluest Eye</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Sula</em>,&nbsp;Morrison was struck by the circumstances of Dumas&#39; death and wanted to publish more of his writing.</p><p><img alt="Dumas, when he was a high school student in New York." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/03/dumas-teen_custom-90683d6bd20dbed852889b91760df7de33f10263-s200-c85.jpg" style="margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; height: 374px; width: 300px; float: right;" title="Dumas, when he was a high school student in New York. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" /></p><p>Random House had recently committed itself to publishing more minority writers. Through her position there, Morrison would shepherd through the work of several of the era&#39;s most notable black writers and activists, from Toni Cade Bambara and Gayle Jones to Angela Davis and Huey P. Newton.</p><div id="res437323230"><div><div><p>But she knew that generating attention for Dumas, a writer who was not only practically unknown but also deceased, would not be easy. To create hype for the collections she wanted to release &mdash; a book of poetry titled&nbsp;<em>Play Ebony Play Ivory</em>&nbsp;and a short story collection called&nbsp;Ark of Bones&nbsp;&mdash; Morrison organized a release event with a glamorous guest list comprising the most renowned black writers of the time.</p></div></div></div><p>&quot;He was thirty-three years old when he was killed,&quot; Morrison wrote in the announcement for the party, a note that was&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/12/magazine/the-radical-vision-of-toni-morrison.html&amp;assetType=nyt_now?&amp;assetType=nyt_now">described</a>&nbsp;as &quot;part invitation, part consolation&quot; in a recent&nbsp;<em>New York Times</em>&nbsp;profile of Morrison. &quot;But in those thirty-three years he had completed work the quality and quantity of which are almost never achieved in several lifetimes.&quot;</p><p><strong>&#39;Creative Writing Slave&#39;</strong></p><p>In 1934, Dumas was born to Appliance Porter, a 19-year-old housekeeper in Sweet Home, Ark., a small town just outside Little Rock. His father, Henry Dumas Sr., or &quot;Big Henry&quot; as he was called, was largely absent from the life of his son, and his mother worked long hours. With his parents often away, Dumas spent much of his time in the fields where his aunts and uncles picked cotton, milked cows and shared stories.</p><p>While his cousins were busy playing sports, Dumas&#39; family recalled to Dumas biographer Jeffrey B. Leak, he preferred to spend his time examining insects or developing skits in which he played all the roles. When Dumas was 10, he and his family followed the course taken by thousands of other black families during the first part of the 20th century by&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/05/books/review/Oshinsky-t.html?pagewanted=all&amp;_r=0">moving north</a>. Dumas brought with him to Harlem an intellectual curiosity that impressed his teachers at his integrated Manhattan high school.</p><div id="res437333283"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Dumas and his wife, Loretta Dumas (Ponton), on their wedding day." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/03/dumas-wedding_custom-4f5433a2c1f2996ce38b97100e8f654f52d11178-s200-c85.jpg" style="margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: left; height: 366px; width: 300px;" title="Dumas and his wife, Loretta Dumas Ponton, on their wedding day. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" /></div><div><div><p>It may have been there that Dumas&#39; individual struggles became part of a more complex struggle: one in which black people searched for belonging in spaces where they were neither warmly welcomed nor explicitly barred. It&#39;s unclear when he began to take up writing seriously, but his move to a more racially diverse environment may have had something to do with it. Beneath his senior photo in the 1953 High School of Commerce yearbook someone &mdash; perhaps even Dumas himself &mdash; chose to inscribe this description of him: &quot;Creative writing slave.&quot;</p></div></div></div><p>After a brief stint at the City University of New York that ended with what Leak notes might have been &quot;a crisis of confidence,&quot; Dumas joined the U.S. Air Force within a year of his high school graduation. Tours of Saudi Arabia and Mexico deepened his interest in sketching worlds that blurred black-and-white interpretations of race.</p><p>At the age of 21, Dumas returned to the U.S., in 1955, and married Loretta Ponton, a beautiful young secretary he had met by chance on a snowy evening on the street in New York just before enlisting. The daughter of a Baptist deacon, Loretta held strong Christian values and a traditional sense of familial responsibility. While Dumas shared her beliefs during the early years of their marriage, he would veer from them in coming years.</p><p>One of just a few black students at Rutgers University, where Dumas studied from 1958 to 1965 and where the couple&#39;s two sons were born, Dumas&#39; commitment to his writing, curiosities about the Nation of Islam, engagement with the civil rights movement, plus alcohol and drug use began to drive a wedge between him and Loretta.</p><p>He also had several affairs with white women. Lois Wright (nee Silber), with whom he had an affair that lasted three years, recalled in a letter to Dumas&#39; friend and fellow poet Jay Wright (whom she would later marry) that the two could only venture out to select spots in New York; the jazz clubs Dumas frequented weren&#39;t welcoming to Wright, and she resented Dumas&#39; friends for referring to her as &quot;the white chick.&quot;</p><p>&quot;For Dumas, crossing racial divides represented possibility and opportunity for both himself as a black man, but also from an imaginative standpoint,&quot; Leak, whose biography of Dumas,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.amazon.com/Visible-Man-Life-Henry-Dumas/dp/0820328707">Visible Man</a>, came out last year, said in an interview. &quot;I think he thought that if you can cross boundaries in the social realm, then you can cross other boundaries in the literary realm. In both spaces, he found it to be even more complicated than he had anticipated.&quot;</p><p>Dumas explores those complexities in &quot;Will The Circle Be Unbroken?,&quot; a short story in which three white musicians and critics want to enter a black jazz club, arguing they should be let in because they know a lot about the genre. The black patrons finally agree to let them in, but warn that use of an ancient, rare horn may be too intense for their &quot;uninitiated&quot; ears. The music &quot;vibrated the freedom of freedom&quot; for its black listeners, but when the set ends, consternation rises when the three white people are found dead. They had been slain by music that wasn&#39;t meant for them.</p><div id="res443129714"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="From left: Henry Dumas, William G. Davis and Eugene B. Redmond in 1967, during their tenure as teacher-counselors at the Experiment in Higher Education at Southern Illinois University. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/24/dumas-orange_custom-0e395d04cd38d945d99b93cdc8a25b20aeaee5b9-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 448px; width: 600px;" title="From left: Henry Dumas, William G. Davis and Eugene B. Redmond in 1967, during their tenure as teacher-counselors at the Experiment in Higher Education at Southern Illinois University. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" /></div><div><p>For many, the story offers a look at some of the central questions of the civil rights movement: What did it mean to be black? How could black identity adapt to an integrated world? What racial boundaries should remain unbroken?</p></div></div><p>In an essay on the story for a 1988 issue of the&nbsp;<em>Black American Literary Forum</em>&nbsp;dedicated to Dumas&#39; work, an acquaintance of Dumas&#39; put it this way: &quot;Black people had a feeling of always being on stage for white folks.&quot; Dumas&#39; story on the jazz club held that the work of black artists should be guarded and protected, a notion that still resonates in a world where it&#39;s been said many times that&nbsp;<a href="http://www.buzzfeed.com/emaoconnor/rue-just-perfectly-defined-cultural-appropriation">black cultural products are valued while black lives are not</a>.</p><p>www.newyorker.com/magazine/1966/09/03/the-professor-4On no one, perhaps, has Dumas made a greater impression than Eugene Redmond. An&nbsp;<a href="http://eugenebredmond.com/home/">accomplished poet</a>&nbsp;in his own right, Redmond has spent the past four decades editing and promoting the work of Dumas, even though the two men knew one another for only just under a year. Redmond met Dumas when the older writer came to teach English at an experimental college at the University of Southern Illinois in Redmond&#39;s hometown of East St. Louis in 1967. &quot;We bonded quickly,&quot; Redmond told me in a phone interview from the house of Loretta, Dumas&#39; widow.</p><p>The 77-year-old has served for decades as the literary executor of Dumas&#39; estate and was staying with Loretta for an annual commemoration of Dumas&#39; life and work that he helps organize every year on the anniversary of the shooting. Bringing together Dumas&#39; friends and family over poetry readings and jazz performances, Redmond, a Pushcart Prize recipient and the author of 25 books of poetry, has carried the torch for Dumas alongside his own teaching and writing career.</p><p>&quot;Every time I stepped into a classroom after I met him, I had a turntable,&quot; said Redmond, who said he picked up on Dumas&#39; tradition of playing music 15 minutes before each of his classes began. &quot;Every class that I taught, I published the students in a spiral-bound or saddle-stitched booklet. I got that from him.&quot; Redmond fondly recalls eating raw honey and listening to jazz with Dumas, to whom he attributes his love of some of the era&#39;s greatest musicians, from Miles Davis to John Coltrane. &quot;At the time,&quot; Redmond said, &quot;he seemed to be at the farthest most forward point of what black expression, black culture, and black people were all about.&quot;</p><p>In his day-to-day life, Dumas insisted on making space for himself &mdash; and forcing others to acknowledge his right to exist. &quot;He would even walk around East St. Louis and other places, and ask, &#39;Do you see me? Feel my arm. I&#39;m here, ain&#39;t I?&#39;&quot; said Leak, who conducted many interviews with those close to Dumas for his book. &quot;His point was: We&#39;re not invisible. The idea is a direct corollary to Black Lives Matter, the idea that flesh and blood do matter, and we&#39;re going to insist on being seen and being heard.&quot;</p><p>Redmond hopes the Black Lives Matter movement will help introduce Dumas to a whole new audience and help bolster the foundation that the movement rests upon. &quot;You gotta have someplace to come from before you know where you&#39;re going,&quot; he says.</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/10/01/433229181/henry-dumas-wrote-about-black-people-killed-by-cops-then-he-was-killed-by-a-cop"><em>via NPR&#39;s Code Switch</em></a></p></p> Thu, 01 Oct 2015 13:18:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/henry-dumas-wrote-about-black-people-killed-cops-then-he-was-killed-cop-113143 A new book recounts the forgotten history of autism http://www.wbez.org/news/science/new-book-recounts-forgotten-history-autism-113006 <p><p>In&nbsp;<u><a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/23/books/review/neurotribes-by-steve-silberman.html?_r=0">NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity</a>,</u> Silberman takes us back to Vienna before World War II, where he introduces us to a young doctor named&nbsp;Hans Asperger.</p><p>In the 1930s, Asperger was already studying what he believed to be a widespread condition among the children of his day &mdash; a mostly heritable condition composed of a whole spectrum of symptoms.</p><p>&ldquo;Asperger was an extremely visionary and humane clinician,&rdquo; Silberman says. &ldquo;His clinic was not just the sort of place where parents would bring their children for evaluation and a diagnosis, but it was also like a residential school.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Hans%20Asperger%20with%20patient.jpg" style="height: 338px; width: 600px; margin-top: 5px; margin-bottom: 5px;" title="Hans Asperger and children at the University of Vienna, 1930s. (Courtesy of Dr. Maria Asperger Felder)" /></div><p>Asperger and his colleagues lived with the children they treated. They held classes each day, like geometry or history. They had PE classes with music in the mornings. They designed an environment, Silberman says, that would &ldquo;both allow the clinicians to observe the children very closely, but also allow the children to become more comfortable with themselves and with each other. ...&nbsp;It was a very, very humane environment and way ahead of its time in that way.&rdquo;</p><p>More importantly, Asperger&rsquo;s ideas about autism were decades ahead of their time, Silberman says. Asperger and his colleagues conceived of autism as a lifelong condition, lasting from birth to death, requiring special forms of support from family, teachers and the community.</p><p>What Asperger described &quot;was mapped pretty closely to what we now call the &#39;autism spectrum,&#39;&quot; Silberman says.&nbsp;Some children, he observed, were unable to speak and might require individual support for the rest of their lives, while others would thrive in advanced classes in math and science.</p><p>The rise of Nazi Germany disrupted&nbsp;Asperger&rsquo;s work and changed the course of autism diagnosis and treatment for much of the rest of the 20th century.</p><p>By the late 1930s, when the Nazis annexed Austria to Germany, they had also started passing&nbsp;<a href="http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/feb/06/race.usa">eugenic laws</a>, which compelled doctors, nurses and clinicians to report disabled children to Berlin.</p><p>&ldquo;In fact, the Nazis eventually undertook a secret extermination program of disabled children and adults as part of their effort to purge the gene pool of hereditary forms of illness,&rdquo; Silberman explains. &ldquo;This program became the dry run for the Holocaust. [It]&nbsp;was where the Nazis developed methods of mass murder that they would eventually use on the Jews.&rdquo;</p><p>In addition, Jewish clinicians were forced to flee the country. One of them&nbsp;was George Frankl, Asperger&#39;s chief diagnostician. Frankl was rescued from the Holocaust by an American child psychiatrist named Leo Kanner. Frankl started working for Kanner in 1938.</p><p>Donald Triplett also arrived in Leo Kanner&#39;s world in 1938. Triplett is considered Leo Kanner&#39;s first autistic patient. But initially, Kanner didn&#39;t know what to do with him. &ldquo;He had seen some of these symptoms before in children &mdash; that he called pre-psychotic &mdash; but he basically wasn&#39;t able to make a diagnosis. So, he sent Donald Triplett to George Frankl for evaluation,&rdquo; Silberman says.</p><p>Having just spent 11 years working in Asperger&#39;s clinic, seeing scores of autistic children at all levels of ability, Frankl understood Triplett. In fact, Frankl evaluated Kanner&#39;s first three autistic patients.</p><p>Then, in 1943, a year before Asperger published the results of his own work, Kanner wrote the paper that made him the world&#39;s leading authority on autism.</p><p>&ldquo;The problem for autistic people and their families was that Kanner defined autism much more narrowly than Asperger had done,&rdquo; Silberman explains. &ldquo;For one thing, he called it &lsquo;early infantile autism,&rsquo; so it was definitely a condition of early infancy, not a lifelong condition.&rdquo;</p><p>What&rsquo;s more, Kanner eventually blamed parents for triggering autism in their children. &ldquo;The image of the &lsquo;refrigerator mother&rsquo; came from Kanner&#39;s work,&rdquo; Silberman says. &ldquo;Bruno Bettelheim sort of made a career out of it later, but it was really Kanner who thought up that horrible idea.&rdquo;&nbsp;<a href="http://www.pbs.org/pov/refrigeratormothers/fridge.php">&lsquo;Refrigerator mother&rsquo;</a>&nbsp;refers to the mothering of autistic children by cold, emotionally distant mothers, resulting in a dysfunctional mother-child relationship.</p><p>Because Kanner and his colleagues&nbsp;viewed the disorder largely in emotional and psychological terms, the recommended course of treatment for autism became institutionalization. By contrast, Asperger believed the disorder was genetic and therefore had to be adapted to, not cured.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/NeuroTribes-cover-300.jpg" style="margin-left: 5px; margin-right: 5px; float: right; height: 453px; width: 300px;" title="NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and The Future of Neurodiversity, cover (Penguin Publishing)" /></p><p>In addition, Asperger understood &lsquo;autistic intelligence,&rsquo; Silberman says &mdash; that is, the &ldquo;bold suggestion that autistic people have played an unappreciated role in the evolution of culture.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;Asperger always appreciated that autism was a condition that conveyed both profound disabilities and very special gifts,&rdquo; Silberman says. &ldquo;Kanner, on the other hand, interpreted even the gifts of his patients through the lens of psychopathology. He thought, for instance, that one of the kids in his clinic who could instantly identify 18 symphonies before he turned two, was just trying to impress his parents in a kind of desperate plea for their affection.&rdquo;</p><p>Silberman believes the world can and should adapt to meet the needs of autistic people, in the way we have done for people with physical disabilities.</p><p>&ldquo;We can make a cognitively accessible world by, say, presenting lessons and curricula in different formats for visual or audio learners,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;We can provide quiet spaces in schools so that kids who are facing a meltdown from sensory overloaded can go chill out. We can do autism-friendly performances on Broadway, which have already been a fantastic success &mdash; with less pyrotechnics and social stories beforehand so the kids don&rsquo;t get surprised.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;We know how to deal with disability,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;We just have to rise to the challenge, instead of thinking that we can make autism go away if we throw enough money at it.&rdquo;</p><p><em>This article is based on an&nbsp;<a href="http://sciencefriday.com/segment/09/04/2015/the-forgotten-history-of-autism.html">interview</a>&nbsp;that aired on PRI&#39;s&nbsp;<a href="http://sciencefriday.com/">Science Friday</a>&nbsp;with Ira Flatow.</em></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><em>&mdash; <a href="http://www.pri.org/stories/2015-09-20/new-book-recounts-forgotten-history-autism">via ScienceFriday</a></em></p></p> Mon, 21 Sep 2015 11:18:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/science/new-book-recounts-forgotten-history-autism-113006 Privilege and pressure: growing up black and elite in 'Negroland' http://www.wbez.org/fresh-air/2015-09-08/privilege-and-pressure-growing-black-and-elite-negroland-112867 <p><p>Growing up in the 1950s, Margo Jefferson was part of Chicago&#39;s black upper class. The daughter of a prominent doctor and his socialite wife, Jefferson inhabited a world of ambition, education, and sophistication &mdash; a place she calls &quot;Negroland.&quot;</p><p>That afforded her many opportunities, the Pulitzer Prize-winning cultural critic says. But life was also undercut by the fear that her errors and failures would reflect poorly on her family and, subsequently, her race.</p><p>&quot;It was very important that you show yourself a bright, lively, well-spoken person,&quot; Jefferson tells&nbsp;Fresh Air&#39;s Terry Gross. &quot;If you go back and read editorials in black magazines &mdash; even in white magazines &mdash; watch television, this attitude is everywhere: &#39;Jackie Robinson, he&#39;s advancing the race!&#39; &#39;Marion Anderson, she&#39;s advancing the race!&#39; This was the way America ... [viewed] blacks: The individual was a collective symbol.&quot;</p><p>In her memoir,&nbsp;Negroland,&nbsp;Jefferson describes the social pressures of her upbringing, as well as the sense of separation that it engendered. She writes that she and other members of the black elite thought of themselves as a &quot;Third Race, poised between the masses of Negroes and all classes of Caucasians.&quot;</p><p>Ultimately, it was the Black Power movement that led Jefferson to question some of the tenets that she had grown up with: &quot;Black Power was really a major challenge to the social privileges and structures of the kind of privilege that I had grown up with,&quot; she says. &quot;That whole belief ... that you will only be able to advance if you are perfectly behaved, if you present yourself as what white people would consider an ideal of whiteness ... all of that just began to burst open.&quot;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div></div><p><span style="font-size:24px;"><strong>Interview Highlights</strong></span></p><p><strong>On using the word &quot;Negro&quot;</strong></p><p>I use the word in the spirit of history, in the spirit of historical exactness and irony and respect for the movement of history and the ironies it creates, and also the fact that part of our history is this series of changing names, which says so much about our fluctuating status. ... &quot;Colored&quot; was the term of choice some decades back, then &quot;Negro.&quot; ... &quot;Afra-American&quot; had a brief fling, &quot;Afro-American&quot; in the &#39;60s, then &quot;Africaan,&quot; then &quot;black,&quot; then &quot;African-American.&quot; So I wanted also that sense of these strange historical shifts back and forth.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Negrolandcover_0.jpg" style="text-align: center; float: right;" title="'Negroland' book cover. Margo Jefferson shares a highly personal meditation on race, sex and American culture by the Pulitzer Prize-winning critic traces her upbringing and education in upper-class African-American circles against a backdrop of the Civil Rights era and its contradictory aftermath. (Random House)" /></p><p><strong>On the beauty standards Jefferson held herself to as a child</strong></p><p>I&#39;m measuring my shade of brown. I&#39;m measuring the width of my nose. I&#39;m measuring the size of my lips. I&#39;m doing the usual things that girl do &mdash; what shape are my eyes, are they big, are my features well-proportioned ... and I have an exact series of grades for hair as well as shades of skin. And [these standards] extended beyond my world &mdash; they really hovered over and imposed themselves on all Negros, black people, African-Americans. It was ruthless, it was mean-spirited, it was bigoted. We were brain-washed into one standard, not just beauty, but acceptability. There is a terrible kind of anthropological &quot;othering&quot; and disdain in those kinds of judgments.</p><p><strong>On re-evaluating her upbringing as a result of the Black Power movement</strong></p><p>Self-examination &mdash; when the whole world around you is pressuring that and challenging you &mdash; is very, very hard. Looking at a whole structure &mdash; in my case, let us say of snobbery, basking in certain privileges, marks of what appear to be superiority &mdash; that&#39;s ugly to look at. And it&#39;s very hard, as we all know, to go at these internalized beliefs, feelings, psychological needs. I don&#39;t regret any of it and I think many people, blacks, but also whites who were part of the &#39;60s ... they&#39;d say the same thing. It was worth it. There was waste, there was destruction along with all the glory, but I wouldn&#39;t trade it. I&#39;m so grateful to have been born when I could live through all of this.</p><p><strong>On the generational divide between how Jefferson and her parents responded to the Black Power movement</strong></p><p>My parents were at one with the civil rights movement, but Black Power, it flung its disdainful hand at much that they believed in and much of who they were. And that was very, very painful. Just beginning with the disdain, the contempt with which the word &quot;Negro&quot; was used, which had been their generation[&#39;s] and the generation before theirs word of honor. And suddenly &quot;Negro&quot; became the sign and symbol of &mdash; for the Black Power movement &mdash; of deference ... of corruption, of corrupt bourgeoisie values, of rejection of black identity and black pride. This was horrible for them. In its way, it was traumatic.</p><p><strong>On experiencing depression in the late 1970s</strong></p><p>One of the things that had been demanded of black people in general by our history was a kind of indomitability. There is a narrative of that, over escaping slavery, overcoming brutal treatment, unjust laws, progressing, not letting yourself be crushed by racism, by setbacks, by small everyday petty injustices as well as the megasystemic ones &mdash; that requires huge amounts of emotional and mental self-control. For example, growing up, one of the many things that many black people hear is the kind of crack, sometimes it&#39;s said pridefully, sometimes it&#39;s said cynically, &quot;We don&#39;t have nervous breakdowns. We&#39;re too strong for that.&quot; Of course, every black person knows perfectly well and knows some people who&#39;ve had nervous breakdowns, but it&#39;s part of the ethos and the myth of black survival and, in fact, triumph. In terms of the history of black women, so much of it involved &mdash; necessitated &mdash; struggling against stereotypes, [and] proving yourself a healthy, high-functioning, disciplined woman.</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/09/08/438536006/privilege-and-pressure-a-memoir-of-growing-up-black-and-elite-in-negroland?ft=nprml&amp;f=438536006" target="_blank"><em>NPR&#39;s&nbsp;Fresh Air</em></a></p></p> Tue, 08 Sep 2015 16:14:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/fresh-air/2015-09-08/privilege-and-pressure-growing-black-and-elite-negroland-112867 Afternoon Shift: What is the artist’s responsibility to address social issues? http://www.wbez.org/programs/afternoon-shift/2015-05-07/afternoon-shift-what-artist%E2%80%99s-responsibility-address-social <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Flickr%20Todd%20Ehlers.jpg" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="(Photo: Flickr/Todd Ehlers)" /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/204423139&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">The relationship between art and social commentary</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3061-51d7-1519-215ac7f67acb">Theater has a history of making political and social statements. From Shakespeare, to Tennessee Williams and August Wilson, playwrights have used the stage to address issues of public importance. Now, with events in Ferguson, New York and most recently Baltimore - many local theaters are reacting by creating opportunities for audiences to explore issues of race and inequality. </span>Isaac Gomez, Bobby Bierdrzycki, John Conroy and, Anthony Moseley are all involved in the arts and have personal experience crafting social commentary into theater. We bring you this conversation in two parts.<br /><br /><strong>Guests:</strong></p><ul dir="ltr"><li><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3061-51d7-1519-215ac7f67acb"><a href="https://twitter.com/isoteric8">Isaac Gomez</a></span> is literary manager for the Victory Gardens Theater.</em></li><li><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3061-51d7-1519-215ac7f67acb"><a href="https://twitter.com/bobbyfloats">Bobby Bierdrzycki</a></span> is the curriculum and instruction associate for the Goodman Theatre.</em></li><li><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3061-51d7-1519-215ac7f67acb"><a href="http://www.john-conroy.com/">John Conroy</a></span> is a former investigative journalist and playwright.</em></li><li><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3061-51d7-1519-215ac7f67acb">Anthony Moseley is </span>Executive Artistic Director at <a href="https://twitter.com/Collaboraction">Collaboraction Theater</a>.</em></li></ul><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/204423141&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Want to know where to find art in Chicago?</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3063-77e0-41e0-5f4e7759a3c3">A few weeks ago we talked to the </span>General Admission guys about why people DON&rsquo;T see art. We invited our listeners to join in with their own reasons for not seeing artistic events, and many of you said part of it was you just didn&rsquo;t know about them. So we had our General Admission podcasters do some research to bring you some great resources for finding art in the city.</p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><a href="https://storify.com/WBEZ/afternoon-shift-how-do-you-find-out-about-artistic">You can check out some of the resources we listed, by going to the Storify page linked in this sentence.</a></p><p dir="ltr"><strong><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3063-77e0-41e0-5f4e7759a3c3">Guests:</span></strong></p><ul dir="ltr"><li><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3063-77e0-41e0-5f4e7759a3c3"><a href="https://twitter.com/storyproducer">Tyler Greene</a></span> is co-host of WBEZ&rsquo;s General Admission podcast.</em></li><li><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3063-77e0-41e0-5f4e7759a3c3"><a href="https://twitter.com/thejoypowers">Joy Powers</a></span> is a WBEZ producer.</em></li></ul><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/204423550&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Chicago business with a focus on fair trade apparel</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">On April 29 - &nbsp;to very little fanfare - the Cook County Board passed an ordinance which ensures that no county offices would purchase uniforms or other items from garment vendors that employ sweatshop labor. And, in the Chicago, May 7 is the second day of World Fair Trade Day Festival celebrations. Harish Patel is the owner of Chicago-based, ishi vest - a company that specializes in organic and fair trade clothing. He joins us for this installment in our week long series of conversations with local small business owners in honor of Small Business Week.</p><p><strong><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3066-d555-fa29-a7b107b8e0f8">Guest: </span></strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/harishibrahim">Harish Patel</a> is owner of ishi vest.</em></p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/203497427&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Englewood residents negotiate the role Whole Foods will play in the community</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">It&rsquo;s going to be more than a year before Whole Foods opens a new store in Chicago&rsquo;s Englewood neighborhood. The company announced it&rsquo;s plans for Englewood a year-and-a-half ago. The lengthy timeline doesn&rsquo;t mean the community is sitting idly by. Residents are actively engaging with Whole Foods about the role of an organic grocery store in a food desert. WBEZ&rsquo;s Natalie Moore gives us an update.</p><p><strong><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3068-a3a7-ff69-54f156abd289">Guest: </span></strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/natalieymoore">Natalie Moore</a> is a WBEZ reporter.</em></p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/204422239&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Has summertime finally arrived in Chicago?</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">It feels like the short but beautiful Chicago summer has finally arrived--but we all know it could feel like winter again in an instant. Joining us to explain this crazy late-spring weather is Gilbert Sebenste, meteorologist at Northern Illinois University.</p><p><strong><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-306a-3a2c-5ea6-12e0e4764a54">Guest: </span></strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/Gilbert_S">Gilbert Sebentse</a> is a meteorologist at Northern Illinois University.&nbsp;</em></p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/204422796&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Tech Shift: What thunder looks like</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">Lightning storms look cool - a brilliant flash of light in the dark, a massive bolt suddenly streaks across the sky. For the most part, we understand lightning. But what about thunder? Scientists from Southwest Research Institute have been conducting experiments to literally get a better picture of how thunder works. Dr. Maher Dayeh is a Space Physicist in the Space Science &amp; Engineering Division at Southwest Research Institute and he joins us with details on the team&rsquo;s experiment.</p><p><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-306b-8b7e-8edc-c6492a50abb2"><strong>Guest:</strong> <em>Maher Dayeh is a space physicist in the Space Science &amp; Engineering Division at </em></span><em><a href="http://www.swri.org/">Southwest Research Institute</a>.&nbsp;</em></p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/204422415&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Chicago&#39;s Jimmy Butler wins Most Improved Player</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">The NBA has announced that the Bulls&rsquo; Jimmy Butler has been voted the league&#39;s Most Improved Player. Not only did Butler win that accolade but it was a landslide! WBEZ sports contributor and Bulls aficionado Cheryl Raye-Stout joins us from the Bulls practice at the Advocate Center.</p><p><strong><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-306e-b758-5378-d4297076942c">Guest: </span></strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/Crayestout">Cheryl Raye-Stout</a> is WBEZ&rsquo;s sports contributor.</em></p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/204249224&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Curious City: What does the Lincoln Park Zoo do with all of its poo?</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">In this excerpt from our <em>Fecal Matters!</em> live event, experts explain how studying poo can keep zoo animals happy and healthy.</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/204422619&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Cook County chiefs discuss criminal justice issues</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">The top officials from Cook County&rsquo;s criminal justice system convened on May 7 for a panel discussion. Cook County Board President Toni Preckwinkle, Sheriff Tom Dart, State&rsquo;s Attorney Anita Alvarez, and Chief Judge Timothy Evans all sat together politely. But they&rsquo;ve been known to butt heads and assign each other blame in the past. WBEZ&rsquo;s Patrick Smith was there and he joins us with a recap.</p><p><strong><span id="docs-internal-guid-c2af537d-3072-4564-2794-6fbb3f2f3d9a">Guest: </span></strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/pksmid">Patrick Smith</a> is a WBEZ reporter.</em></p></p> Thu, 07 May 2015 16:29:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/afternoon-shift/2015-05-07/afternoon-shift-what-artist%E2%80%99s-responsibility-address-social Fashion and art are closer than you think http://www.wbez.org/blogs/britt-julious/2013-07/fashion-and-art-are-closer-you-think-108000 <p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Manet-Lady-with-Fans_480.jpg" title="(Art Institute of Chicago)" /></p><p>Although Chicago is not a fashion capital, our museums have done an excellent job in making connections between fashion and social and cultural changes. The Chicago History Museum&rsquo;s Costume Council frequently puts on rich exhibitions that explore the ways changes in fashion mirror changes in society at large. The latest example of this comes from the Art Institute of Chicago.</p><p>In <a href="http://www.artic.edu/exhibitions/impressionism-fashion-and-modernity" target="_blank"><em>Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity</em></a>, curators connect the rising social classes, fashions designed to please these new classes and work of some of the most impressive Impressionists. Despite the faults of the exhibition&rsquo;s layout (dark, depressing rooms and the inability to fully immerse in the construction of the actual designs), the exhibition brings up a larger point that is still relevant today: <strong>What does fashion say about who we are?</strong></p><p>Some of the most exciting works in the exhibition are the small steel and wood engravings. Called &ldquo;fashion plates,&rdquo; the engravings resemble fashion spreads in magazines. The images on the plates have a potent combination of idealism and realism that rings true. This could be your life!</p><p>Fashion plates were eventually replaced by fashion photography and yet little has changed in how we present fashion and even images as a whole. Fashion spreads are often the only consistent outlet for commercial publications to explore aesthetic and artistic ideas on a regular basis. This is why fashion photography still makes headlines. They can help spread existing stereotypes or negative portrayals of different people.&nbsp;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Renoir-La-Loge_360.png" style="float: left;" title="(Art Institute of Chicago)" />Impressionistic painting was inspired by the fashion of the time and fashion was an urban phenomena synonymous with modernity. Fashion offered a playground for artists to play, eventually bringing paintings to life. In turn, the paintings gave the dresses a freedom of movement not previously seen.</p><p>The paintings also immortalized the clothing and trends. Why is this not the case in contemporary society?</p><p>Contemporary art of the Impressionist period reflected the ephemerality of daily life and focused on the permanence of beauty and art. This was a rapidly changing time in relation to the distribution of wealth and resources. As individuals&#39; means changed, so too did their art.</p><p>Does contemporary society have an issue with &ldquo;beauty&rdquo; and &ldquo;art?&rdquo; Probably not. This could be a result of changing markets.</p><p>Both art and fashion have been overrun by purchasing power and capitalist markets. However, fashion has seen this occur much more rapidly than the art market.</p><p>Great art and beauty are still created on a daily basis. But everyday life lacks the ephemeral quality it once had. We are more connected and intertwined than ever before. Nothing dies on the Internet. What does this mean? Well for one, it means that our actions, however small, can live on beyond our own lives. In terms of connecting fashion and art, perhaps this means that there is nothing to reflect on in the grand picture. There is nothing to capture before it is gone because all of it can live on with us and in us with greater permanence.</p><p>Regarding fashion, we often claim that something has &ldquo;come back,&rdquo; but perhaps in 2013, it never went away. This is what ultimately makes the <em>Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity</em> exhibition so important. It is not just reflecting on what was. It also reflects on what can no longer be. We&rsquo;ve abandoned the newness of fashion and culture. Perhaps we can rectify this. Perhaps not. Fashion is still tied into our wants and desires. People still purchase clothing &ndash; luxurious clothing &ndash; to reflect where they are (or where they want to be). But as an art form, it&rsquo;s lost its relevance with the everyday consumer.</p><p><em><strong>Britt Julious</strong>&nbsp;blogs about culture in and outside of Chicago. Follow Britt&#39;s essays for&nbsp;<a href="http://wbez.tumblr.com/" target="_blank">WBEZ&#39;s Tumblr</a>&nbsp;or on Twitter&nbsp;<a href="http://twitter.com/britticisms" target="_blank">@britticisms</a>. She&#39;s a co-host of the&nbsp;<a href="https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/wbezs-changing-channels/id669715774?mt=2" target="_blank">Changing Channels</a>&nbsp;podcast about the future of television.</em></p></p> Wed, 10 Jul 2013 12:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/blogs/britt-julious/2013-07/fashion-and-art-are-closer-you-think-108000 Nussbaum proposes a new way of assessing national well-being http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-08-30/nussbaum-proposes-new-way-assessing-national-well-being-91239 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2011-August/2011-08-30/Nussbaum U of C.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><audio class="mejs mediaelement-formatter-identified-1332483678-1" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/sites/default/files/nussbaum.mp3">&nbsp;</audio></p><p>Deciding whether or not a country is advancing often comes down to a numbers game. Gross domestic product, or GDP, is the typical measure used to track&nbsp; a nation’s economic progress or failure. But many argue that measure falls short of the mark.</p><p>In her new book <a href="http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674050549" target="_blank"><em>Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach</em></a>, <a href="http://www.law.uchicago.edu/faculty/nussbaum/" target="_blank">Martha Nussbaum</a> thinks we need to get back to basics when evaluating the overall health and well-being of a society.<br> <br> Earlier this year, <em>Eight Forty-Eight's </em>Alison Cuddy talked to the University of Chicago professor about the benefits of this approach.</p></p> Tue, 30 Aug 2011 14:55:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-08-30/nussbaum-proposes-new-way-assessing-national-well-being-91239 Nussbaum proposes a new way of assessing national well-being http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-05-04/nussbaum-proposes-new-way-assessing-national-well-being-86053 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2011-May/2011-05-04/Nussbaum U of C.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Deciding whether or not a country is advancing often comes down to a numbers game. Gross domestic product, or GDP, is the typical measure by which we track a nation’s economic progress or failure. But many argue that measure falls short of the mark.<br> <br> In her new book <a href="http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674050549" target="_blank"><em>Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach</em></a>, <a href="http://www.law.uchicago.edu/faculty/nussbaum/" target="_blank">Martha Nussbaum</a> thinks we need to get back to basics when evaluating the overall health and well-being of a society.<br> <br> Host Alison Cuddy recently talked to the University of Chicago professor about the benefits of this approach.</p></p> Wed, 04 May 2011 14:23:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-05-04/nussbaum-proposes-new-way-assessing-national-well-being-86053