WBEZ | American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.wbez.org/tags/american-academy-pediatrics Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Kids and Screen Time: A Peek at Upcoming Guidance http://www.wbez.org/news/kids-and-screen-time-peek-upcoming-guidance-114400 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/SCREEN TIME_0.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Here&#39;s a stark fact: Most American children spend more time consuming electronic media than they do in school.</p><div id="res462070897" previewtitle="Phone Face"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Phone Face" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2016/01/05/ifacecolorfinal_slide-aa382cda6311f45aac45bd55cb1b4b82b9eebb92-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="(Rose Jaffe for NPR)" /></div><div><div>According to&nbsp;<a href="https://www.commonsensemedia.org/the-common-sense-census-media-use-by-tweens-and-teens-infographic">Common Sense Media</a>, tweens log 4 1/2 hours of screen time a day, seven days a week, 52 weeks a year. For teens, it&#39;s even higher: nearly seven hours a day. And that doesn&#39;t include time spent using devices for school or in school.</div></div></div><p>From babies with iPads to Chromebooks in classrooms, digital devices seem more ubiquitous every year. And one of the hottest issues today in both parenting and education circles is the proper role of electronic media in children&#39;s lives.</p><p>There&#39;s research to support both the benefits and dangers of digital media for developing minds. Plenty of questions remain unanswered.</p><p>But those of us raising and teaching children can&#39;t afford to wait years for the final evidence to come in. That&#39;s why the American Academy of Pediatrics plans to update its guidelines on media use later this year. Current recommendations are to avoid all screens for children under 2, and to allow a maximum of two hours per day of high-quality material for older children.</p><p>I spoke with David Hill, chairman of the AAP Council on Communications and Media and a member of the AAP Children, Adolescents and Media Leadership Working Group, to hear about the upcoming recommendations and to get some advice on how to use screens wisely.</p><p><strong>Why new screen time recommendations now?</strong></p><p>The American Academy of Pediatrics routinely updates all of its recommendations to ensure that they reflect the most current data. We are hoping to expedite the process for these particular recommendations in light of the fast-changing landscape of children&#39;s media use. We understand that, as the technologies available to parents evolve, they are looking for guidance that reflect their current realities. Our goal is to release these new policy statements in October of 2016.</p><p><strong>What are the intentions behind the new guidelines?</strong></p><p>The intentions of all of our policy statements are the same: to translate the best available data on child health and development into recommendations that help parents, health care providers and policymakers work together to foster children&#39;s optimal well-being.</p><p>You made<a href="http://www.aappublications.org/content/36/10/54">&nbsp;a preliminary announcement&nbsp;</a>this past fall.&nbsp;It mentioned issues such as the need to carefully regulate content, and the need for parents to put away their own devices at times. You also suggested certain kinds of interactive media could be appropriate even for infants and toddlers.What did you think of the responses?</p><p>We were excited and flattered to witness so much interest in our commentary.</p><p>At the same time, I personally felt a little frustrated at some of the ways that certain parties misread our statement.</p><p>I think that people on both sides of the debate at times exaggerated the differences between what we discussed in our commentary and current AAP policy.</p><p>While we acknowledged that mobile and interactive screens have become ubiquitous in children&#39;s lives, we did not advocate for their wholesale adoption. I suspect that when they do come out, the statements will be highly conservative, reinforcing much of what we have said in the past about the known effects of electronic media use on child health and development.</p><p><strong>Talking to different researchers and clinicians about digital media and young people, I get the sense that there is a &quot;harm reduction&quot; camp &mdash; many feel that screen exposure is here to stay, even for infants, so to tell families to give it up isn&#39;t realistic.</strong></p><p>I share your perception.</p><p><strong>Are you in the harm reduction camp?&nbsp;</strong></p><p>We at the AAP have a history of advocating whatever the data support regardless of public opinion. There was a time when eliminating smoking indoors, removing lead from gasoline and paint, and restraining children in cars were all seen as unrealistic recommendations that no one would ever follow. And yet each of these practices has been widely adopted with profoundly positive effects on child health.</p><p>If our future statements move away from recommending total electronic media abstinence at any age, it will be because the available data don&#39;t clearly support such a recommendation. The question before us is whether electronic media use in children is more akin to diet or to tobacco use. With diet, harm reduction measures seem to be turning the tide of the obesity epidemic. With tobacco, on the other hand, there really is no safe level of exposure at any age. My personal opinion is that the diet analogy will end up being more apt.</p><p><strong>What are some positive parenting practices around technology?</strong></p><p>First, I would say role-modeling. Demonstrate your own mindfulness in front of your children by putting down your phone during meals or whenever they need your attention. Second, make sure they know you appreciate their behavior when it&#39;s something you like. If they color or read or play basketball or ride their bikes, take some time to ask them about what they&#39;ve done and why they enjoyed it. These conversations will help them focus on the joys of the &quot;real&quot; world, and they will notice that their activity attracts your attention.</p><p>Finally, involve them in making rules around media. Ask them what they think appropriate electronic media use looks like and what sorts of consequences might be warranted for breaking the agreed-upon rules. You may have to help guide them in these discussions, but often you&#39;ll find that they have expectations that are not that different from your own.</p><p><strong>What do you hope that new research will tell us soon? Where are the biggest gaps in your opinion?</strong></p><p>Just last week we&nbsp;<a href="http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2478386">finally had a study</a>&nbsp;that looked at the effects that some &quot;educational&quot; toys had on young children&#39;s development. The results surprised even the researchers, showing that toys that talk and sing, light up and play music interfere with learning rather than contributing to it. I would love to see this study reproduced and to see others exploring what role, if any, electronic media might play in enhancing or inhibiting learning in young children.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/01/06/461920593/kids-and-screen-time-a-peek-at-upcoming-guidance?ft=nprml&amp;f=461920593" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Thu, 07 Jan 2016 00:12:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/kids-and-screen-time-peek-upcoming-guidance-114400 Women’s hospital aims for ‘baby friendly’ status http://www.wbez.org/story/women%E2%80%99s-hospital-aims-%E2%80%98baby-friendly%E2%80%99-status-96224 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2012-February/2012-02-09/breast feeding_Flickr_thekmancom.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><img alt="Northwestern Memorial’s Prentice Women’s Hospital in Chicago. (AP/File)" class="caption" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/insert-image/2012-February/2012-02-08/Prentice.jpg" style="margin: 9px 18px 6px 1px; float: left; width: 254px; height: 380px;" title="The facility, part of Northwestern Memorial Hospital, delivers about 12,000 babies a year. (AP/File)">A hospital that delivers more than a quarter of babies born in Chicago is entering an international program that aims to improve the health of both newborns and their mothers. The program focuses on breastfeeding.</p><p>Prentice Women’s Hospital, part of Northwestern Memorial Hospital, is planning to follow 10 guidelines set by the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, a program sponsored by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund, also known as UNICEF.</p><p>The guidelines include helping mothers begin breastfeeding within an hour of birth, providing infants no food or drink other than breast milk unless medically necessary, giving no pacifiers or artificial nipples to breastfeeding babies and allowing mothers and newborns to room together around the clock.</p><p>Prentice, one of eight Chicago hospitals to apply for the baby-friendly status so far, delivers about 12,000 infants a year, more than any other facility in the city. The path toward the designation includes extensive staff training and new hospital policies. The process could last years.</p><p>“All the staff in the hospital will get some exposure to what it means to be a baby-friendly hospital,” said Adam Becker, executive director of the Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children, a federally funded group that works with the city to help hospitals enter the international program. “Then there are many categories of staff that do more hands-on training.”</p><p>“If Prentice takes all these steps,” Becker added, “roughly 27 percent of babies born in Chicago and their mothers will have access to the most supportive environment possible to encourage breastfeeding from birth.”</p><p>But the program has a downside, according to Dr. Maura Quinlan, vice chairwoman of the Illinois section of the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. “The main issue is time, especially documenting the whole process and the 10 steps,” she said. “I don’t think many smaller hospitals have the resources to go through the application.”</p><p>“The designation is something the hospital can show on its website but it doesn’t mean that other hospitals don’t provide the same services,” said Quinlan, who delivers babies at MacNeal Hospital in Berwyn.</p><p>Prentice’s quest for baby-friendly status marks a turnaround of sorts. Years ago the hospital eliminated many of its lactation-specialist positions.</p><p>Illinois birth-certificate data for the six months ending last July 31 suggest that about 80 percent of Prentice newborns breastfed there. By that measure, the hospital ranked sixth among 19 facilities that deliver babies in the city.</p><p>The first hospital in Chicago to apply for the baby-friendly status was Holy Cross last summer. <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/after-wbez-report-hospital-steps-breastfeeding-efforts-90006">A top official there said a WBEZ report</a> about the hospital’s breastfeeding performance made improvement a priority.</p><p>The other Chicago applicants include Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Anthony Hospital, the University of Illinois Medical Center, St. Joseph Hospital, Resurrection Medical Center and Roseland Community Hospital.</p><p>More than 15,000 facilities in 134 countries have earned the baby-friendly status since the program’s 1991 launch, according to UNICEF. In the United States, just 125 hospitals had received the designation by December, according to New York-based Baby-Friendly USA Inc., a chapter of the international program. The only two in Illinois are Pekin Hospital in downstate Pekin and St. John’s Hospital, further south in Springfield.</p><p>U.S. health officials say breastfeeding helps newborns avoid infections, obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and asthma. For mothers, they say it reduces risks of breast and ovarian cancer. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that babies get no solids or liquids other than breast milk for the first six months of life.</p></p> Thu, 09 Feb 2012 11:12:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/women%E2%80%99s-hospital-aims-%E2%80%98baby-friendly%E2%80%99-status-96224 Stressed children face a potentially unhealthy future http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2012-01-13/stressed-children-facing-potentially-unhealthy-future-95531 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2012-January/2012-01-13/3192341451_b27a660239_o.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>It has long been reported that growing up in a harsh environment is bad for children: Violence, poverty and neglect can have long-lasting consequences on kids’ lives. Now the <a href="http://www.aap.org/en-us/Pages/Default.aspx?nfstatus=401&amp;nftoken=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000&amp;nfstatusdescription=ERROR%3a+No+local+token" target="_blank">American Academy of Pediatrics</a> is highlighting early-childhood stress as one of the biggest public health priorities facing society. When the Elk Grove Village–based group makes a policy statement like this, people listen. WBEZ’s Gabriel Spitzer joined <em>Eight Forty-Eight</em> to talk through what this all means.</p><p>American Academy of Pediatrics article, "<a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/1/e224.full.pdf+html" target="_blank">Early Childhood Adversity, Toxic Stress, and the Role of the Pediatrician:Translating Developmental Science Into Lifelong Health</a>."</p></p> Fri, 13 Jan 2012 15:56:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2012-01-13/stressed-children-facing-potentially-unhealthy-future-95531 Hospital regulators let baby formula vie with breast milk http://www.wbez.org/content/hospital-regulators-let-formula-vie-breast-milk <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Vanessa3.JPG" style="margin: 4px 0px 0px; float: left; width: 266px; height: 199px;" title="Lactation consultant Vanessa Stokes says Cook County’s Stroger Hospital has a long way to go. (WBEZ/Chip Mitchell)" /></div><p>A new French study shows that breastfeeding may have lasting benefits for a child&rsquo;s metabolism. Other studies suggest breastfeeding helps prevent infections, chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence like this has moved the American Academy of Pediatrics to recommend giving babies no food or drink other than breast milk for their first six months. At many Chicago-area hospitals, though, breast milk competes with baby formula. At some of them, the real stuff usually loses. From our West Side bureau, we compare how the area&rsquo;s hospitals approach breastfeeding and see whether watchdog agencies are paying much attention.</p><p>MITCHELL: Certified lactation consultant Vanessa Stokes landed a job in December.</p><p>STOKES: I was excited just to get to that place to really make a difference.</p><p>MITCHELL: That place was the maternity ward of Cook County&rsquo;s Stroger Hospital. Stokes was there to encourage and train moms to breastfeed. But she noticed the hospital giving them signals it was OK to feed newborns formula.</p><p>STOKES: I saw bottles in the cribs.</p><p>MITCHELL: Then Stokes met one of the hospital&rsquo;s newest mothers. Like many patients on the ward, she was young and black. What was less usual was her file. It showed she&rsquo;d been planning to breastfeed.</p><p>STOKES: The baby was born and then, at night, she had some problems with latch-on, which happens. She said, &lsquo;The nurse told me to give the baby a bottle.&rsquo; That&rsquo;s what she told me.</p><p>MITCHELL: You believe her?</p><p>STOKES: Yes, I do. Most nurses, they just don&rsquo;t want to take the time to help moms. They have a million other things to do.</p><p>MITCHELL: And there was no breastfeeding peer counselor or lactation consultant on duty overnight?</p><p>STOKES: No.</p><p>MITCHELL: One of Stokes&rsquo; supervisors at Stroger confirms that the hospital keeps bottles in cribs and that the nurses sometimes give out formula without any medical reason. <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/baby-formula/breast-feeding-disparities-sharp-chicago-area-hospitals">Birth-certificate data</a> show that less than 60 percent of infants born at Stroger get to breastfeed there. And there are more places like this. A dozen Chicago-area hospitals have even lower rates. The data show there&rsquo;s one on the South Side where just 10 percent of newborns start breastfeeding.</p><p>SOUND: Elevator door closes.</p><p>MITCHELL (on site): I&rsquo;m inside that hospital now. It&rsquo;s called Holy Cross. I&rsquo;m taking an elevator to the 6th floor to see Anita Allen-Karriem. She directs what Holy Cross calls its Family Birth Center.</p><p>SOUND: Elevator door opens. Intercom voice. Birth Center door opens.</p><p>MITCHELL: Allen-Karriem shows me around the ward.</p><p>ALLEN-KARRIEM: And, as you can see, this is our rooming-in. And our moms are here and they can have their baby here 24/7...</p><p>MITCHELL: She says Holy Cross initiates breastfeeding within an hour of birth.</p><p>ALLEN-KARRIEM: My nurses have the tools that they need to assist with breastfeeding the mom. And we encourage breastfeeding on demand.</p><p>MITCHELL (on site): How many lactation consultants do you have on staff?</p><p>ALLEN-KARRIEM: We don&rsquo;t have any. Our volume does not support that at this particular time.</p><p>MITCHELL (on site): Any peer counselors that come in as volunteers? Breastfeeding peer counselors?</p><p>ALLEN-KARRIEM: No, we don&rsquo;t have that at the present.</p><p>MITCHELL: Allen-Karriem says convincing her patients to breastfeed is not always easy. She says most have not received any prenatal care before showing up in labor. Even more than Stroger Hospital, Holy Cross lets breast milk compete with formula. Allen-Karriem says her hospital sends moms home with a few days worth of formula. The idea&rsquo;s to tide them over, until they get into a federal nutrition program that provides more.</p><p>ALLEN-KARRIEM: Is it the best method of nutrition? No, it is not. Breastfeeding is. However, it&rsquo;s the mom&rsquo;s choice. If she wants to exclusively breastfeed, we do not send her home with formula. However, because she has not chosen to breastfeed, would you send her outside your doors with no way to feed her infant and no way to buy any formula?</p><p>MITCHELL: Again, Holy Cross is at the bottom when it comes to breastfeeding rates in Chicago-area hospitals. Experts say that&rsquo;s not a big surprise since it doesn&rsquo;t have lactation consultants and gives out all that formula. But some hospitals are taking a different tack.</p><p>INTERCOM: Stroke alert for the Emergency Room...</p><p>MITCHELL: Like Stroger and Holy Cross, Mount Sinai on Chicago&rsquo;s West Side serves mostly low-income patients. Last year about half the babies born at the hospital were getting breastfed there. To lift that rate, Mount Sinai says it&rsquo;s planning to apply for a pro-breastfeeding designation from the United Nations called Baby Friendly.</p><p>SAIDEL: This is the room where the hearing screen is done...</p><p>MITCHELL: Lou-Ellen Saidel is one of two half-time lactation consultants on Mount Sinai&rsquo;s maternity ward. She says you can see the effect of the Baby Friendly program right in this room. Saidel says the nurses used to quiet down babies for hearing tests by giving them formula. Now, she points to a big sign at eye level.</p><p>SAIDEL: It says, &lsquo;Bottles should only be given for a documented medical reason.&rsquo; So now they don&rsquo;t use formula on breastfeeding babies anymore in here.</p><p>MITCHELL: Saidel says Mount Sinai puts almost every staffer who comes into contact with new mothers or infants through breastfeeding training...</p><p>SAIDEL: ...from registered nurse to secretary. This is a process of people acquiring skills that were not taught in nursing school and medical school.</p><p>MITCHELL: For the Baby Friendly designation, some Sinai staffers will need more training. The sessions won&rsquo;t cost the hospital much money but will eat up staff time. That could explain why no Chicago hospital has applied for the designation. But a lot of breastfeeding experts say the hospitals should give it a try.</p><p>ABRAMSON: Breastfeeding is one those priority areas that are life-and-death for their patients.</p><p>MITCHELL: Rachel Abramson is a former post-partum nurse who heads a Chicago nonprofit group called HealthConnect One.</p><p>ABRAMSON: Those of us who grew up thinking that formula feeding is the norm and perfectly adequate have a hard time shifting our vision to see the risks of illness in the first year of life, juvenile diabetes, of breast cancer for mother, of obesity and diabetes &mdash; lifelong &mdash; for mothers and babies.</p><p>MITCHELL: Abramson says the costs for treating these diseases often ends up on the shoulders of taxpayers. If that&rsquo;s the case, you might think the government and hospital oversight groups would push hard for better breastfeeding rates. But they don&rsquo;t push. They mostly nudge.</p><p>MITCHELL: One group with some accountability is the Oakbrook Terrace-based Joint Commission. It accredits hospitals. Ann Watt helps direct the commission&rsquo;s quality-evaluation division. Watt says about a year ago the commission published some standards for hospitals to measure whether newborns were breastfeeding.</p><p>WATT: Our medical experts have indicated to us that this is a best practice.</p><p>MITCHELL: But these commission standards are voluntary. In fact, just three Illinois hospitals have adopted them.</p><p>MITCHELL (on phone): Could a hospital be performing poorly by these measures and still get accreditation?</p><p>WATT: Yes.</p><p>MITCHELL: Another group with some say is the Illinois Hospital Association. I asked the group whether it would support more public oversight of hospital breastfeeding practices. A spokesman declined to answer on tape but sent a statement saying the rules should not be rigid. The statement says breastfeeding management should begin with prenatal care, not the mother&rsquo;s hospital stay. The hospital association also points out that the decision to breastfeed is personal.</p><p>MITCHELL: The folks with the most to say about hospitals breastfeeding rates are at the Illinois Department of Public Health. The department is in charge of enforcing the state&rsquo;s hospital-licensing code. The code requires hospitals to follow basic breastfeeding guidelines that two physician groups published in 2007. In a statement to WBEZ, the Illinois Department of Public Health says it investigates breastfeeding infection-control issues. Otherwise, though, the department says it does not enforce the guidelines. That leaves public policy on breastfeeding largely up to individual hospitals &mdash; places like Stroger, Mount Sinai and Holy Cross.</p><p><em>Correction: An earlier version of this story misstated the status of Mount Sinai Hospital&rsquo;s Baby Friendly effort. Chicago officials announced in August 2010 that Mount Sinai was seeking the international designation. The hospital registered to begin that four-phase process in September 2011.</em></p></p> Thu, 05 May 2011 16:23:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/content/hospital-regulators-let-formula-vie-breast-milk