WBEZ | out of the shadows http://www.wbez.org/tags/out-shadows Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Culture Catalyst: Richard Cahan and Michael Williams on Vivian Maier: Out of the Shadows http://www.wbez.org/series/chicago-amplified/culture-catalyst-richard-cahan-and-michael-williams-vivian-maier-out <p><p><strong>Michael Williams</strong> and <strong>Richard Cahan</strong>, co-authors of <em>Vivian Maier: Out of the Shadows</em>, have collaborated on seven other books, including <em>Real Chicago</em>, <em>Richard Nickel&rsquo;s Chicago: Photographs of a Lost City</em>, <em>Who We Were: A Snapshot History of America</em>, <em>Edgar Miller</em> and the <em>Handmade Home, and The Lost Panoramas: When Chicago Changed Its River and the Land Beyond</em>. They own CityFiles Press, a Chicago publishing company that focuses on art and photography books.</p><p>Chicago is a hotbed of arts and culture. Our city is home not only to amazing artists, important art spaces, and renowned universities but also to cultural leaders at the forefront of innovation in cuisine, music, fashion, literature, and beyond. Culture Catalysts is a monthly series that celebrates and provides a platform for Chicagoans at the epicenters of these scenes. Each month, get to know the work of a different Chicago-based thought leader, meet the artists featured in our Chicago Works exhibition series, and discover those who influence arts and culture in our community.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/MCA-webstory_13.gif" title="" /></div><p>Recorded live Tuesday, January 8, 2013 at&nbsp;The Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago.</p><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Tue, 08 Jan 2013 11:17:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/series/chicago-amplified/culture-catalyst-richard-cahan-and-michael-williams-vivian-maier-out Out of the Shadows: Mental health experts discuss getting help for mentally ill youth http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-28/out-shadows-mental-health-experts-discuss-getting-help-mentally-ill-yout <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2011-October/2011-10-28/out of the darkness walk flickr.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>For the past few weeks, <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/out-shadows"><em>Out of the Shadows</em></a> explored the numerous obstacles that surround mental illness. In the series' last conversation, <em>Eight Forty-Eight</em> explored what could be done to break down those barriers. Three experts spoke about the medical, legal and very personal issues involved in treating mentally ill children.</p><p>Lawyer <a href="http://www.law.uchicago.edu/faculty/heyrman" target="_blank">Mark Heyrman</a>, who specializes in the rights of the mentally disabled, <a href="http://www.iit.edu/psych/people/profiles/terrence_koller.shtml" target="_blank">Dr. Terry Koller</a>, a licensed child psychologist and the executive director of the Illinois Psychological Association and <a href="http://www.afsp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewpage&amp;page_id=6A71D16C-915E-6926-704E5A9C15C3D6AF" target="_blank">Stanley Lewy</a>, who founded the Midwest Chapter of the <a href="http://www.afsp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewPage&amp;page_id=1" target="_blank">American Foundation for Suicide Prevention</a> and the <a href="http://www.spassoc.org/" target="_blank">Suicide Prevention Association</a> after losing his son, all weighed in.</p></p> Fri, 28 Oct 2011 16:15:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-28/out-shadows-mental-health-experts-discuss-getting-help-mentally-ill-yout Teaching mentally ill children: A delicate balance for children and teachers http://www.wbez.org/content/teaching-mentally-ill-children-delicate-balance-children-and-teachers <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-26/lakeshorehospital.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Katie Osgood made her way down Lawrence Avenue; she was on her way to work. An ambulance passed and she wondered if it was one of her students. Hers is not a typical classroom: There are no desks, the kids wear scrubs and she’s careful about what supplies she uses.</p><p><img alt="" class="caption" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/insert-image/2011-October/2011-10-26/lakeshorehospital-crop.jpg" style="margin-right: 15px; margin-top: 15px; margin-bottom: 15px; float: left; width: 325px; height: 411px; " title="(Flickr/Zol87)">"Count out my pencils, you know. And then other things, I just can’t use—you know, staples, paper clips. I mean markers aren’t dangerous, but you do have to kind of watch them," Osgood said.</p><p>Osgood’s the only teacher at Chicago Lakeshore Hospital, a psychiatric facility that treats mentally ill patients, including kids. There are 40 beds for youth at Lakeshore but her average class size ranges between eight and 20 kids. She’s a certified teacher, so kids get credit for a half-day of class each day she teaches them. But because of privacy issues, she may not always privy to what they’re learning at their regular schools.</p><p>"I do always tell them, 'You know what? Make sure you’re OK first; if this is going to stress you out, we’re not going to work on it today. You gotta get well with you.' A lot of kids will actually respond with, 'No, I want to do this. I feel like I can.' Whereas if you’re in a regular school,you kind of have to keep pushing them. I mean, today a teacher’s job is on the line if your kids don’t get the grade,” Osgood explained.</p><p>The kids, between the ages of four and 17, come from all over the city. But share one thing in common: They are disoriented and away from their parents or guardians. They’re admitted at all hours—even at 4:00 a.m.</p><div class="inset"><div class="insetContent"><p><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/out-shadows" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/sites/default/files/story/insert-image/2011-October/2011-10-12/OutOfShadows-promo.jpg" style="width: 280px; height: 63px;" title=""></a></p><p><span style="font-size: 11px;">Out of the Shadows will explore the fractures in mental health care for children in Illinois and illuminate how it affects our youth.</span></p></div></div><p>Osgood explained, "Some of them are going through the hardest point in their lives. Like it probably won’t get worse than whatever it was that brought them here--whether it’s a suicide attempt, whether it was a moment of rage where they got out of control, whatever it was that brought them here."</p><p>You won’t hear Osgood in action during this story. Heikenen-Weiss wasn’t able to record her with students present because of privacy concerns. And it might not have represented an average day for Katie; there is no such thing. Things are always in flux—her patients, their needs, their interests, their health and capacity to learn. One thing is constant: Every morning, the kids participate in a group therapy session called “community.” The kids state why they’re hospitalized. One kid says he kicked his sister’s door down. Next to his name on a white board up front, the counselor notes that anger is an issue he’s struggling with. Under his goals, she writes: “Build up anger management skills.”</p><p>"A kid starts acting up or something, you can always point to the board—'Oh, you’re supposed to be following directions today, remember?'," said Osgood.</p><p>Osgood looks for signs that might help her teach the kids.</p><p>"It’s almost like cracking a code for all these kids. You know, figuring out what exactly is driving these behaviors? What is going on behind the scenes that’s causing them,‘cause you might just look on and see, oh, the kid threw a chair. There could be a thousand things—someone could have called him a name in the morning, or maybe he didn’t eat anything that day or maybe, you, know, he’s going through being put into the foster care system and he just found out. You know, you don’t know what’s happening," Osgood explained.</p><p><img alt="" class="caption" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/insert-image/2011-October/2011-10-26/shadows-crop.jpg" style="margin-left: 15px; margin-top: 15px; margin-bottom: 15px; float: right; width: 325px; height: 491px; " title="(Photo courtesy of Katie Osgood)">All of the employees that work with Osgood were trained to catch these clues. But Lakeshore was not without its problems. A study out earlier this year, commissioned by the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services,claimed that children had been sexually abused because employees weren’t keeping an eye on them. Hospital officials refuted those claims—and&nbsp; Osgood said she felt supported.</p><p>"One of my biggest things that I love about working at a place like Lakeshore is that I have a team of people with me. I always have a mental health counselor there in the room with me," Osgood said.<br> Every member on staff was also trained to deescalate situations, even the small ones cause those can escalate with these kids. Sometimes, that can mean shutting down the entire ward if kids get too agitated. Osgood said that maybe once or twice a week, a kid has to be restrained by staff. But she looked at every act of discipline as a learning experience.</p><p>"After you give a time out to a child, you need to process and say, 'Well, why did you get this timeout? What can you do differently next time?'" Osgood said.</p><p>With a patient’s doctor nearby, Osgood could input on how medications were working out.</p><p>"Some of these mental health issues are brain-related. You know what? It’s a chemical imbalance, and if you regulate that, then guess what? You see amazing results. We always remind the kids that medication alone is not going to…you have to do your part, you have to use your coping skills," Osgood remarked.</p><p>Osgood gets to know some of the kids—some have a hard time leaving, even after they’ve been medically cleared. Those are usually wards of the state who have no place to go. They often stay up to six months’ other students plunge back into the outside world.</p><p>Osgood explained, "A lot of times, we’re discharging these kids straight back into school, like the very next day. And half the time, the teacher won’t even know that the child has been hospitalized for psychiatric issues. You know, it’s protected health information, you know, and if the family chooses not to share that, the teacher has no idea."</p><p>Osgood said that she sees a lot of kids return to the hospital.<br> "My objective is kind of to show these kids that they can do it. I want the kids to experience some kind of success, especially the ones who have experienced a lot of school failure. You can rope them in a lot easier in terms of getting them engaged," she said.<br> Osgood knows she’s not teaching her kids to test, or to pass a grade, or to build on the lessons of a previous teacher. She’s hoping to plant a kernel—something that might pop up later in life.</p><p><br> &nbsp;</p><p><br> &nbsp;</p></p> Wed, 26 Oct 2011 15:05:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/content/teaching-mentally-ill-children-delicate-balance-children-and-teachers State guardianship's role in caring for mentally ill kids http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-26/state-guardianships-role-caring-mentally-ill-kids-93502 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2011-October/2011-10-26/flickr San Jose LibraryUSED.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Some wards of the state end up in psychiatric hospitals like <a href="http://www.chicagolakeshorehospital.com/" target="_blank">Chicago Lakeshore Hospital</a>. Over the years, the <a href="http://www.state.il.us/dcfs/index.shtml">Illinois Department of Children and Family Services</a> has made great strides in finding homes for abandoned, neglected and traumatized kids. Some families, like the one profiled in <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/adopting-fight-93364" target="_blank">Rehman Tungekar's piece</a>, choose to give up custody of their adopted children because they can't afford treatment for mental illness; but DCFS has little power of supervision once children leave the agency. When the <a href="http://www.uic.edu/uic/" target="_blank">University of Illinois at Chicago</a> issued reports that were highly critical of some of the region’s private psychiatric hospitals this year, DCFS was limited in what actions it could take. To learn more about the challenges facing the agency and its charges, <em>Eight Forty-Eight</em> was joined by the deputy director for the Division of Clinical Services at DCFS, <a href="http://www.state.il.us/dcfs/library/management_bio.htm" target="_blank">Cynthia Tate</a>.</p></p> Wed, 26 Oct 2011 15:01:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-26/state-guardianships-role-caring-mentally-ill-kids-93502 Talking to experts about childhood mood disorders http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-24/talking-experts-about-childhood-mood-disorders-93399 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2011-October/2011-10-24/Flickr- em...ily used.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Experts interviewed in WBEZ’s <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/out-shadows" target="_blank"><em>Out of the Shadows</em></a> series said family intervention is a huge factor in obtaining and—more importantly—sticking with treatment. But families dealing with a mentally ill child said sorting through the information and managing doctor appointments is time-consuming, frustrating and potentially fraught with misinformation. On Monday’s show, listeners had the opportunity to speak with a leading experts in the field of childhood mood disorders: Dr. Mani Pavuluri directs the<a href="http://www.psych.uic.edu/brain-center/" target="_blank"> Pediatric Brain Research and Intervention Center</a>, and she is also the Berger-Colbeth Chair in Child Psychiatry at the <a href="http://www.uic.edu/uic/" target="_blank">University of Illinois at Chicago</a>; Dr. Terry Koller is a licensed child psychologist and the executive director of the <a href="http://www.illinoispsychology.org/" target="_blank">Illinois Psychological Association</a>. The number to call is <strong>312-923-9239.</strong> You can also reach <em>Eight Forty-Eight</em> at <a href="mailto:848@wbez.org">848@wbez.org</a> or on twitter <a href="http://twitter.com/848" target="_blank"><strong>@848</strong></a>.</p><p>If you have more questions for these experts join them online: At 10:00 a.m., they’ll be available for an online chat at <strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/live-chat-ask-experts-about-childhood-mental-illness-93156" target="_blank">wbez.org/shadowschat</a>.</strong></p></p> Mon, 24 Oct 2011 13:58:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-24/talking-experts-about-childhood-mood-disorders-93399 Out of the Shadows: A family's struggle to find normalcy for their mentally ill child http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-familys-struggle-find-normalcy-their-mentally-ill-child-93314 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-20/IMG_6649.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>Thirteen-year-old Joey likes to rescue toads and climb trees.</p><p>"The tallest tree I ever climbed actually bent over when I got to the top," said Joey excitedly. "That’s what’s really funny, I have the fear of heights, except that I’m not afraid, maybe because it’s just nature. When I’m up in trees, I’m not afraid but when I’m climbing a rock wall, I’m afraid."</p><p>There are lots of trees to climb around here, so far north in Illinois. Here, city dwellers retreat to lake homes where it’s so dark at night that Joey sees plenty of stars.</p><p>"I just look through binoculars. It’s not like a big city like Chicago where the lights of that city dims the stars."</p><p>Joey is an aspiring astronomer with a blond buzz cut and glasses that fall down the bridge of his nose. But his interests aren’t the reason his parents moved him and his two younger sisters and younger brother to this quiet rural place more than a decade ago.</p><p>"Looking back, he was always very agitated," recalled Joey's mom, Julie. "We could watch him inside my belly, like wham! one side of my stomach and wham! back to the other side."</p><p>From a young age, Julie could tell her son was different. "When toddlers were getting out of biting, his was getting worse. He came up and bit me on the leg. He would have rages and tantrums for 40 minutes at a time. We’d have to hold him down because he was trying to tear our hair out at the scalp and gouge our eyes out."</p><div class="inset"><p><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);"><em><span style="font-family: georgia,serif;"><span style="font-size: 22px;">"We didn’t want him to be prejudged, so we let him fly under the radar. But the first day at the preschool, he punched the teacher in the eye."</span></span></em></span></p></div><p>Joey's violent tendencies were troublesome. "When [he was 2] his younger sister was born and as she started getting older, we lived in a two-story house with a banister railing at the top of the stairs and we could see him pushing her over. So, we bought a ranch. We need to buy a house where we don’t have to worry about his jumping out of a window."</p><p>Julie and her husband Tom thought early on that Joey might be bipolar. The illness, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that causes severe mood swings and can make children aggressive.</p><p>"He would get a feral look on his face," Julie recalled. "150 years ago, people would have said, 'he’s possessed!'"</p><p>Both Julie and Tom’s fathers lived with bipolar disorder, so Julie, who has a degree in psychology, started to keep track of Joey’s symptoms.</p><p>They began videotaping Joey’s behavior. Julie says they wanted to protect themselves from neighbors who raised their eyebrows at the violence in their home.</p><p>They also wanted to show doctors. They were going to countless visits to find out what was wrong. Some pediatricians they saw said children cannot have bipolar disorder. Others said Joey just needed more discipline. All of the doctors stayed away from prescribing drugs, pointing to the lack of long-term effect studies. Some offered alternative treatments, like fish oil tablets. But Julie says that choice proved problematic.</p><p>"He became hyper manic," Julie explained. "He’s crying, I’m crying. He’s falling asleep in exhaustion."</p><p>Joey, meantime, was having nightmares. "It would be one big dream where someone would stab me in the stomach and I would wake up screaming. Waking everyone up. It happened every night until mom and dad decided to give me pills."</p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: georgia,serif;"><strong>Diagnosis</strong></span></span></p><p>Then Joey, Julie and Tom visited Dr. Mani Pavaluri from the Mood Disorders Clinic at the University of Illinois in Chicago. She diagnosed Joey with pediatric bipolar disorder. "He has this very clear depressive episodes where he would say he wanted to die. He was saying that at the age of 3 years and to make matters worse, the medication treatment wasn’t perfect. He was on two mood stabilizers and none were on right doses."</p><p>Julie says a series of medications began to stabilize his behavior. "Mood swings became more predictable. Based on seasons and stressful situations like school year start. But every day is anybody’s guess."</p><p>Several families interviewed for this series describe living with someone who is mentally ill as constantly walking on eggshells.</p><div class="inset"><div class="insetContent"><p><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/out-shadows" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/sites/default/files/story/insert-image/2011-October/2011-10-12/OutOfShadows-promo.jpg" style="width: 280px; height: 63px;" title=""></a></p><p><span style="font-size: 11px;">Out of the Shadows will explore the fractures in mental health care for children in Illinois and illuminate how it affects our youth.</span></p></div></div><p>"On the one hand when things are great and stable, you use the typical stuff, discipline and consequences and all of those things. But when you have a bipolar kid and he’s on some biochemical swing, you’re in survival mode. You have to keep everyone safe. If that means you let him watch TV for 8 hours, you do it."</p><p>Joey has learned some skills to control his own anger. He goes to his bedroom or squeezes a stress ball until he calms down.</p><p>"Sometimes I think that I go into mood swings when I feel totally happy and confident and then I’m down in the dumps" Joey said. "I start hating myself, I think I’m a despicable person. I have ups and downs, like a roller coaster of emotions and I can’t stop it."</p><p>Navigating that roller coaster is a central focus of the family’s life.</p><p>On a bright summer day, Joey, his sisters and his brother are visiting Brookfield Zoo with their parents.</p><p>The children are 13, 11, eight, and five and they’re bouncing with excitement, but as they pass a kiosk, Julie stops for a woman handing out information on college savings plans.</p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: georgia,serif;"><strong>Adapting</strong></span></span></p><p>"I have a plan for each of them already," Julie said proudly.</p><p>Julie isn’t going to miss an educational moment. This fun excursion is also a school day. She’s been homeschooling Joey for more than a year.</p><p>While some kids with bipolar disorder thrive on structure and discipline, Joey did not.</p><p>"We didn’t want him to be prejudged, so we let him fly under the radar. But the first day at the preschool, he punched the teacher in the eye."</p><p>That got him kicked out of preschool. In grade school, Joey spent lots of time in detention and the principal’s office.</p><p>"Well, I’d basically thrown a chair cause I was so angry. They had to come in and restraint me. I just kept throwing chairs and stuff. At public school, they didn’t understand how my brain works."</p><p>Julie says that academically, Joey’s brain worked well. "Intellectually, he was already reading books. He should not have been in special ed. But he can’t be in the main classroom when he’s having behavior issues," she explained. "He has a one on one aide in second or third grade." [The] aide would manage his mood swings. third and fourth grade, he would get suspended five to eight times a semester."</p><p>So, Julie Tom helps out sometimes. He’s a software engineer who works from home. Although no one tends to stay home a lot. They’ve got homeschooling co-op, scout meetings and outings like this one.</p><p>Joey is looking for an elephant. The closest he comes to it today are hippopotamuses.</p><p>Joey reads the plaque: "Chocolate toads from Harry Potter! Eat it!"</p><p><em>Harry Potter</em>,<em> Doctor Seuss</em>,<em> Percy Jackson and the Olympians</em>--all four kids drop literary references. Joey likes to brag that he tested at a sophomore-in-college reading level while in 5th grade.</p><p>But while at school, his younger sister Sarah often takes a more mature, protective role. The changes the family has made for Joey don’t seem to make them feel abnormal in any major way. And this family is happy, loving and fiercely loyal to each other.</p><p>And to have that kind of acceptance cushions the world for Joey. Still, however, he yearns for friends.</p><p>"Usually I just let them come to me cause sometimes I approach too fast and I get a little head strong and I intimidate them a little bit. So I usually let them come up to me. Sometimes I just go too confident. I get a little bit too intense and then they get a little scared of me."</p><p>Tom worries sometimes about how Joey’s protected upbringing will affect his future.</p><p>One of the books that our son enjoyed as a child was <em>Pinocchio</em>. He saw himself in that story. Always in trouble and always working his way back," explained Tom. "He identified with it cause he wanted to be a real boy. It’s difficult to get past things to be the boy his mother wants him to be. Son is little Pinocchio... Things you have to overcome but will."\</p><p><strong>More from Out of the Shadows:</strong></p><table style="width: 630px;" border="0" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="5"><tbody><tr><td><a href="http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-18/out-shadows-factors-lead-mentally-ill-kids-juvenile-detention-93272"><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/story_image_medium/segment/photo/2011-October/2011-10-19/juvenile%20justice.jpg" style="width: 200px; height: 139px;"></a></td><td><a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-how-our-police-force-deals-mentally-ill-children-93300"><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/story_image_medium/story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-19/Christopher%2002.JPG" style="width: 200px; height: 139px;"></a></td><td><a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-how-public-schools-are-failing-mentally-ill-kids-93311"><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/story_image_medium/story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-20/The%20McGriffs.JPG" style="width: 200px; height: 139px;"></a></td></tr><tr><td><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-18/out-shadows-factors-lead-mentally-ill-kids-juvenile-detention-93272">Factors that lead mentally ill kids into juvenile detention</a></strong></td><td><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-how-our-police-force-deals-mentally-ill-children-93300">How our police force deals with mentally ill children</a></strong></td><td><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-how-public-schools-are-failing-mentally-ill-kids-93311">How public schools are failing mentally ill kids</a></strong></td></tr></tbody></table><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Mon, 24 Oct 2011 13:25:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-familys-struggle-find-normalcy-their-mentally-ill-child-93314 Out of the Shadows: Trading the couch for the curandero http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-trading-couch-curandero-93347 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-20/Latino candles flickr peppergrass.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><em>According to the latest Youth Risk Behavior Survey from the <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/" target="_blank">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</a>, over 15 percent of Latino youth in the United States have considered attempting suicide. By comparison, rates for black and white youth were 13 percent. Experts say cultural stigmas, as well as a lack of education, can lead many families to reject mainstream treatment for mental health issues. Instead, some look to traditional treatments from their homeland. WBEZ’s Aurora Aguilar shared the story for <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/out-shadows" target="_blank">Out of the Shadows</a>.</em><br> &nbsp;<br> For the past 25 years, Jerry Flores and his family owned and operated La Botanica Emanuel in Little Village. The small corner shop sells religious candles and books on homeopathic medicine. And on any given day, you could find a line of customers waiting for the services offered here.</p><p>“Card readings, spiritual cleansings, what we call ‘somabadas.’ Someone threw out their arm, their knees,” recounted Jerry Flores.<br> <br> Flores and his family are curanderos, or “spiritualists who cure.” Their talents for healing are passed on generation to generation. Many Mexicans believe folk healing can fix everything from a broken heart to a broken psyche.<br> <br> “Basically we try to help the people, we always put God first. Like the saying goes, we are here to help people spiritually as well as physically. Our number one recommendation is prayer,” Flores explained.<br> <br> People come to La Botanica Emanuel asking for advice on important matters or sometimes, to get a spiritual tune-up. Others have bigger issues.<br> <br> “People come with their kids. It’s because their kids are aggressive and they don’t know how to control them. They hear noises or feel someone with them, behind them. Some kids come with bruises and marks and they think they were dreaming but it’s happening. You know, there are good spirits and bad spirits. So, we recommend what to do.” a Spanish-speaking Leti Flores, Jerry’s wife, explained.<br> <br> Leti often recommends is a <em>limpia,</em> or a spiritual cleansing. Flores lit a musky incense and prayed to the saints, asking for the customer's safety, health and luck. She showered the customer with sweet-scented oil infused with natural herbs. The prayer part and the curandero motioning, like they are pulling out bad spirits from the body, mimic the healing practices that take place in some Christian churches. The curandero’s rituals, however, are very private. A parent whose child was participating in a limpia refused to be interviewed for this story. But she swore it lifted her child’s aggression, symptoms that some experts might flag as a mood disorder.<br> <br> Michael Kelly, a professor of social work at Loyola University in Chicago, was working as a social worker in Addison, Illinois in the 1990’s. He laughed and said that most ethnic groups in this country don’t want what they offer. The Chicago suburb was well populated by Latinos, many of them poor. He often found it difficult to connect with them, but not just because he's a white guy from Oak Park.<br> <br> “I couldn’t use traditional psychological language to engage them. It wasn’t interesting. They even sometimes thought it was a barrier because they weren’t sure what I was going to do to them. I had to learn a cultural frame, but I had to learn a lot of both the cultural frame but also this spiritual piece, traditions and dynamics,” said Kelly.<br> <br> As a public employee, he said se couldn’t ask about religious or spiritual beliefs when he was a counselor. But he found that Latinos often brought up the topic themselves.<br> <br> “They would casually say before they were taking a trip or making a big decision, ‘We’re going to see a curandero,’ and I would say, a ‘Cura-what?’” Kelly remembered.<br> <br> One of the children he worked with was Jose, who heard voices telling him to hurt people. He had taken a knife to his sister, which in the medical-model world, Kelly said, met criteria for psychotic symptoms.<br> &nbsp;<br> Kelly himself found that Jose met the criteria for schizophrenia, and advised the mother to hospitalize him. She politely refused and said she would instead take him to a curandera. The mother believed some devil had taken over Jose.<br> <br> “They often speak to people who are possessed or supernatural,” Kelly said.<br> <br> Kelly asked if he could meet with the curandera and when he did, he brokered a deal.&nbsp; He asked the curandera to counsel the mother but convince her to get him psychologically evaluated. The curandera obliged and so did the mother. Jose eventually was placed on medication—and Kelly found a way in.<br> <br> “We were walking on eggshells talking to these parents and here they go to this curandero, they get more information and they end up telling them to do a lot of things,” Kelly explained.<br> <br> More importantly, the curandera spoke to Jose’s mom about her son’s behavior in a way she could relate to. Many Mexican immigrants know little about mental illness or refuse to admit that it’s an ailment. Lack of Spanish-language information on the topic and universal stigma against mental illness don’t help matters. The curandera talked to the mom about “nervios,” meaning anxiety or unease like the less severe symptoms of mental illness.<br> <br> “There are kind of third-rail words to not use, often the words that white, Anglo medical professional want to use like ‘depression,’ like ‘anxiety;’ or big ticket ones like, ‘Bipolar,’ ‘PTSD.’ Those are not terms they want to apply. They are pejorative.&nbsp; If I could talk to a mother about her daughter having ‘nervios,’ I could get some movement to get her to do a screen, if there was someone culturally competent. Cause sometimes you can get someone to the water but you can’t get them to drink,” Kelly explained.<br> <br> Irma Hernandez is the program coordinator of the Hispanic Diagnostic and Family Support Program in Chicago.<br> <br> “Last year we had a year and half wait for a diagnostic. Which was ridiculous, you know? It was embarrassing to tell parents that they had to wait a year and a half to come to our clinic. But the reality is we’re a small program we’re a state funded program and budget cuts don’t allow us to hire any more staff,” Hernandez said.<br> <br> The clinic where she works is one of two that cater specifically to diagnosing Latinos with mental illness in Chicago. In addition to access, Hernandez says another huge barrier is deep-set cultural traditions.<br> <br> “A lot of these families have been living in either very rural towns or places where they don’t have access. They do the herbal sweeps; they sweep the body up and down,” Hernandez explained.<br> <br> She said that mental health professionals need to acknowledge that their patients’ lives depend on open lines of communication.<br> <br> “Our role here is not to criticize back in our country this is what you do, especially when parents are desperate. As long as parents know they are being respected, they don’t have a problem with trying something else,” Hernandez said.<br> <br> Latinos and Native Americans have the highest suicide related fatalities of any young population in the country, according to the Center for Disease Control.</p><p>Experts say that the importance of family and tradition in these cultures underscores the need to find creative ways to engage mentally ill patients in these communities.<br> &nbsp;</p><p><strong>Join the conversation: Ask experts about mental illness in our <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/live-chat-ask-experts-about-childhood-mental-illness-93156">live chat</a>.</strong></p></p> Fri, 21 Oct 2011 22:31:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-trading-couch-curandero-93347 Out of the Shadows: Wearing the wrong skin http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-wearing-wrong-skin-93340 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-20/sad teens gay.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>WBEZ's <em><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/out-shadows" target="_blank">Out of the Shadows</a> </em>series looked to identify some factors that could exacerbate mental illness in teens--among them, sexuality. Straight or gay, coming to terms with one's sexuality is one of the biggest hurdles a teenager crosses. Transgendered people often face ridicule that can trigger anxiety and depression--often accompanied by alcohol and drug abuse.</p><p>One warning, there are some descriptions about cutting that might disturb more sensitive listeners.</p><p>For <em>Out Of the Shadows</em>, Julianne Hill profiled a Chicago teen who barely made it through the transition.</p><p>“And if you called her by name she refused to answer,” Abby remembered. “You would call, ‘Kerry, Kerry, Kerry, hey Kerry’ and she just wouldn’t respond and you’d finally have to say, ‘Jacob,’ then she’d turn around have this big ear to ear grin like I am so much smarter and brighter than you are and I just got you to do what I want. And part of that what was pretty normal tomboy behavior; she was a tomboy,” she continued.</p><p>Her husband, Michael remembers Kerry as, “a great kid—fun-loving, easy going. Always smiling; never seemed to have too many cares in the world. Fun, fun kid.” She just wanted to be with the boys and play football, he added.</p><p>Kerry, now 19, said that she was made fun of because of how much she acted like a boy and looked like a boy.</p><p>“I matured faster than anyone else in my class. By fourth grade, nobody really has anything and I was very, very mature. I had, I was fully grown in lots of places,” Kerry explained.</p><p>Kerry was embarrassed by her developing body, so she hid behind lockers at basketball practice. The other girls took advantage of her vulnerability and made her a target for their taunts.</p><p>“I was made fun of because of how much I acted like a boy and looked like a boy.<br> They made up a fun little jingle to imply I was ‘fixed,’ meaning I was a girl with boy parts,” Kerry remembered.</p><p>Her classmates started a rumor that Kerry had been born a boy but that her parents wanted a girl. So, the rumor was, her parents had Kerry’s penis cut off at birth.</p><p>“And what the girls wanted was to have her show them what was left. And apparently this went on for some time. Ugh. I can’t even express to you how angry I was when I found out about it,” her mother recalled painfully.</p><p>“I began acting, well I wouldn’t say ‘acting’ like a girl, in junior high--but I at least pretended to because that’s how I had friends. And what do girls in junior high do? They talk about boys and they like boys. So I told my friends that I liked different boys in my class. And I knew that I liked them more of like, I want to play football w this boy. Not ‘I want to date this boy,’” Kerry said. “Most girls in my class had definitely had their first kisses majority had definitely had their first boyfriends. And because of today, a lot of them had already had sex. I hadn’t either I hadn’t even gotten close to any of those things,” she added.</p><p>But Kerry knew for certain that she wasn't attracted to those boys.</p><p>“The boy that I got my first kiss from? No. Not at all. I was looking for and he was looking for someone to kiss. So it worked out. Um. The first boyfriend that I dated I thought I liked him because the way we hung out. We never kissed; we were never made out at all. We held hands for like three blocks and then it was weird,” Kerry explained.</p><p>But she began to realize that she was very unhappy—and didn’t know why.</p><p>“I don’t know when she started struggling. It must’ve been her sophomore year. She just had a hard time finding her way. In the fall of her junior year, the counselor from school called me and asked me to come in and said Kerry has something to tell you. And what she had to tell me she was cutting,” her mother remembered.</p><p>“So I got to cut once and it left four lines instead of just one. Not only was I cutting, but I was lazy and I wanted to get it done quick. Like, I would cut and just think about how my arm hurt and I was bleeding and I should do this and this and this all surrounding around the fact that I had cut and yes that maybe helped me forget why I was so upset,” Kerry explained.</p><p>Originally, Kerry thought the depression stemmed from her parents’ recent divorce. But looking back said she couldn’t care less; she was fine with it.</p><p>"The reason why I was so depressed was because I didn’t know who I was. It wasn’t until about February of my junior year that I realized that I was gay. Actually I came out bisexual; I think most people do. I think then people don’t have to fully admit. I admitted to that and it scared me and I never thought that’s who I would be,” Kerry said.</p><p>“I wasn’t sure what it really meant or if it was a phase she was going through. But I took it in stride. She was the Kerry I always knew,” her dad Michael remembered.&nbsp;</p><p>But her mother wasn’t the least bit surprised; not at all.</p><p>Kerry was dating girls—and she liked dating girls. She liked it very, very much.</p><p>But coming out didn’t help Kerry’s depression. In fact, it got worse: She began drinking alone, she saw her school counselor daily, she gave Kerry a journal and Kerry had to turn it in before their daily session.</p><p>But, what Kerry didn’t disclose in the journal—or to anyone—was that she was attempting suicide. In fact, she tried—nine times.</p><p>The last attempt came after a rough night near the end of her senior year. Kerry wrote drunken thoughts in her journal.</p><p>“And I was trying hard not to cut but did anyway. I took my bloody wrist from cutting and I printed it inside of the journal. Which, then instead of handing my counselor a journal that didn’t make any sense, it was a journal that didn’t make any sense with a giant bloody mess on it,” Kerry recalled.</p><p>Abby referred to the entry as her plan—on how she was going to kill herself.</p><p>“She was clearly in a lot of pain. And for her to do something like that, she had to be in a lot of pain. Aside from being concerned and frantically trying to figure out how to get to her and help her, I felt bad that she was in so much pain. I felt bad that I didn’t understand that she was in that much pain or why she was in that much pain,” her father remembered.</p><p>Dr. Brian Mustanski, director of Northwestern University’s IMPACT LGBT Health and Development Program, said that LGBT youth face a number of stressors that their heterosexual peers don’t experience. He studies mental health issues of LGBT youth.</p><p>“Certainly there’s some evidence that they experience more psychological distress and what I think we need to understand now is does that turn into psychiatric disorders,” Mustanski explained.</p><p>Kerry spent two weeks in the adolescent psychiatric unit at Highland Park Hospital. Doctors there warned about the possibility of bipolar disorder.</p><p>After the hospital, Kerry worked with a psychiatrist to find a medication regime that worked. And, she started seeing a therapist, Dr. Lisa Goldman. There, Kerry explored a new path, questioning her gender identity.</p><p>“Kerry had been feelings for a very long time that Kerry was not a she. That she was a he,” Dr. Goldman remembered.&nbsp;</p><p>One session, Dr. Goldman opened the DSM-IV—the bible of brain disorders—and read Kerry the description of Gender Identity Disorder.</p><p>Goldman remembered looking up at Kerry after she read the description, and Kerry said, “Yep, that’s pretty much me.”</p><p>“She said very helpful sentence: ‘I think you might be transgendered.’ My brain thinks I’m a boy. And that statement right there, my brain thinks I’m a boy, but I’m a girl, is transgendered,” Kerry remembered. “But after talking to her for a while and talking about it, being transgendered sucks. I am one thing but I think I am another thing and I’ve wanted to be another thing my entire life. That just sounds like it shouldn’t be called being transgendered. It should be called… disappointed,” she added.</p><p>Goldman counseled her for substance abuse and for depression—and she made sure Kerry’s beliefs were grounded in reality and not delusions or hallucinations.&nbsp;</p><p>Once that was established, they discussed how to transition to becoming a man. That made Kerry realize she didn’t have to live with the frustration. She thought that was pretty amazing, that she could actually change it.</p><p>“My parents’ reactions were very different than what I thought they were going to be. My dad said, ‘If this is going to make you happy, if this is who you are, if you’re going to be happier after you have this surgery to be a boy, then, yes, let’s do it. It’s going to great. Yes. Let’s go.’ My mom took awhile to get into it,” Kerry recalled.</p><p>“It’s a very simple thing to understand your child is gay. That’s easy. It’s a,” Abby struggled to explain, “a completely different thing to understand—rapidly—to understand your child is not just who you thought they were but they are not who they think they are. He was very concerned that I didn’t want to have a son. It didn’t matter to me if Kerry was a boy or a girl or a pig or a horse. It mattered to me that Kerry was Kerry again,” she finished.</p><p>“I tried to assure her that I would help her in any way I could to try to get her to where she wanted to be and where she should be,” father Michael said.</p><p>This spring, Kerry started taking male hormones, lowering his voice and changing hair growth patterns. In June, Kerry’s breasts were removed. Kerry now considers himself a man, and prefers to be referred to as “he.”</p><p>When asked to talk about pronouns, mother Abby laughed instantly.</p><p>“Yeah, so I flip back and forth on the pronouns because it’s really hard to tell stories about Kerry when he was little and not attach a feminine pronoun because he was she. He was a baby girl,” Abby said. “It’s a strange expression but I think it truly applies to Kerry. He’s comfortable in his own skin. He is absolutely wearing the suit he was supposed to be wearing,” she finished.</p><p>“I’m still on medication for depression and so I take it every day. Part of me thinks that’s why I’m not depressed, but um. I was on depression medicine before when they first realized and I still had really bad days but I don’t have bad days anymore,” Kerry said.</p><p>But when asked whether she was proud of Kerry, Abby’s reaction came in a whisper: “Oh my God—am I proud of Kerry? I am. I am.”</p><p>“Now I do like talking about it. I get to say, ‘My name is Kerry. I’m a boy and I’m happy,’ Kerry laughed quietly.<br> &nbsp;</p><p><strong>Join the conversation: Ask experts about mental illness in our <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/live-chat-ask-experts-about-childhood-mental-illness-93156">live chat</a>.</strong></p></p> Fri, 21 Oct 2011 20:25:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-wearing-wrong-skin-93340 Coping with the stigma of mental illness http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-21/coping-stigma-mental-illness-93360 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2011-October/2011-10-21/35686501_e58f4cbd71.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Over time, society improved the way it understands and treats mental illness, but long-standing stigma can still be heard in everyday casual language. The stigma is heard in words like crazy, nutty, unbalanced or delusional. <a href="http://www.iit.edu/psych/faculty/patrick_corrigan.shtml" target="_blank">Patrick Corrigan</a>, a distinguished professor of psychology at the <a href="http://www.iit.edu/" target="_blank">Illinois Institute of Technology</a>, spoke with <em>Eight Forty-Eight,</em> as part of the <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/out-shadows" target="_blank"><em>Out of the Shadows </em></a>series, about the ways society continues to stigmatize and marginalize those who are mentally ill. Corrigan most recently explored the role community organizations – like churches – play in defining and changing attitudes toward mental illness. His research took him to some black churches on Chicago's West Side.&nbsp;</p><p><strong>Join the conversation: Ask experts about mental illness in our <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/live-chat-ask-experts-about-childhood-mental-illness-93156">live chat</a>.</strong></p></p> Fri, 21 Oct 2011 15:09:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-10-21/coping-stigma-mental-illness-93360 A mother's quest for state resources http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-mothers-quest-state-resources-93329 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-20/JulianBirthday party4.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Parents have few options once mentally ill children become unmanageable at home. And there are even fewer choices if families can’t afford intensive therapy. Treatments like the boarding schools called residential care centers can be expensive; but there’s a little known pot of money that can help.</p><p>An Individual Care Grant is set aside for mentally ill kids with severe psychosis. The process to obtain this grant from the state of Illinois is involved and time consuming, but the services it pays for can curb violence and aggression. As part of our series <em><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/out-shadows" target="_blank">Out of the Shadows</a>,</em> WBEZ’s Aurora Aguilar profiled how the ICG helped one family.</p><p>Thirteen-year-old Julian is home after a year at an institution for troubled kids. He did well there, except for the food, which he described as, "Horrible…uncooked pasta and overcooked fries!" So since he’s been home, his mom Gloria has been preparing his favorite foods: tostones, arroz con pollo, grilled fish and veggies.</p><p>"Shrimp, hot dogs, moycellas which is pig intestine with rice," Julian added to the list. Normal fare for this Puerto Rican household. And for this home, so is using dull-edged plastic utensils. There are no sharp items in this kitchen; Gloria hides her cooking knives. Julian’s favorite foods are behind lock and key. That’s because Julian, who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, tends to overeat when he’s manic--and the episodes are ugly.</p><p>"You know, I’ve, I’ve had moments when I’ve been really scared for my life. I’ve been very concerned," Gloria explained.</p><p>At 5 feet, 2 inches tall, Julian is shorter than Gloria; but he seems larger. He’s quiet and shy until he doesn’t get his way. Then, his dark eyebrows furrow and his voice booms. He yells and hits Gloria, who’s a single mother and often the only adult around. When she tries to call for help, the violence escalates.</p><p>"The way it comes out, he says I don’t want you to call anyone, I don’t want you to call for help, even if I’m telling him I think we need help. I think he’s embarrassed and angry at himself for not being able to control himself. His bedroom doesn’t have a lock and mine does and so I go into my bedroom and I lock myself there and I’m able to make my phone calls," Gloria said.</p><p>Gloria wouldn't go any further when she described what happens when Julian rages. She lowered her eyes, began to cry and silently shook her head.</p><p>But, Julian can be loving as well. One night, after Gloria tucked her son into bed, Julian ran back out into the living room, nestled into his mother’s neck and gave her a kiss.&nbsp;</p><p>"Are you ready? Are you ready? Where’s gatita? I love you," she told him.</p><p>Not quite the Julian who prompted Gloria to install a buzzer that signals when her son’s bedroom door opens.</p><p>"The relationship got strained because of all of the incidents which happened very often. It’s hard to talk about it. But I tend to think. My sister pointed it out, you are reacting like a woman who’s in an abusive relationship. Hardest part is that abuser is son," Gloria remembered.</p><p>Julian’s erratic behavior meant that Gloria often had to leave her job as a media executive to pick him up from school. Police paid a few visits to Gloria and Julian’s home on the North Side of Chicago. And once, offered unsolicited advice.</p><p>"This lady, a female police officer, who's come here, like three times, the second or third time she told me very casually, 'Ma’am have you thought about giving him up?' And I looked at her like, what? 'Yeah, did you know you can give him up to the state?' And I'm like, I'm not ready to do that," Gloria remembered.</p><p>Though Gloria wasn’t ready to give up custody of Julian, she had to give up aspects of her own life. She lost her job; she became a full-time advocate for her son. She tirelessly researched medical guides and law books for tips on protecting people afflicted with mental illness.</p><p>Being informed helped Gloria and Julian get some of the resources he needed at school. But it didn’t stop his aggression. Two years ago, Julian was hospitalized nine times in 12 months after he lost control. It was a hospital social worker who told Gloria about a little known resource.</p><p>The Illinois Mental Health Collaborative for Access and Choice sent her a hefty packet. Individual Care Grants or ICGs are administered by the State of Illinois’ Department of Human Services Office of Mental Health. The grant application is about a hundred pages thick. It often takes parents months to gather medical records and organize documents. Gloria used an entire kitchen counter in their tiny apartment to sort out the paperwork.</p><p>"As you can see there’s a lot of information. This is the checklist for all of the documents that you need to submit, the application form, tax returns, copies of social security card, birth certificate and a psychiatric evaluation…<em>" </em>Gloria said as she paged through the stack. "And here is the tricky part, the child must have a severe mental illness which substantially impairs thought perception of reality, emotional process, judgment, behavior or ability to cope with ordinary demands of several live domains. Must include severely impaired reality testing and may include hallucinations, delusions and avoidance and bizarre behavior or a danger to self or others," she continued.</p><p>Julie Carbray is a clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of Illinois in Chicago. She’s helped dozens of people appeal, including Gloria.</p><p>"There are almost red flags that help you get funding, aggression, psychosis. Families tell me someone has told them about ICG and I think there’s no way they’ll get the funding. Families who have ADHD and use drugs, those types of kids without more serious impairment would never be able to qualify. If you told it to everyone, you would flood the system," Carbray explained.</p><p>At present, only six staff members review and process applications for ICGs. In 2012, the Illinois General Assembly appropriated a total of 23 point 3 million dollars for the program. The average grant is $80,000. But only 25 percent of applicants are approved each year. Gloria believes they were finally approved a year after they first applied, in part, because of her convincing letter.</p><p>"My child needs help, in the last 8 months, he has not been able to stay out of the hospital, life at home is unbearable. Doctors have exhausted all options. Every doctor recommends residential," Gloria wrote.</p><p>Rice Education Center is in Evanston, Illinois; Keith Polan is the center’s director. The school offers intensive educational and residential services for troubled kids. Most residents are wards of the state and the majority of them are black. The kids at Rice are between nine and 12 years old and stay an average of nearly two years.</p><p>"There are a third of our kids, I could have predicted that if I look at their case history, I could have predicted I would have known they would have ended up here," Polan said.</p><p>During the day, the most troubled kids attend school on campus. In the evening, the children return back to their dorms to do art projects, take part in group recreational activities and family-style dinners. All staff members are trained in special needs and each staffer is responsible for no more than three kids at a time. This type of intense and specialized care is sought after but it’s expensive; and Polan said only four of the 45 kids at Rice are there because of an ICG.</p><p>"The families that we meet, who finally end up with the grant, they are resourceful people. Either they have resources or they scratch and claw to get everything that they need. But they know the system...better than me," he explained.</p><p>The families interviewed for the <em>Out of the Shadows</em> series recommended places like Rice because they tend to teach kids how to curb their anger, follow rules and respect others. Still, the therapy provided at residential care centers doesn’t guarantee long-term success.</p><p>Julian's clinical psychologist at the center said she thought there was a need for more support from government for resources in the community. And that they could do with more support at Rice but where things are really lacking is when children go home; that there's a lack of support from community.</p><p>Gloria and the administrators at Rice struggled to place Julian at an appropriate school after he left Rice in July. Ultimately, his local school placed him in a small classroom with other children with special needs. After a few hiccups, he’s doing well, learning and making friends. She’s renewed the ICG and it’s paying for some after school programs. He’s also picked up archery. Gloria has found work, but it’s in a field far from the career that first brought her to this country. They have their ups and downs.</p><p>"As parents, we always want to have everything perfect. We have to examine expectations. What is the future going to bring. Try not to have unrealistic expectations," Gloria said.</p><p>Julian and his mom are taking it day by day. And Gloria continues to worry about what the future holds for them.</p><p>"When he was much younger, my mantra was, I want him to have as normal a childhood as possible. Now I want him to function in society without getting in trouble. If you think about it, it just scares the bejesus out of me, if we don’t get this under control," Gloria said.</p><p>To which, Aguilar asked Gloria what scared her.</p><p>"I can’t say it because you know, I don’t even want to because I don’t want to hear myself say it," Gloria struggled. "No, I can’t," she decided.</p><p>Gloria doesn’t want Julian to end up being part of the juvenile justice system--or worse. Many experts say juvenile detention is now part of the mental health system in Illinois because it houses so many ill inmates. An estimated 60 percent of boys in the Cook County Juvenile Detention Center have at least one diagnosable mental disorder. But according to studies, Julian does have one thing going for him: the tenacity of his mom.</p><p><em>The names in this story&nbsp; have been changed to protect their privacy.</em></p><p><strong>Join the conversation: Ask experts about mental illness in our <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/live-chat-ask-experts-about-childhood-mental-illness-93156">live chat</a>.</strong></p></p> Thu, 20 Oct 2011 17:09:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/out-shadows-mothers-quest-state-resources-93329