WBEZ | World http://www.wbez.org/tags/world Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en What Happens to the Body and Mind When Starvation Hits? http://www.wbez.org/news/what-happens-body-and-mind-when-starvation-hits-114543 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/starvation-50_custom-6e45682e2a9f9879976c749063539169ace99ffd-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res463714505" previewtitle="Adolfo Valle for NPR"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Adolfo Valle for NPR" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2016/01/20/starvation-50_custom-6e45682e2a9f9879976c749063539169ace99ffd-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 400px; width: 620px;" title="(Adolfo Valle for NPR)" /></div><div><div>It&#39;s an awful question, but it&#39;s the question of the moment. In what United Nations&nbsp;<a href="http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=53003#.VphIgxgrL-Y">Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon&nbsp;</a>has called a &quot;war crime,&quot; thousands of people in Syria have been starving because both government and rebel blockades have kept food from reaching them.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>The town of Madaya has been under siege for months. U.N. relief staff members reported seeing elderly people, children, men and women who are little more than skin and bones. &quot;Gaunt, severely malnourished, so weak they could barely walk and utterly desperate for the slightest morsel,&quot; Ban Ki-moon said, according to the U.N. News Service.</div></div></div><p>This is not just a problem in Syria. People suffer from extreme malnutrition all over the world in places where there is war, economic crisis, floods, drought and all manner of human suffering. About one in nine, or 795 million people in the world, suffer from undernourishment, according to the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm">United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization</a>.</p><p>And that&#39;s how starvation can begin &mdash; with undernourishment. People do not get enough calories to keep up with the body&#39;s energy needs. (Although starvation may be staved off if edibles are available that would not previously have been considered &quot;food&quot; &mdash; grass, leaves, insects or rodents.</p><p>Over weeks and months, malnutrition can result in specific diseases, like anemia when people don&#39;t get enough iron or beriberi if they don&#39;t get adequate thiamine.</p><p>A severe lack of food for a prolonged period &mdash; not enough calories of any sort to keep up with the body&#39;s energy needs &mdash; is starvation. The body&#39;s reserve resources are depleted. The result is substantial weight loss, wasting away of the body&#39;s tissues and eventually death.</p><p>When faced with starvation, the body fights back. The first day without food is a lot like the overnight fast people between dinner one night and breakfast the next morning. Energy levels are low but pick up with a morning meal.</p><p>Within days, faced with nothing to eat, the body begins feeding on itself. &quot;The body starts to consume energy stores &mdash; carbohydrates, fats and then the protein parts of tissue,&quot; says Maureen Gallagher, senior nutrition adviser to&nbsp;<a href="http://www.actionagainsthunger.org/about">Action Against Hunger</a>, a network of international humanitarian organizations focused on eliminating hunger. Metabolism slows, the body cannot regulate its temperature, kidney function is impaired and the immune system weakens.</p><p>When the body uses its reserves to provide basic energy needs, it can no longer supply necessary nutrients to vital organs and tissues. The heart, lungs, ovaries and testes shrink. Muscles shrink and people feel weak. Body temperature drops and people can feel chilled. People can become irritable, and it becomes difficult to concentrate.</p><p>Eventually, nothing is left for the body to scavenge except muscle. &quot;Once protein stores start getting used, death is not far,&quot; says&nbsp;<a href="http://psychandneuro.duke.edu/people?Gurl=%2Faas%2Fpn&amp;Uil=zucke001&amp;subpage=profile">Dr. Nancy Zucker,</a>&nbsp;director of the Duke Center for Eating Disorders at Duke University. &quot;You&#39;re consuming your own muscle, including the heart muscle.&quot; In the late stages of starvation, people can experience hallucinations, convulsions and disruptions in heart rhythm. Finally, the heart stops.</p><p>How long does this take? There&#39;s great variation in the amount of time people can survive without food, depending on age, body weight, whether they have adequate water, and whether they have other underlying health issues. Mahatma Gandhi, in his nonviolent campaign for India&#39;s independence, survived for&nbsp;<a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-long-can-a-person-sur/">21 days</a>&nbsp;with only sips of water. One&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bmj.com/content/315/7112/829.full">study</a>&nbsp;found that hunger strikers in various parts of the world survived for up to 40 days.</p><p>&quot;There&#39;s really no specific number of days people can survive,&quot; says Gallagher.</p><p>Theoretically, women might have a survival advantage because they have a greater percentage of stored body fat. But, says Zucker, no study proves that. The most thorough study of near starvation in humans was a 1950 study by Ancel Keys,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/8651329-the-biology-of-human-starvation">&quot;The Biology of Human Starvation,&quot;</a>&nbsp;in which&nbsp;<a href="ttp://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/10/hunger.aspx">36 volunteers</a>&nbsp;&mdash; all male &mdash; were given a semi-starvation diet of 1,570 calories (the average man needs about 2,500 calories a day) for six months. It is from that study that nutrition scientists began to understand how the body reacts to food deprivation.</p><p>Children are smaller and have fewer body fat stores to draw from. They fail much faster. &quot;Children are at a much greater disadvantage,&quot; says Zucker. &quot;With anorexia nervosa [an eating disorder characterized by an obsessive desire to lose weight by refusing to eat] we have to act a lot more quickly, because children and teens have fewer stores available, they&#39;re growing and their metabolic needs are greater.&quot;</p><p>What is going on during starvation internally, biologically and metabolically, is invisible. But physical and behavioral changes are on display.</p><p>Both adults or children can act very much out of character. They might be irritable or apathetic or lethargic. &quot;Starvation is a state of threat,&quot; says Zucker. And so people who are starving might act like a cornered animal, alert to any change around them and too quick to react to perceived threats. With a severe ongoing lack of food, people start doing things to ration food. &quot;They eat more slowly. They might start shredding food to make it look like there is more. You take a piece of bread and shred it so you have a pile of bread crumbs,&quot; says Zucker.</p><p>The body attempts to protect the brain, says Zucker, by shutting down the most metabolically intense functions first, like digestion, resulting in diarrhea.&nbsp;&quot;The brain is relatively protected, but eventually we worry about neuronal death and brain matter loss,&quot; she says. Just as the heart, lungs and other organs weaken and shrivel without food, eventually so does the brain. The concern for children is that their brains are still developing and any loss of function due to starvation could be permanent. But their brains are more plastic and might have a greater ability to bounce back, after they begin eating again.</p><p>&quot;It&#39;s hard to know. Children suffer more steeply, but their recovery might be better. It might be a tie,&quot; says Zucker. &quot;But adults and children alike can have permanent brain damage.&quot;</p><p>People who are in the throes of starvation look apathetic, lethargic &mdash; almost mechanical in their slow-motion reactions.</p><p>Starving people may not look as if they&#39;re in acute pain. But that doesn&#39;t mean they&#39;re not suffering. &quot;I&#39;ve seen kids who are not kids anymore. They&#39;re either irritated and crying; or they&#39;re apathetic and not playing,&quot; says Gallagher. &quot;And their mothers are hopeless and not showing any signs of caring.&quot;</p><p>Treatment for someone who has been starved begins with a thorough medical exam. People might need hospitalization or antibiotics to treat underlying illnesses or infections. But therapeutic foods, like a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/11/05/454052372/in-an-email-hillary-clinton-once-wrote-plumpynut-plumpy-what">fully nutritious peanut butter paste</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=-5ArAAAAYAAJ&amp;pg=PA59&amp;lpg=PA59&amp;dq=dry+skim+milk+nutrition+starvation&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=kX3d4X5O9x&amp;sig=eJo58sO-J9YJkArmvefYHm4mjIA&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwi5krH-srnKAhVBqR4KHYqDATQQ6AEIKzAC#v=onepage&amp;q=dry%20skim%20milk%20nutrition%20starvation&amp;f=false">dry skim milk</a>&nbsp;and a wide set of vitamins and minerals work well in the developing world.</p><p>And there&#39;s one curious observation that&#39;s been made. It&#39;s not clear why, but the problem of peanut allergies in the west is not an issue in sub-Saharan Africa and other areas where severe malnutrition is most common. &quot;We haven&#39;t come across any allergic reactions to peanuts,&quot; says Gallagher.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/01/20/463710330/what-happens-to-the-body-and-mind-when-starvation-sets-in?ft=nprml&amp;f=463710330" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Wed, 20 Jan 2016 17:06:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/what-happens-body-and-mind-when-starvation-hits-114543 How Maasai Women in Kenya are Helping to Make Your Cosmetics http://www.wbez.org/programs/world/2015-12-17/how-maasai-women-kenya-are-helping-make-your-cosmetics-114214 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/15446551817_936259a48b_z.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><img alt="" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/story_main/public/story/images/aloecutting_169.jpg?itok=znAWry5x" style="height: 349px; width: 620px;" title="Priscilla Lekootoot shows how she harvests leaves from the aloe secundiflora plants at Twala Cultural Manyatta. (PRI/Anne Bailey)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></p><div><p>It&rsquo;s a day-long drive from Kenya&#39;s capital&nbsp;Nairobi to Twala in Laikipia County. The last 50 miles is along a dusty road, and then you arrive at the farm of the Twala Cultural Manyatta. It&rsquo;s oasis-like, and the moment you enter the gate, the fresh smell of greenery strikes a contrast with the aridity&nbsp;you leave behind.</p></div><div><article about="/stories/2015-12-16/how-maasai-women-kenya-are-helping-make-your-cosmetics" typeof="sioc:Item foaf:Document"><p dir="ltr">Even more striking for me are the two dozen Maasai women lined up in front of the mud wall of their compound, bedecked in brightly colored beaded jewelry. The second my car door opens, they break into song.</p><div><img alt="Maasai women tend to 40 acres of aloe at the Twala Cultural Manyatta." src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/original_image/public/_MG_3068.jpg?itok=UAk1p_y1" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="Maasai women tend to 40 acres of aloe at the Twala Cultural Manyatta." typeof="foaf:Image" /></div></article></div><p>I had inquired how much press they&rsquo;ve received. &ldquo;Not much,&rdquo; was the answer from Joseph Lentunyoi, the agronomist from the&nbsp;<a href="http://permaculturenews.org/2013/01/24/laikipia-permaculture-centre-a-new-centre-for-kenya/" target="_blank">Laikipia Permaculture Project</a>. He&#39;s&nbsp;crucial in many ways to the success of the women in Twala.</p><p dir="ltr">Publicity or not, they are eager to talk about what they have done at the Twala Cultural Manyatta. In four years, the 140 women have turned an overworked scrap of land &mdash; 40 acres actually, a not-altogether-inappropriate echo of the false promise of property to freed slaves after the Civil War &mdash; into a model of sustainable agriculture.</p><p dir="ltr">After all, stats indicate that women own barely one percent of the land in Kenya, even though they haul the firewood, till the fields, fetch the water, raise the children, and more.</p><p dir="ltr">&nbsp;</p><div><img alt="Agronimist Joseph Lentunyoi has been working with local women's groups in Laikipia to grow and sell aloe to LUSH cosmetics." src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/original_image/public/joseph2.jpg?itok=abzDeWvH" style="height: 380px; width: 620px;" title="Agronimist Joseph Lentunyoi has been working with local women's groups in Laikipia to grow and sell aloe to LUSH cosmetics in England for the past two years. (PRI/Anne Bailey)" typeof="foaf:Image" /><div><p>But here more than 15 years ago, the women organized themselves into the Twala Cultural Manyatta (&ldquo;manyatta&rdquo; means &ldquo;settlement&rdquo; or &ldquo;compound&rdquo; in Maasai), and they pressured their husbands and men in their village to give them some land. They got that scrappy, arid 40 acres. And they got to work. They say their husbands like what they&rsquo;re seeing.</p></div></div><p dir="ltr">That&rsquo;s because women like Florence Larpei and Priscilla Lekootoot are making money growing aloe, and selling the leaves to the British cosmetics company Lush.</p><p><a href="http://www.lushusa.com/Melting-Pot/article_melting-pot,en_US,pg.html" target="_blank"><img src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/thumbnail/public/charity%20pot.jpg?itok=jQ3TRAgv" style="height: 150px; width: 150px; float: right; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="SUPPORT THE TWALA WOMEN: Part of the proceeds from every Charity Pot go to Lush's &quot;sLush fund.&quot; The Maasai women have used this money to invest in fencing to protect the aloe from being trampled on by wild elephants and camels." typeof="foaf:Image" /></a></p><p dir="ltr">They&rsquo;re also harvesting honey.&nbsp;And growing food. And raising goats&nbsp; It&rsquo;s a sustainable ecosystem.</p><p dir="ltr">More specifically it&rsquo;s permaculture.&nbsp;&ldquo;It&rsquo;s a human system, a people system,&rdquo; explains Letunyoi. &ldquo;It&rsquo;s about soils, the environment and fair share. How do we take care of ourselves?&nbsp;How do we get our food? And make sure that our soils are not degraded. We don&rsquo;t use chemical fertilizers. We have to look at alternative livelihoods for all locals. We have to take care of the culture.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr"><img alt="" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/original_image/public/story/images/169lead_lush.jpg?itok=Px53i0_A" style="height: 349px; width: 620px;" title="More than 140 Maasai women harvest aloe secundiflora leaves at the Twala Cultural Manyatta in Laikipia to export to LUSH cosmetics.(PRI/Anne Bailey)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></p><div><div><p>I really got along with Letunyoi.&nbsp;He reminded me of a Senegalese farmer I met in Togo, where&nbsp;I was a Peace Corps volunteer, who believed in this kind of farming system &mdash;&nbsp;only at the time, it didn&rsquo;t have the name &ldquo;permaculture.&rdquo;</p></div></div><p dir="ltr">When Letunyoi helped create his project about two years ago, he says it was not easy to preach the gospel of permaculture to the Maasai. They&rsquo;re pastoralists &mdash; herding cattle and goats and sheep &mdash; and not really prone to growing crops.</p><p dir="ltr">But among the Maasai, he says,&nbsp;&ldquo;The women&rsquo;s groups are easy to work with because they&rsquo;re already organized,&rdquo; he points out. &ldquo;They are ambitious and they are patient.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Aloe <em>secundiflora</em><em>&nbsp;</em>leaves were already known to the Maasai as a cure to wounds, for deworming animals and people, and as the source of a local wine. All the womens&rsquo; groups needed, says Letunyoi,&nbsp;was a little nudge.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;The aloe was already growing all over and they know about it, so when we brought the idea of soap-making, selling leaves to whatever companies and other places, they clicked very fast and they said, &lsquo;Yeah, this is exactly what we wanted &mdash; an alternative to pastoralism.&rsquo;&rdquo;</p><div><img alt="Some of the Maasai women working at Twala Cultural Manyatta" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/original_image/public/_MG_3133.jpg?itok=HoHtlwO-" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="Some of the Maasai women working at Twala Cultural Manyatta. (PRI/Anne Bailey)" typeof="foaf:Image" /><div><p>When Lekootoot showed me around the Twala aloe field, she did so with the reverence of someone who unlocked the gate to a personal Eden. After all, this field of aloe is bringing the Twala women more than $3000 each year. That&rsquo;s more than double the per capita GDP in Kenya.</p></div></div><p dir="ltr">The Twala women are focused, they&rsquo;ve got a vision that includes bee-keeping, growing food for themselves, selling aloe to Lush and making money.&nbsp;And they have managed to maintain their cultural connections to pastoralism.</p><p dir="ltr">It shows what can happen when you&rsquo;re organized, and then you get a little boost from the outside.</p><p dir="ltr">&mdash;<a href="http://www.pri.org/stories/2015-12-16/how-maasai-women-kenya-are-helping-make-your-cosmetics" target="_blank"><em> via PRI&#39;s The World</em></a></p></p> Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:51:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/world/2015-12-17/how-maasai-women-kenya-are-helping-make-your-cosmetics-114214 On #WorldKindnessDay, a onetime mango thief tells why kindness counts http://www.wbez.org/news/worldkindnessday-onetime-mango-thief-tells-why-kindness-counts-113779 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/flickr Leo Hidalgo.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res455805087" previewtitle="Kennedy Odede has gone from street boy to social activist. He says: &quot;When you do kindness that you don't expect to come back to you, you are spreading the light in the world.&quot;"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Kennedy Odede has gone from street boy to social activist. He says: &quot;When you do kindness that you don't expect to come back to you, you are spreading the light in the world.&quot;" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/12/shofco-dec14-2260-51_custom-245de6cd72446cd1ae6b6940e00e19315f7b7e0e-s700-c85.jpg" title="Kennedy Odede has gone from street boy to social activist. He says: &quot;When you do kindness that you don't expect to come back to you, you are spreading the light in the world.&quot; (Courtesy of Shining Hope For Communities)" /></div><div><div><p>It&#39;s&nbsp;<a href="https://www.randomactsofkindness.org/world-kindness-day">World Kindness Day</a>&nbsp;today.</p></div></div></div><p>Yes, it&#39;s kind of a made-up holiday. But really, it&#39;s not a bad idea to celebrate kind words and deeds.</p><p>To learn more about the impact kindness can have, I interviewed Kennedy Odede. When he was a child living on the streets of a Kenyan slum, the kindness of strangers saved his life. Now 30, he has forged a life based on kindness by starting&nbsp;<a href="http://www.shofco.org/">Shining Hope for Communities</a>, which brings schools and other services to poor neighborhoods in his home country.&nbsp;<a href="http://www.shofco.org/person/kennedy-odede">Awards and honors</a>&nbsp;have come his way, and he&#39;s the author of a new book:&nbsp;<a href="http://www.amazon.com/Find-Me-Unafraid-Love-African/dp/0062292854/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8">Find Me Unafraid: Love, Loss, and Hope in an African Slum.</a></p><p>This interview has been edited with a kind eye for clarity and length.</p><hr /><p><strong>Did you know that World Kindness Day is Nov. 13?</strong></p><p>Wow. No. is it something new?</p><p><strong>According to the Internet, it was invented in 1998 by some nonprofit groups seeking to promote kindness. And I&#39;m told </strong><strong>you</strong><strong> know a lot about kindness from your own </strong><strong>life,</strong><strong> when you spent three years on the streets of the Kenyan slum of Kibera.</strong></p><p>Yeah, yeah, I was a street boy at the age of 10.</p><p><strong>How did you get to be a street boy?</strong></p><p>My parents were very poor and we have violence in the house [from his stepfather]. It was very tough growing up so I ran away.</p><p><strong>What was it like living on the streets?</strong></p><p>Being a street boy you feel unwanted. I survived eating garbage. And I saw two things: How people could be kind and sometimes can be mean.</p><p><strong>How were they kind?</strong></p><p>Some people would come and offer me food once in a while. But we never trusted people because we never know who&#39;s gonna be kind, who&#39;s not gonna be kind.</p><p><strong>What did it mean when people were kind to you?</strong></p><p>What I&#39;ve learned is this idea: How a simple kindness can save a life. I stole one mango &mdash; it was food for, like, two days. But I was beaten by a group of people. It was a mob justice. And I thought I was going to die. But one kind person who was walking by said, &quot;Why are you beating this kid?&quot; And they said, &quot;He&#39;s a thief.&quot; The person paid for the mango. Without that person, I&#39;m sure I could have been dead.</p><p><strong>Who was this kind person?</strong></p><p>It was a middle-aged man. He saved me from the people who were beating me. I&#39;m sure the guy has forgotten.</p><p><strong>Clearly you haven&#39;t. How has that incident helped shape your definition of kindness?</strong></p><p>Every time I do something good for kids or for anybody, I think of that moment. Kindness is when you don&#39;t expect this person you helped to give back in any way. I promise you the kindness you are doing has an impact on that person, and that person will continue spreading kindness.</p><p><strong>How did you get off the streets?</strong></p><p>I was helped by another kind person, who was a Catholic priest. I really missed school, I was teaching myself how to read and write. And this preacher passed by and he showed me some kind of kindness. He used to smile and that made me really happy.</p><p><strong>How did you react to him?</strong></p><p>I used to imitate his accent by holding my nose and say, like a Western person, &#39;How are you, how are you.&quot;</p><p><strong>So you held your nose to get that nasal Western tone?</strong></p><p>Yes.</p><p><strong>And he was a white man?</strong></p><p>Yes. And he helped me to go to a local school. So in my life I have suffered a lot but at the same time have seen kindness.</p><p><strong>Do you follow his example of giving a smile to folks you see?</strong></p><p>If I go in an elevator, I will smile at people.</p><p><strong>Do people sometimes look at you as if you&#39;re crazy?</strong></p><p>Yes, sometimes that is what you get. Doing good doesn&#39;t mean you&#39;re going to get good things. You&#39;re going to get some negative things. If people are unkind it is because of their background &mdash; they have been beaten, people did evil things to them.</p><p>But along the way being kind is better than being unkind. It is a win-win situation. Just be kind.</p><p><strong>I was curious how you got the name Kennedy. Were you named after John Kennedy?</strong></p><p>I was named after JFKennedy. I was born a breech baby. My legs came out first. Because I survived, it means I was a leader, so I had to get a leadership name.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/11/13/455776904/on-worldkindnessday-a-onetime-mango-thief-tells-why-kindness-counts?ft=nprml&amp;f=455776904" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Fri, 13 Nov 2015 12:13:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/worldkindnessday-onetime-mango-thief-tells-why-kindness-counts-113779 Tough Choices For Greece's Youth In Economic Crisis http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-10-03/tough-choices-greeces-youth-economic-crisis-92792 <p><p>The financial crisis gripping Greece is having a major impact on the country's young people. A two-tier labor market that favors the older generation and draconian austerity measures have triggered a record high jobless rate among those under 35.</p><p>And now, the economic upheaval is undermining the traditional family structure and pushing the young to leave their homeland for better prospects.</p><p>On a recent Saturday night in a pub in trendy Monastiraki, a group of 20-somethings held a going-away party for a young doctor who has found a job abroad. His friends don't feel so lucky.</p><p>"The general feeling is that the future does not depend on us," says Joanna Zahari-oudaki, a 31-year-old who gives private English lessons. She says she feels stuck and just tries to survive. "I try to imagine myself one month from now; I don't know what the answer is because every month, every day, we hear different things."</p><p>Zahari-oudaki says nothing changes and it doesn't feel like Greece is a democracy anymore.</p><p>Youth unemployment in Greece is running at 40 percent, one of the highest rates in Europe, and rising, as the economy rapidly shrinks. While the government is laying off middle-aged workers in the inflated civil service, the country of 11 million people last year lost 200,000 jobs in the private sector — where many young Greeks seek opportunities.</p><p>It wasn't easy even before the crisis hit, when the young used to be called the "700 generation." That label stood for a monthly salary of 700 euros, which is less than $1,000. Now, they're lucky if they make 500 euros, and they are rapidly disappearing from the labor market.</p><p><strong>Seeking Opportunity Outside Greece</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>Unemployment offices in Greece are crowded, mostly with young people. George Koklas, 28, just got laid off from his job as a driver and bodyguard at the Finance Ministry. Previously, he worked with his father as a house painter — a skill he believes is useful anywhere.</p><p>Koklas has already put the word out on the international Greek grapevine and hopes to go to the U.S. or Australia.</p><p>"The only thing left for us is to quit the country and to immigrate to another country," Koklas says. "I will feel very bad for my relatives, for my family, [but] not for my country. My country now is a big disgrace."</p><p>Greece's large and growing pool of skilled as well as unskilled workers is attracting headhunters from abroad. The Australian Embassy in Athens is already organizing work fairs in search of doctors and dentists as well as plumbers and home care workers. Even Germany is putting out feelers for doctors and engineers.</p><p>But in a country where family ties are intense, the No. 1 topic anguishing the Greek household is: Should the kids stay at home or seek their fortunes abroad?</p><p>Despina Papadopoulou, who <strong> </strong>teaches social sciences at Athens University, says the economic crisis is having a radical impact on one of the traditional pillars of Greek society: overprotective parents who coddle their children, promote their education and yet keep them at home well into adulthood.</p><p>"Now, you have one or even both parents who have lost their jobs," Papadopoulou<strong> </strong>says. "This is undermining fundamental family relationships. They're exploding, not because of a change in peoples' outlook but because social and economic conditions inside the family have changed."</p><p>The best-educated generation in Greek history has had the rug pulled out from under its feet.</p><p>Lidia Manca comes from a middle-class family and studies accounting and finance at Athens University. Her father, an engineer, recently lost his job, and Manca says she feels at a loss.</p><p>"I never thought before of leaving Greece and going out to find a job," Manca says. "But I think I have no future here. All of us studied hard, we got into a good university in Athens and now it just means nothing."</p><p>But some young people still have a clear aim in sight, and that doesn't include leaving Greece.</p><p><strong>Youth Fighting Back</strong></p><p>Now that the government is slashing funds for education, students from mostly low-income families who got into college through high entrance exam scores and good scholarships are staging protests and occupying buildings.</p><p>Evangelia Angehlina is a medical student who wants to be a surgeon. Her father is a plumber and her mother is a cleaning woman; she has no intention of leaving Greece.</p><p>"I want to fight here with other people to change this situation and have a future in our country," Angehlina says.</p><p>In the middle-class neighborhood of Elinorosson, 30-year-old Stella Kasdagli and her 35-year-old husband, Alexandros Karamalikis, are trying to make ends meet.</p><p>Kasdagli, managing editor of a magazine, has had her wages cut and has to pay a slew of new taxes. Her husband lost his job as a record producer and is now a stay-at-home father, raising their 13-month-old daughter. He restores old pieces of furniture, which he tries to sell to friends.</p><p>The couple say they'll stay in Greece.</p><p>"But we will do that in a hostile environment, without good public schools, without good public universities, without good nurseries, without anything from the state," Karamalikis says. "We give the money without taking something back; they just reduce their help to society, not only to us, but to the poor people who really need it."</p><p>The economic crisis is not only upsetting the family structure. It is also putting the spotlight on Greece's two-tier labor market, which includes older, full-time employees who have up to now enjoyed lifelong job security, and a second-class group of workers — mostly poorly paid young people with short-term contracts and few or no benefits.</p><p>George Kirtsos, a journalist and publisher, calls it a form of modern slavery. And he's not alone in thinking that the crisis could lead to some kind of uprising, led by the young, in what he calls a civil war among generations.</p><p>"Those who control the system that are in [their] 50s or 60s sent a bill of their own failure to the younger generation," Kirtsos says. <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1317715208?&gn=Tough+Choices+For+Greece%27s+Youth+In+Economic+Crisis&ev=event2&ch=1004&h1=Europe,Economy,Business,World,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=141014692&c7=1004&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1004&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20111004&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=3&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></div></p></p> Mon, 03 Oct 2011 23:01:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-10-03/tough-choices-greeces-youth-economic-crisis-92792 Finding The Next Steps For U.S.-Pakistan Relations http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-10-02/finding-next-steps-us-pakistan-relations-92728 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-02/filkins_sq.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><a href="http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/09/29/140898616/adm-mullen-sticks-by-his-assertion-that-pakistan-supports-extremist-network">Adm. Mike Mullen</a> retired last week after spending four years as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff trying to improve relations between the U.S. and Pakistan.</p><p>In his parting remarks, he had some advice for his successor, Gen. Martin Dempsey.</p><p>"I urge Marty to remember the importance of Pakistan to all this. To try to do a better job than I did with that vexing and yet vital relationship," he said. "I continue to believe there is no solution without Pakistan and no stable future in the region without a partnership."</p><p>Mullen was, by most accounts, Pakistan's best friend in the U.S. government. So admitting he wasn't able to keep that relationship from unraveling is a sign things have gone from bad to worse.</p><p>Much of the tension is over Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence, the spy agency at the center of a recent piece by reporter Dexter Filkins in the <a href="http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/09/19/110919fa_fact_filkins"><em>New Yorker</em></a>.</p><p>Filkins wrote about Syed Saleem Shahzad, a Pakistani journalist known for his exposés of the Pakistani military and the ISI. Some suspected the agency of harboring al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden.</p><p>Filkins told weekends on <em>All Things Considered</em> guest host Rachel Martin that he met Shahzad at a coffee shop in the Pakistani capital, Islamabad, in May. Bin Laden had been killed that week, and Shahzad was the type of contact an American journalist like Filkins could depend on for some inside information about what happened.</p><p>Shahzad wrote a story last year when bin Laden was still alive about how the al-Qaida chief was on the move again, meeting people and crossing the border. The ISI, he told Filkins, was not a fan of his s reporting, so he got a phone call.</p><p>"So he shows up at the ISI headquarters and sits down with the generals and the admirals and they say, 'We didn't like your story last week,'" Filkins says.</p><p>The ISI told Shahzad they wanted the world to believe that bin Laden was dead, and he was making that harder.</p><p>"Now think about that, this is March, when Osama bin Laden is still alive," Filkins says. "Why on earth is the Pakistani intelligence service saying to a reporter [they] want the world to believe Osama is dead?"</p><p>Shahzad never reported what the ISI had said to him about bin Laden. Filkins pressed him for more information about Pakistan and the ISI, but says Shahzad grew increasingly nervous. He says he kept changing the subject and saying he needed to get his family out of Pakistan.</p><p>"I met a very nervous man. I mean, I met a guy who was afraid for his life," Filkins recalls.</p><p>About a week later, Shahzad wrote another article: about possible links between al-Qaida and the Pakistani navy. That article would be his last.</p><p>"He had written that piece on May 22 [and] he disappeared, I think, within a day and a half," Filkins says. "Two days later, they found him floating facedown in a canal. He'd been beaten to death. He died a terrible death; very slow, very painful."</p><p>Filkins says several American officials told him that the phone call ordering Shahzad's killing came from the office of Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, the head of the Pakistan army and thereby the country's most powerful man.</p><p>Mosharraf Zaidi, a Pakistani newspaper columnist who knew Shahzad and was a distant relation, says many journalists in Pakistan don't feel safe.</p><p>"There's been incidences where journalists have been picked up, humiliated, harassed, obviously the story with Syed Saleem Shahzad is one — where obviously the community denies any role but the whispering campaign hasn't really stopped," Zaidi says.</p><p>Zaidi says the reason it's a whisper campaign rather than a riot is that Pakistani security officials aren't accountable to the public.</p><p>"Our intelligence services, our police, military, haven't had a sustained period where it's had to be accountable to elected officials and go through those processes to develop the kind of accountability that a democracy needs to have," he says.</p><p>Filkins says there is no civilian control over the military in Pakistan.</p><p>"They do what they want. They overthrow governments when they don't like them ... you really do feel like you're living inside of a spy novel," he says.</p><p>Filkins says the difficulty in U.S.-Pakistan relations is that about 85 to 90 percent of the supplies going to Afghanistan go through Pakistan. Simply cutting Pakistan off is not an option.</p><p>"The other reason is that they have about 100 nuclear weapons and not all of which we really know the location of," Filkins says. "And there's a terrible fear that those nukes are going to fall into the wrong hands."</p><p><strong>Next Steps For The U.S.</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>This past week on NPR, Pakistani Foreign Minister Hina Rabbani Khar <a href="http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/09/28/140860934/pakistans-foreign-minister-blame-game-is-counterproductive">responded </a>to Mullen's comments, calling them "counterproductive." She said the past successes between the U.S. and Pakistan cannot be "shoved under the rug."</p><p>Daniel Markey, a former State Department official now with the Council on Foreign relations, agrees that the U.S. and Pakistan have shared success before. But he says Pakistan is hedging its bets when it comes to going after insurgent groups within its borders.</p><p>"Pakistan seeks to have some influence in Afghanistan and one of the things that it's come upon is the use of militant groups to expand their influence that includes the Haqqani network," Markey says.</p><p>The tactic – also used against neighbor and rival India — is used to sow violence and instability and project Pakistan's own interests, Markey says.</p><p>The U.S. needs to make it very clear it is unacceptable for Pakistan to use militant groups that the U.S. has identified as threats, Markey says.</p><p>"Beyond that, the U.S. should open up a way for [Pakistan] to project their influence without using these groups," Markey says.</p><p>The problem now is that there's a question of whether the U.S. can continue to offer the type of assistance it has in the past to Pakistan because of Congress' ire at the country. That anger could see assistance to Pakistan cut off in the near future.</p><p>Offering new avenues for Pakistan to raise its influence without using these militant groups is a challenge, Markey says.</p><p>Unless the U.S. offers something such as trade benefits or other types of assistance that Pakistan has requested for years, Markey says he doesn't believe the U.S. can get them to budge. The problem is making that aid appealing to those who have to approve it.</p><p>"The real question is: Can we get them to change?" Markey says. "But if these things might bring us plausible prospect of change, I think we should try." <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1317592734?&gn=Finding+The+Next+Steps+For+U.S.-Pakistan+Relations&ev=event2&ch=1004&h1=World,U.S.,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=140994188&c7=1004&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1004&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20111002&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=2&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></div></p></p> Sun, 02 Oct 2011 15:43:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-10-02/finding-next-steps-us-pakistan-relations-92728 Conditional Aid For Pakistan: Change Not Guaranteed http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-10-01/conditional-aid-pakistan-change-not-guaranteed-92715 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-October/2011-10-01/505474746_8599909.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Pakistan is a leading recipient of U.S. economic aid, receiving billions of dollars every year in both civilian and military support. However, the recent rocky patch between the two countries is pushing many members of Congress to reevaluate the assistance package.</p><p>The U.S. has been providing foreign assistance to Pakistan, to varying degrees, since the country was born in 1947. Aid started to climb dramatically after the Sept. 11 attacks, when Pakistan was deemed an ally in the battle against terrorism. According to the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service, the U.S. has pumped roughly $20 billion into Pakistan since 2001.</p><p>Danny Cutherell, a policy analyst at the Center for Global Development, says recent incidents, like the finding of Osama bin Laden near a key military base in Pakistan, are causing many members of Congress to question whether the U.S. is being taken for a ride.</p><p>"When they found bin Laden hiding there, I think a lot of people are asking, 'Is it really possible the military could not have know that he was there?'" Cutherell says. "And also with these new allegations of the Pakistani military supporting the Haqqani network, I think the natural impulse there is to say, 'Don't give them any money if they're not working with us.'"</p><p>The magnitude of Congressional displeasure with Pakistan is seen in next year's proposed appropriations bills both in the Republican-led House, and the Democratic-run Senate. Cutherell says both proposals make economic and military assistance conditional.</p><p>"It says unless you can prove that the Pakistani government is essentially hunting down the Haqqani network, the Taliban, al-Qaida, unless you can certify that every year, you can't disburse any aid to Pakistan," he says. "So that includes both civilian aid and military aid."</p><p>One of Congress's targets is the Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act of 2009, better known as the "Kerry-Lugar-Berman Bill." The bill promises $7.5 billion over the course of five years to help strengthen the fledgling civilian government and the people. Members of Congress on both sides of the aisle complain that bill and that money have done little to build trust between the two countries. Military assistance is also in Congress's crosshairs.</p><p>"It is the biggest lever that we have, there's no question about it, it's the thing they value the most," says Tom Donnelly, a defense expert with the American Enterprise Institute. "Because Pakistan is an army in charge of a state rather than a state in charge of an army, the military is by far the most dominant organization in Pakistan."</p><p>The Obama administration is requesting more than $2 billion for Pakistan's counterterrorism efforts. The U.S. has also provided at least $2 billion more every year in grants since Sept. 11 to modernize Pakistan's military. Donnelly says hundreds of millions dollars more are tucked into different budgets for reimbursements and the like.</p><p>"Things like buying uniforms for and giving low-level equipment to the Pakistani armory and this Frontier Corps, but the Pakistanis charge a big premium just to allow us to do that," he says.</p><p>The U.S. already suspended $800 million because the Pakistanis expelled American military trainers following the bin Laden killing. Moeed Yusuf, a South Asia adviser at the U.S. Institute of Peace, says Pakistan may not like cuts in foreign assistance, but those cuts are unlikely to force a change of behavior.</p><p>"Pakistan will probably dig its heels. Pakistan has this narrative of having gone through 10 years of sanctions in the '90s and still survived. Pakistan has the narrative of having a great friend in China," Yusuf says. "So my view is they will go and fetch and find whatever they can, but the last thing they will do is to change their calculus just because the aid has disappeared."</p><p>Yusuf says cutting off aid to Pakistan will be counterproductive, if anything. He says ultimately the U.S. and the rest of the world have an interest in a stable Pakistan, even if it takes a lot of patience. <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1317473949?&gn=Conditional+Aid+For+Pakistan%3A+Change+Not+Guaranteed&ev=event2&ch=1004&h1=World,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=140970143&c7=1004&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1004&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20111001&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=7&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></div></p></p> Sat, 01 Oct 2011 07:23:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-10-01/conditional-aid-pakistan-change-not-guaranteed-92715 Turkey's Erdogan Blasts Syria, Israel http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-09-25/turkeys-erdogan-blasts-syria-israel-92438 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-September/2011-09-26/505825988_8758175.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has been generating international attention recently with sharp criticism of three countries that have had close relations with his country: Israel, Syria and the United States.</p><p>In an interview with <em>Morning Edition's</em> David Greene, Erdogan said the Syrians have a right to determine their future. Instead of bringing about reforms, <a href="http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/09/12/140394884/in-syria-2-600-dead-so-far-u-n-official-says" target="_blank">President Bashar Assad</a> has been "turning guns toward his own people."</p><p>The Turkish leader has also been a repeated critic of Israel. Relations between the two states have been spiraling downward since last year, when Israeli commandos raided a Turkish aid flotilla headed for the Gaza Strip, killing nine Turkish citizens. Earlier this month, Turkey downgraded relations, and Erdogan says ties will not improve until Israel apologizes and meets other demands.</p><p>In addition, Erdogan has been a strong supporter of the Palestinians. He is currently so popular in the Palestinian territories that his photo is prominently displayed in many public places.</p><p>He sees the U.S. as <a href="http://www.npr.org/2011/09/21/140655094/at-u-n-obama-faces-palestinian-challenge" target="_blank">standing in the way of the Palestinian people</a> and their attempt to achieve statehood at the U.N. He says he has "no doubt" that the U.S. image in the region has been harmed by the Obama administration's opposition to the Palestinian's U.N. bid.</p><p><strong>Highlights of the interview</strong></p><p><strong>On relations with Syria, where President Bashar Assad has cracked down on pro-democracy protesters</strong></p><p>"Of course, the current developments between Syria and Turkey are not very promising right now. We needed certain reforms to be carried out, but unfortunately, under these circumstances, instead of carrying out the necessary steps forward to improve the situation, Assad wanted to keep his position and he became increasingly aggressive and violent.</p><p>"And unfortunately, until now, no steps have been taken forward to improve the situation, and he became a leader turning guns toward his own people. But, of course, the current situation in Syria, and Assad's conduct, is in full contradiction with our principles with which we approach people and humanity. That's where friendship ends."</p><p><strong>On what it will take to mend his country's relations with Israel</strong></p><p>"Three things: One, an apology; compensation must be paid; and the embargo upon Palestine and the Gaza Strip should be eliminated once and for all."</p><p><strong>On whether he regrets calling Israel a "spoiled child," and its actions "state terrorism" </strong></p><p>"Never forget that as a prime minister, as a leader of my country, I'm carrying a responsibility. I'm not only speaking about the 74 million inhabitants who are living in Turkey, who are my citizens ... but also the entire population of the Arab world that expects our reaction and our response on this issue. They will always observe whether I'm taking ownership of my citizens who have been killed on board a ship navigating in international territorial waters or not. This is a duty for me. This is an obligation for me."</p><p><strong>On U.S. opposition to the Palestinian bid for statehood at the United Nations</strong></p><p>"I've said whatever I was supposed to say on this matter when I spoke personally with Mr. Obama a couple of days ago. And I reminded my dear brother, my dear friend, of the speech he has delivered only last year at the 65th General Assembly of the United Nations. I read the speech text to him. I told him that last year you had announced everybody in the audience that you were going to see Palestine emerging as a recognized state out of the General Assembly hall."</p><p><strong>On whether the U.S. image has been damaged in the Middle East by its opposition to Palestinian statehood at the U.N.<br /></strong></p><p>"No doubt." <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1317028040?&gn=Turkey%27s+Erdogan+Blasts+Syria%2C+Israel&ev=event2&ch=1004&h1=Europe,Interviews,World,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=140790657&c7=1004&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1004&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110926&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=3&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></div></p></p> Mon, 26 Sep 2011 04:02:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-09-25/turkeys-erdogan-blasts-syria-israel-92438 Security Expert: U.S. 'Leading Force' Behind Stuxnet http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-09-25/security-expert-us-leading-force-behind-stuxnet-92437 <p><p>One year ago, German cyber security expert Ralph Langner announced he had found a computer worm designed to sabotage a nuclear facility in Iran. It's called Stuxnet, and it was the most sophisticated worm Langner had ever seen.</p><p>In the year since, Stuxnet has been analyzed as a cyber super weapon, one so dangerous it might even harm those who created it.</p><p>In the summer of 2010, Langner and his partners went to work analyzing a malicious software program that was turning up in some equipment. <a href="http://www.langner.com/en/">Langner Communications</a> is a small firm in Hamburg, Germany, but Langner and the two engineers with whom he works know a lot about industrial control systems. What they found in Stuxnet left them flabbergasted.</p><p>"I'm in this business for 20 years, and what we saw in the lab when analyzing Stuxnet was far beyond everything we had ever imagined," Langner says.</p><p>It was a worm that could burrow its way into an industrial control system, the kind of system used in power plants, refineries and nuclear stations. Amazingly, it ignored everything it found except the one piece of equipment it was seeking; when the worm reached its target, it would destroy it.</p><p>Langner says that the more his team analyzed the Stuxnet worm, the more they knew they were onto something big.</p><p>"We were pretty much working around the clock," he says, "because after we had the first impression of the magnitude of this, we were just like on speed or something like that. It was just impossible to go back to sleep."</p><p>Langner also realized after analyzing the Stuxnet code that it was designed to disable a particular nuclear facility in Iran. That's serious business, he figured. Some Iranian nuclear scientists, he remembered, had been mysteriously killed. Langner published his findings anyway.</p><p>"I wasn't actually scared, but this was just something I was thinking about," he says. "You know, this stuff must involve intelligence services who do some dirty work every now and then, and you can't just block that away from your personal situation when you are the guy who is the first to publish [that] this is a directed attack against the Iranian nuclear program. So there have been some frightening moments."</p><p><strong>'</strong><strong>United States</strong><strong> Behind Stuxnet'</strong></p><p>Langner says as they dug deeper into the Stuxnet code, each new discovery left them more impressed and wondering what was coming next. He says he couldn't imagine who could have created the worm, and the level of expertise seemed almost alien. But that would be science fiction, and Stuxnet was a reality.</p><p>"Thinking about it for another minute, if it's not aliens, it's got to be the United States," he says.</p><p>The sophistication of the worm, plus the fact that the designer had inside intelligence on the Iranian facility, led Langner to conclude the United States had developed Stuxnet, possibly with the help of Israeli intelligence.</p><p>Langner isn't shy about naming the U.S. as the Stuxnet culprit, as he stated in a recent speech at the Brookings Institution. In that speech, he also made the bigger point that having developed Stuxnet as a computer weapon, the United States has in effect introduced it into the world's cyber arsenal.</p><p>"Cyber weapons proliferate by use, as we see in the case of Stuxnet," he said. "Several months or weeks or a year later, the code is available on the Internet for dissection by anyone who has the motivation or money to do so."</p><p>It would have to be revised, Langner says, in order to target some other industrial control system besides the one in Iran, a U.S. power plant, for example. But it could be done, and he warns that U.S. utility companies are not yet prepared to deal with the threat Stuxnet represents.</p><p>The CIA declined to comment on Langner's charge that the U.S. was "the leading force" behind Stuxnet. Homeland Security officials insist measures are being taken to defend U.S. infrastructure against cyber attack. <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1317027137?&gn=Security+Expert%3A+U.S.+%27Leading+Force%27+Behind+Stuxnet&ev=event2&ch=1004&h1=National+Security,Technology,World,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=140789306&c7=1004&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1004&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110926&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=3&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></div></p></p> Mon, 26 Sep 2011 03:31:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-09-25/security-expert-us-leading-force-behind-stuxnet-92437 Fragile U.S.-Pakistan Relations On Downward Spiral http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-09-25/fragile-us-pakistan-relations-downward-spiral-92436 <p><p>The fragile and troubled relationship between the U.S. and Pakistan is on a deep, downward spiral. Adm. Mike Mullen, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said last week that Pakistan's intelligence agency had a role in several high-profile attacks in Afghanistan, including the attack earlier this month on the U.S. embassy in Kabul.</p><p>Mullen's comments made public what many officials in Washington and Afghanistan have long voiced only in private; that Pakistan's premier intelligence agency, the ISI, supports insurgent groups including the Haqqani network, one of the most dangerous group, based in Pakistan's tribal region.</p><p>Mullen said the Haqqani network, which launches attacks against Western troops in neighboring Afghanistan, acts as a veritable arm of the spy agency. His comments signal a more confrontational stance against Pakistan. Daniel Markey, a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, says Mullen's forceful language was striking in its tone and substance.</p><p>"The implication is that the United States government is saying with one voice that, if Pakistan does not end its ties with the Haqqani network, the U.S. will expand its unilateral actions to destroy that network whether Pakistan likes it or not." Markey says.</p><p>Markey says the U.S. could expand its drone strikes in North Waziristan, where the Haqqani network is believed to be based. But he says things could go further, such as launching raids using U.S. Special Forces.</p><p>"You could see conventional forces in Afghanistan moved up to the Pakistan border to support cross-border attacks that would probably start out small but could expand," he says. "And you could see a variety of other combined efforts that could even include a more extensive bombing campaign that went beyond the use of drones."</p><p><strong>Pakistan</strong><strong> Denounces Comments</strong></p><p>On Sunday, Gen. Ashfaq Kayani, Pakistan army chief, called in his commanders for a special meeting to discuss the security situation. That was an unusual move, says retired Army Lt. Gen. David Barno, a senior fellow at the Center for a New American Security.</p><p>"Their media people coming out of that said that Pakistan intends to defend its borders from incursions from Afghanistan," Barno says. "So I think they're signaling that they're not going to tolerate any U.S. ground intervention certainly into Pakistan."</p><p>Barno says Pakistan considers any ground incursion, any raid by American Special Forces or the like, as crossing a red line, and that the U.S. could face a significant backlash. Among other things, Pakistan could shut down critical land and air routes needed to shuttle military supplies into Afghanistan. Still, Barno says the U.S. has to consider when it reaches a point where it has to take that risk.</p><p>"I don't think we've ruled anything out entirely," he says.</p><p>Barno thinks there's probably a debate going on to sort out what things can be done and what lines the U.S. can cross or should we cross at this point in time. He says the uprooting of the Haqqani network is part of that strategic calculation, especially as the U.S. begins winding down its operations in Afghanistan in 2014.</p><p>Barno says it's clear that Washington has lost patience with Pakistan's reluctance or inability to go after militants on its own soil. Shuja Nawaz, director of the South Asia Center at the Atlantic Council, says this is probably the worst he's seen relations between the two countries in a very long time.</p><p>"I see the mood darkening in Washington, and I fear that it may lead to unilateral action," Nawaz says. "But historically, whenever the U.S. has put such sharp pressure on Pakistan to do certain things on behalf of the U.S., the Pakistanis have not reacted well at all."</p><p>Nawaz says the U.S. and Pakistan need some clear-headed thinking to get out of this situation because the two sides need each other — at least for the next few years. <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1317026230?&gn=Fragile+U.S.-Pakistan+Relations+On+Downward+Spiral&ev=event2&ch=1004&h1=Afghanistan,National+Security,World,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=140791165&c7=1004&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1004&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110926&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=3&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></div></p></p> Mon, 26 Sep 2011 03:30:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-09-25/fragile-us-pakistan-relations-downward-spiral-92436 Irish Nomads Fight To Save Decade-Long Home http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-09-24/irish-nomads-fight-save-decade-long-home-92421 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-September/2011-09-25/dale_farm_wide.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>A group of semi-nomadic Irish known as Irish travellers has been ordered to leave the former scrap yard east of London where they've been living.</p><p>The local government has been trying to evict most of the group since it started living on the land 10 years ago, an eviction that has long been delayed due to legal wrangling. But on Monday, a judge will finally rule on the plea of the travellers to remain on land that's been their home for a decade.</p><p>The controversy revolves around a site known as Dale Farm in the English town of Basildon, about 15 miles east of London. The area is home to 86 families of Irish travellers — some 400 people living, according to custom and culture, in extended family groups.</p><p>When the travellers bought the land, half was zoned for residential use but the other half was zoned "greenbelt," which meant it was protected from development. The Basildon Town Council has spent about 10 years and $28 million trying to clear the 52 trailers from that site.</p><p>As she walked into court Friday, Dale Farm resident Kathleen McCarthy told reporters the case is crystal clear.</p><p>"Justice — that is really what this is all about," she said. "Because it's going on 10 years now and we just need justice; we need to be let stay or find somewhere for us to go."</p><p>But the town says the zoning law is clear and has to apply to everyone equally.</p><p>The travellers, though, say it isn't that simple. Like Roma migrants and new age travellers, Irish travellers theoretically have the legal right to pursue their semi-nomadic way of life in Britain. In reality, they say, 90 percent of their zoning applications are turned down.</p><p>Basildon has offered alternative housing or plots of land, but the travellers have rejected them all as too rundown, too permanent or too dispersed to allow them to maintain their close family ties.</p><p>"They want a site in the area where they can carry on their lives, where their kids can still go to the local school or a school nearby, and they can remain part of the community of Basildon, which is where most of these kids were born," said Matthew Brindley of the <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/Irish-Traveller-Movement/160681543259">Irish Travellers Movement</a>, a group that advocates for travellers' rights.</p><p>Last Monday, as authorities prepared to carry out the mass eviction, the travellers won a last-minute court-ordered reprieve to allow a high court judge to consider the case.</p><p>The judge says his ruling will concern not whether but when and how the evictions should proceed. Tony Ball, head of Basildon's Town Council, says he's confident of victory.</p><p>"We've been doing this for 10 years; we can wait another three [or] four days," Ball said.</p><p>He may have to wait longer than that, though, since the travellers have reportedly lodged two more bids for a judicial review of their case. If allowed, the reviews could cost Basildon yet more time and more money. <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1316944329?&gn=Irish+Nomads+Fight+To+Save+Decade-Long+Home&ev=event2&ch=1004&h1=Europe,World,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=140772711&c7=1004&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1004&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110925&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=10&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></div></p></p> Sun, 25 Sep 2011 03:02:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-09-24/irish-nomads-fight-save-decade-long-home-92421