WBEZ | medicine http://www.wbez.org/tags/medicine Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en A Controversial Rewrite For Rules To Protect Humans In Experiments http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-edition/2016-01-26/controversial-rewrite-rules-protect-humans-experiments-114616 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/common-rule-1_wide-cb2bc35fe5dfc2b8ae28a87caa34400de5003723-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Throughout history, atrocities have been committed in the name of medical research.</p><p>Nazi doctors&nbsp;<a href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005168">experimented</a>&nbsp;on concentration camp prisoners. American doctors let poor black men with syphilis go untreated in the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.tuskegee.edu/about_us/centers_of_excellence/bioethics_center/about_the_usphs_syphilis_study.aspx">Tuskegee study</a>. The&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nbcnews.com/id/41811750/ns/health-health_care/t/ugly-past-us-human-experiments-uncovered/#.VlSF-dKrTcs%20">list</a>&nbsp;goes on.</p><p>To protect people participating in medical research, the federal government decades ago put in place strict rules on the conduct of human experiments.</p><p>Now the Department of Health and Human Services is&nbsp;<a href="http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/education/training/nprmwebinars.html">proposing</a>&nbsp;a major revision of these regulations, known collectively as the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/commonrule/">Common Rule</a>. It&#39;s the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/commonrule/">first change</a>&nbsp;proposed in nearly a quarter-century.</p><p>&quot;We&#39;re in a very, very different world than when these regulations were first written,&quot; says&nbsp;<a href="http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/about/menikoffbio.html">Dr. Jerry Menikoff</a>, who heads the HHS Office of Human Research Protections. &quot;The goal is to modernize the rules to make sure terrible things don&#39;t happen.&quot;</p><p>Many of the revisions are long overdue and would significantly improve oversight of scientific research, say researchers, bioethicists and officials who oversee human research studies.</p><p>But many of the updates are also triggering intense debate and criticism.</p><p>The new rules are too complex and too vaguely written in many places, says&nbsp;<a href="http://www.primr.org/newED/hurley/">Elisa Hurley</a>, executive director of Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research, a nonprofit organization in Boston. As such, she says, they could cause confusion for volunteers and researchers. It&#39;s a &quot;flawed attempt&quot; to improve things, Hurley says.</p><p>After hearing such criticism and receiving numerous requests to give the public more time to study the proposed revisions, the HHS office&nbsp;<a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2015/11/25/2015-30122/federal-policy-for-the-protection-of-human-subjects">announced</a>&nbsp;Tuesday that it was extending the public comment period by 30 days &mdash; to Jan. 6.</p><p>One change that some object to would require scientists to obtain explicit consent from patients before using their blood or tissue for research. The requirement aims to prevent a repeat of what happened to&nbsp;<a href="http://www.lacksfamily.net/">Henrietta Lacks</a>. She was an African-American woman who died of cervical cancer in 1951. Cells taken from her cervix were used without her consent to produce a research cell line that has been kept alive in labs around the world ever since.</p><div id="res457246857" previewtitle="A color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph shows HeLa cells, which are commonly used in biomedical experiments. The research cell line was derived from cervical cancer cells taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1951."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="A color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph shows HeLa cells, which are commonly used in biomedical experiments. The research cell line was derived from cervical cancer cells taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1951." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/24/hela-cells-8cf3e7dd5d66a862748a0c9b58708744507617a8-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="A color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph shows HeLa cells, which are commonly used in biomedical experiments. The research cell line was derived from cervical cancer cells taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1951. (Science Source)" /></div><div><div><p>Researchers and companies use these cells in a wide range of research, including the development of new drugs. Neither Lacks nor her family consented to this use.</p></div></div></div><p>Under the new rules, scientists would only be able to do research on biological specimens from people who explicitly agree to it: &quot; &#39;I&#39;m OK with that. I&#39;m OK with future research studies taking place using the leftover portions of my tumor or blood,&#39; &quot; Menikoff says.</p><p>But some scientists argue that in most cases the new requirement would create unnecessary red tape that would significantly impede important research.</p><p>&quot;It&#39;s now going to be much more onerous to get this tissue that otherwise would just go in the trash,&quot; says&nbsp;<a href="http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/dermatology/our_experts/garza_luis.html">Dr. Luis Garza</a>, a Johns Hopkins University dermatologist who uses foreskin from circumcisions for a variety of experiments. &quot;It&#39;s creating barriers for working on human tissue, which is what we need to do to solve human disease.&quot;</p><p>Another revision would expand the number of studies that would have to follow the rules. All scientists who get federal funding would be required to adhere to the rules for every experiment they conduct, even those that aren&#39;t funded directly by the government.</p><p>Other changes are designed to make some research easier, such as conducting large studies involving multiple institutions. Right now, independent panels known as institutional review boards, or IRBs, oversee studies in each location where people volunteer. Under the proposed rules, one centralized IRB could run an entire multicenter study.</p><p>&quot;It is all one study,&quot; HHS&#39; Menikoff says. &quot;So basically the same ethical rules apply to all of the subjects in the study.&quot;</p><p>He says the issues raised by any given study are pretty much the same at one study site compared to another site, so that duplicate ethical reviews can be eliminated. He and other researchers say the proposed change would help get new cures to patients more quickly.</p><p>But some advocates and bioethicists worry that streamlining study reviews in this way would undermine protections for volunteers, especially studies involving many sites, says&nbsp;<a href="http://www.citizen.org/Page.aspx?pid=5140">Dr. Michael Carome</a>, who heads Public Citizen&#39;s Health Research Group, a Washington, D.C.-based advocacy group.</p><p>It&#39;s unlikely one IRB can &quot;adequately understand the local context, local ethical issues, the quality of the facilities and the credentials of the practitioners,&quot; he says. &quot;That one IRB is unlikely to have sufficient knowledge of all those sites.&quot;</p><p>The proposal would also exempt many studies that don&#39;t pose physical risks. Examples include projects that only involve asking subjects questions and answers &mdash; things like surveys and in-depth interviews. The idea is to get rid of unnecessary bureaucratic hoops for harmless research, Menikoff says.</p><p>But this change is raising fears, too.</p><p>&quot;I think that&#39;s a major step backwards that, as far as I&#39;m concerned, takes us back into the dark ages,&quot; says&nbsp;<a href="http://www.einstein.yu.edu/faculty/6401/ruth-macklin/">Ruth Macklin</a>, a bioethicist at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.</p><p>Those kinds of studies &quot;are not physically invasive, but they may be intrusive,&quot; Macklin says. &quot;There are forms of harm that are not just physical harm.&quot;</p><p>Probing people about sensitive subjects, such as whether they&#39;ve had an abortion or have been physically or sexually abused as children, can trigger strong emotional reactions, potentially causing psychological distress, Macklin says.</p><p>Menikoff disputes whether the changes would put anyone at risk. But he says the government will consider all the feedback it gets before changing the rules.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/11/25/456496612/a-controversial-rewrite-for-rules-to-protect-humans-in-experiments?ft=nprml&amp;f=456496612"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Tue, 26 Jan 2016 10:52:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-edition/2016-01-26/controversial-rewrite-rules-protect-humans-experiments-114616 What a Difference a Drug Makes in the Fight Against River Blindness http://www.wbez.org/news/what-difference-drug-makes-fight-against-river-blindness-114569 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/river1.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res462954066" previewtitle="Bondi Sanbark, the chief in Beposo 2, says his village used to be full of blind men led around by boys — but that began to change when a new drug was distributed."><div id="res462953406" previewtitle="Albert Tamanja Bidim, a community volunteer, distributes ivermectin, the tablet that fights river blindness, in the Ghanaian town of Beposo 2."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Albert Tamanja Bidim, a community volunteer, distributes ivermectin, the tablet that fights river blindness, in the Ghanaian town of Beposo 2." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2016/01/13/img_1748-43_custom-62ef3265dba7463a42e611db754f65f519b9c4dc-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 412px; width: 620px;" title="Albert Tamanja Bidim, a community volunteer, distributes ivermectin, the tablet that fights river blindness, in the Ghanaian town of Beposo 2. (Jason Beaubien/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>One of the problems with river blindness is that it doesn&#39;t kill you.</p></div></div></div><p>It&#39;s a nasty disease that causes agonizing itching, disfigured skin and, in the worst cases, blindness. River blindness is a parasitic infection transmitted by black flies that breed in rapidly flowing bodies of water. The worms burrow under your skin and eventually wiggle across your pupils, destroying your vision. But because the disease usually isn&#39;t fatal, health officials in cash-strapped tropical countries have slotted it lower on their to-do lists than malaria, TB, cholera, AIDS and other life-threatening diseases.</p><p>Indeed, the World Health Organization categorizes river blindness, also known as onchocerciasis, as a &quot;neglected tropical disease.&quot;</p><p>But over the past three decades, much of the world has made steady progress against the debilitating condition. And much of the credit for that progress is linked to ministries of health introducing the drug&nbsp;<a href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a607069.html">ivermectin</a>. Mass distributions of ivermectin tablets have sent onchocerciasis rates plummeting.</p><p>The village of Beposo 2 in central Ghana is one of those places.</p><p>Local chief Bondi Sanbark says his village used to be full of blind men being led around by young boys. But that started changing after Ghana changed its strategy in the battle against the disease in the late 1980s. Up to that point, Ghana had been using insecticides to try to kill the black flies that carry the river blindness parasite. The new strategy goes after the parasites inside people. The government treats entire villages, every year, with a drug called ivermectin that kills the offspring of the parasites, which cause the blindness and also can infect others.</p><div id="res462954066" previewtitle="Bondi Sanbark, the chief in Beposo 2, says his village used to be full of blind men led around by boys — but that began to change when a new drug was distributed."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Bondi Sanbark, the chief in Beposo 2, says his village used to be full of blind men led around by boys — but that began to change when a new drug was distributed." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2016/01/13/img_1715-42_custom-21695f01d73c4d40969227d769b6f8e18aa8f08c-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 350px; width: 620px;" title="Bondi Sanbark, the chief in Beposo 2, says his village used to be full of blind men led around by boys — but that began to change when a new drug was distributed. (Jason Beaubien/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>The mass ivermectin campaigns are now treating roughly 4 million Ghanaians a year, or more than 15 percent of the population. And the strategy is paying off.</p></div></div></div><p>No one has gone blind in Beposo 2 for years, says Sanbark.</p><p>Beposo 2 was founded around the time of Ghana&#39;s independence from Britain in 1957. The town is a half-hour&#39;s drive from the Pru River, where the black flies that carry the river blindness parasite swarm. Its founders wanted to get away from the river and from onchocerciasis. But they couldn&#39;t escape the reach of the flies.</p><div id="res462966651"><div>&nbsp;</div></div><p>The situation was better here away from the river, but people got sick with what they refer to as &quot;oncho.&quot; Since the introduction of ivermectin, onchocerciasis infections still occur in Beposo 2, but now they&#39;re much milder than in the past. The disease has been sharply curtailed in many parts of Africa and is on the verge of elimination from the Americas.</p><p>But even ivermectin isn&#39;t perfect.</p><p>Ivermectin doesn&#39;t actually kill the roundworm parasites that cause onchocerciasis. The drug is only able to kill the offspring of the parasites, the baby larvae. It&#39;s the spreading of hundreds of thousands of these immature worms through a person&#39;s body that causes the disease. Unfortunately, the parasite can live in a person&#39;s body for up to 15 years. So to suppress the spread of the parasites, entire villages have to be treated with ivermectin year after year in logistically complicated campaigns.</p><p>The distribution campaigns require armies of volunteers.</p><div id="res462953523" previewtitle="A volunteer shows the four ivermectin tablets he's about to give a woman for her yearly dose."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="A volunteer shows the four ivermectin tablets he's about to give a woman for her yearly dose." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2016/01/13/img_1687-41_custom-3d31964802147025d00764351dc1a927727869a2-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 474px; width: 620px;" title="A volunteer shows the four ivermectin tablets he's about to give a woman for her yearly dose. (Jason Beaubien/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>&quot;This job is&nbsp;soooo&nbsp;difficult,&quot; says Albert Tamanja Bidim, the drug distribution volunteer in Beposo 2. Once a year he has to track down every resident of the village and give them the proper number of ivermectin tablets. He carries a long stick, a white bottle of pills and a handwritten ledger with all the villagers&#39; names in it. The markings on the stick indicate how many pills a person should get. Bidim holds it up next to a boy to determine what dosage to give him. Kids under 90 centimeters, roughly 3 feet tall, and pregnant women don&#39;t get any out of safety concerns. The dose varies from one to four tablets, washed down at once, for taller kids and adults.</p></div></div></div><p>Bidim doesn&#39;t get paid for this work but takes the job very seriously.</p><p>&quot;If the person is not here, and I know how many tablets the person will take, I will keep it for him,&quot; Bidim says. &quot;Sometimes, maybe if he has traveled or went to the farm, I&#39;ll keep the tablets until he gets back.&quot;</p><p>This process of volunteers pounding on doors and passing out ivermectin happens all across Ghana in villages prone to river blindness.</p><p>&quot;We have about 5 million Ghanaians at risk of onchocerciasis,&quot; says Dr. Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, who heads the neglected tropical disease program in the Ghana Ministry of Health.</p><p>He says the annual distribution campaigns are a major undertaking. &quot;We go in with millions of tablets, every year, to treat every community.&quot;</p><p>Many of the villages hardest hit by river blindness are in remote, inaccessible parts. &quot;It takes a lot of work, a lot of resources,&quot; Biritwum says.</p><p>Onchocerciasis is less neglected than some other neglected tropical diseases in that a major pharmaceutical company has made it its cause celebre.</p><p>For decades, Merck has made an unlimited amount of ivermectin available for free under the brand name Mectizan. International aid groups including the World Bank,<a href="http://www.sightsaversusa.org/">Sightsavers</a>&nbsp;and the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.cartercenter.org/health/river_blindness/index.html">Carter Center</a>&nbsp;have helped fund the distributions.</p><p>Ghana is seeing the results. Some villages have gone from having 70 to 80 percent of adults testing positive for onchocerciasis 25 years ago to just 2 to 3 percent today.</p><p>Ghana is now talking about trying to wipe out the disease by 2020. Biritwum at the ministry of health says before the arrival of ivermectin, that never would have been possible.</p><p>Ivermectin&#39;s incredible impact on river blindness and other roundworm infections also caught the eye of the Nobel committee. The 2015 prize for medicine went to William Campbell of the U.S. and Satoshi Omura from Japan for discovering the drug (a third honoree did work on malaria). The Nobel committee said, &quot;This year&#39;s Nobel Laureates have developed therapies that have revolutionized the treatment of some of the most devastating parasitic diseases.&quot; And the impact of their work can be clearly seen in villages like Beposo 2 in Ghana.</p><h3><em>Join Us For A Twitter Chat On River Blindness</em></h3><p><em>Want to know more about river blindness? Dr. Neeraj Mistry, the managing director of the Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases,&nbsp;<a href="http://bit.ly/1PtfeEd">will be taking your questions on Twitter</a>&nbsp;on Friday, Jan. 22, from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. ET. Leave your questions in a comment below, or tweet them to&nbsp;<a href="http://twitter.com/nprgoatsandsoda">@NPRGoatsandSoda</a>&nbsp;with the hashtag #RiverBlindness.</em></p></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 22 Jan 2016 10:59:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/what-difference-drug-makes-fight-against-river-blindness-114569 Here's What You Shouldn't Do When Trying to Revive a Newborn http://www.wbez.org/news/heres-what-you-shouldnt-do-when-trying-revive-newborn-114422 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/_npr8697-50_custom-47f83fe2d1cc3786016018f1cb192dc7b2dbfc78-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res461935146" previewtitle="Baby &quot;NeoNatalie&quot; waits to be saved, as Dr. Mark Hathaway gives NPR's Malaka Gharib a lesson on getting an infant to take its first breath."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Baby &quot;NeoNatalie&quot; waits to be saved, as Dr. Mark Hathaway gives NPR's Malaka Gharib a lesson on getting an infant to take its first breath." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2016/01/04/_npr8670-50_custom-dd6a230d23652acc94a0c4bace238c530cb37a77-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 412px; width: 620px;" title="Baby &quot;NeoNatalie&quot; waits to be saved, as Dr. Mark Hathaway gives NPR's Malaka Gharib a lesson on getting an infant to take its first breath. (Akash Ghai/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>&quot;You have a minute to help that baby breathe,&quot; says Dr. Mark Hathaway. He works as a senior adviser for family planning at USAID&#39;s&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mcsprogram.org/">Maternal and Child Survival Program</a>, and he&#39;s showing me how to get a newborn to take its first breath.</p></div></div></div><p>And it has to happen now &mdash; during the &quot;golden minute&quot; after a baby is born. That&#39;s what the medical world calls the tiny window of time an infant must bring oxygen into its lungs.</p><p>But I&#39;m not a doctor or a nurse. I&#39;m a reporter. So I am pretty clueless.</p><p>I lift up the &quot;baby,&quot; a mannequin called the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.laerdal.com/neonatalie">NeoNatalie</a>. Filled with water and covered with soft plastic, it&#39;s heavier than I expected &mdash; about five or six pounds, just like a real newborn.</p><p>A wave of panic washes over me. I do what I remember seeing on TV shows. I lift the baby by its feet and slap its backside.</p><p>&quot;Yeah, don&#39;t do that,&quot; says Hathaway.</p><p>I have a lot of company in the club of clueless birth attendants. In the developing world, there&#39;s a dire shortage of health care workers and nearly half of all births take place without a skilled birth attendant.</p><p>A nonprofit called&nbsp;<a href="http://seedglobalhealth.org/">Seed Global Health</a>&nbsp;is determined to change things. In 2012, Seed teamed up with the Peace Corps to create the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.peacecorps.gov/volunteer/globalhealth/">Global Health Service Partnership</a>, a volunteer program that sends U.S. doctors and nurses to Africa to train medical professionals in a variety of techniques, including how to resuscitate a newborn who&#39;s not breathing.</p><p>Seed Global Health has so far introduced the program in Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, and most recently, Swaziland.</p><p>In the past two years, 73 American volunteers have trained more than 7,200 African faculty, residents and students.</p><div id="res461935316" previewtitle="&quot;NeoNatalie&quot; is the star of a neonatal resuscitation training kit, which includes a yellow stethoscope, two green bulbs (one to simulate a baby's breath, another that's a suction tool), a bag mask (it looks like a lamp), an umbilical cord and clamps and cutter. The hat is part of the kit, too — it keeps the baby warm."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="&quot;NeoNatalie&quot; is the star of a neonatal resuscitation training kit, which includes a yellow stethoscope, two green bulbs (one to simulate a baby's breath, another that's a suction tool), a bag mask (it looks like a lamp), an umbilical cord and clamps and cutter. The hat is part of the kit, too — it keeps the baby warm." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2016/01/04/_npr8760-50_custom-b4a6799929ae116a2c0f56df4ea8669524223fed-s400-c85.jpg" style="height: 476px; width: 620px;" title="&quot;NeoNatalie&quot; is the star of a neonatal resuscitation training kit, which includes a yellow stethoscope, two green bulbs--one to simulate a baby's breath, another that's a suction tool--a bag-mask, which looks like a lamp, an umbilical cord and clamps and cutter. The hat is part of the kit, too — it keeps the baby warm. (Akash Ghai/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>After my failed attempts to help my mannequin breathe, Hathaway shows me the proper procedures. He turns the doll to one side and begins vigorously drying its back and head with a towel to help the baby warm up.</p></div></div></div><p>&quot;Sometimes that&#39;s all that&#39;s needed,&quot; says Hathaway.</p><p>If that doesn&#39;t do the trick, he has all the tools ready for plans B and C: a suction tool&nbsp;and a bag mask.</p><p>The suction tool, which looks like a turkey baster, clears out a baby&#39;s nasal passages by removing mucus and gunk from its nose. Using it once is usually enough to help a baby breathe.</p><p>If 20 seconds go by and the baby still isn&#39;t breathing, Hathaway would turn to the bag mask, which pumps oxygen from the air into the baby&#39;s lung passages.</p><div id="res461935538" previewtitle="Dr. Mark Hathaway shows how a bag mask can be used to pump oxygen from the air into the baby's lungs."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Dr. Mark Hathaway shows how a bag mask can be used to pump oxygen from the air into the baby's lungs." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2016/01/04/_npr8697-50_custom-47f83fe2d1cc3786016018f1cb192dc7b2dbfc78-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 412px; width: 620px;" title="Dr. Mark Hathaway shows how a bag mask can be used to pump oxygen from the air into the baby's lungs. (Akash Ghai/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>Aliasgar Khaki, a 24-year-old fifth-year medical student from Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, is one of the trainees. He was taught by Dr. Esther Johnston, a former Seed Global Health volunteer who is now the director of family medicine for the nonprofit.</p></div></div></div><p>In Khaki&#39;s country, roughly a quarter of newborn deaths are caused by birth asphyxia &mdash; a lack of oxygen to the lungs. But the university he attends didn&#39;t have the resources to teach its students the proper techniques.</p><p>&quot;They had a program, but the problem was that the equipment wasn&#39;t there,&quot; says Johnston. &quot;It&#39;s hard to teach neonatal resuscitation without a mannequin. You can teach the principles, but if you don&#39;t practice it, it doesn&#39;t get into your muscle memory.&quot;</p><p>Inspired, Khaki started organizing trainings for other students, nurses and interns in the area, demonstrating with donated NeoNatalie dolls from global health groups like<a href="http://www.jhpiego.org/">Jhpiego</a>. The NeoNatalie set costs about $70 for nonprofits.</p><p><a href="http://ghsm.hms.harvard.edu/person/faculty/vanessa-kerry">Dr. Vanessa Kerry</a>, co-founder of Seed Global Health, hopes the trainees will now show others what they&#39;ve learned.</p><p>&quot;If we focused on teaching new doctors and nurses how to be great educators with the idea that one doctor could go on and teach ten, who could go on to teach ten more, and so on, we could have this great force multiplying effect,&quot; she says.</p><p>For Hathaway, the future of Seed Global Health&#39;s training program will ultimately rely on the power of the individual.</p><p>&quot;What moves things forward is a champion,&quot; he says. &quot;If you have someone in a health facility who really wants the infant mortality reduction to happen, that person will work hard to keep following through on things.&quot;</p><p>Since Khaki&#39;s training with Seed Global Health, he&#39;s had a chance to practice his neonatal resuscitation skills in real life.</p><p>A week after his first training with Johnson, he visited a hospital with a relative. In the nursery ward, he saw a &quot;code blue&quot; situation: a baby struggling to breathe.</p><p>How did it make him feel?The nurse on duty didn&#39;t know what to do. Khaki quickly stepped in and saved the baby&#39;s life, using the step-by-step techniques he learned from his training (which is what Hathaway showed me in my mini-lesson).</p><p>&quot;Every cartoon character has their own superhero outfit,&quot; he says. &quot;Mine was my white lab coat.&quot;</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/01/07/461935008/so-heres-what-you-shouldnt-do-when-trying-to-revive-a-newborn?ft=nprml&amp;f=461935008" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Fri, 08 Jan 2016 12:29:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/heres-what-you-shouldnt-do-when-trying-revive-newborn-114422 Stigma Keeps Many Gay Latinos off HIV Prevention Pill http://www.wbez.org/news/stigma-keeps-many-gay-latinos-hiv-prevention-pill-114252 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Victor Barillas and Joey Ponce de Leon-2f98164a6f4d9284ed17800ebd61b4fc530be5c3-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res454335033" previewtitle="Victor Barillas (left) and his friend Joey Ponce de Leon. Ponce de Leon opposed the HIV prevention pill until learning it had saved Barillas."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Victor Barillas (left) and his friend Joey Ponce de Leon. Ponce de Leon opposed the HIV prevention pill until learning it had saved Barillas." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/03/Victor%20Barillas%20and%20Joey%20Ponce%20de%20Leon-2f98164a6f4d9284ed17800ebd61b4fc530be5c3-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 464px; width: 620px;" title="Victor Barillas, left, and his friend Joey Ponce de Leon. Ponce de Leon opposed the HIV prevention pill until learning it had saved Barillas. (Adrian Florido/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>Earlier this year, Victor Barillas decided to get on the HIV prevention pill called Truvada.&nbsp;<a href="http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/data-from-iprex-open-label-extension-ole-demonstrate-high-interest-in-prep-longer-term-evidence-of-safety-and-efficacy-and-no-sign-of-increased-risk-behavior-among-prep-users-268053491.html">When taken every day, the pill is nearly 100 percent effective</a>&nbsp;in blocking the transmission of HIV, even through unprotected sex.</p></div></div></div><p>Sitting in the doctor&#39;s office, Barillas whipped out his phone and posted a status update on Facebook:&nbsp;Doc, please give me Truvada.</p><p>Within minutes, Barillas remembers, his ex-boyfriend had sent him a message.</p><p>&quot;And he said, &#39;Wow, really? You&#39;re just being out there and open about Truvada? That&#39;s kind of something private.&#39;&quot;</p><p>It was the kind of response Barillas had come to expect. He said most of his gay Latino friends looked down on the drug, labeling men who took it as &quot;whores.&quot; Why take Truvada if not to be promiscuous, they thought?</p><p>Barillas had considered taking Truvada before. As a gay, sexually active Latino, he knew that statistically he was at higher risk than most gay men to contract HIV. The stigma had kept him off the drug. He said it&#39;s kept a lot of his gay friends off the drug, but especially his Latino friends.</p><p>&quot;Growing up as young children, you&#39;re taught family values,&quot; Barillas said. &quot;I was actually raised Catholic and was an altar boy for years. I grew up with a mother who was all about having a family, and being a traditional Latino male.&quot;</p><p>Since the Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada for HIV prevention in 2012, stigma has been one of the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/08/05/428925801/hiv-prevention-pill-remains-a-tough-sell-among-gay-latinos">biggest barriers health advocates have faced in their effort to get more Latinos to take the drug</a>, which is also referred to as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP.</p><p>Richard Zaldivar runs The Wall Las Memorias, a Los Angeles nonprofit that works with gay and bisexual Latinos. Last year it hosted a community town hall to educate gay Latinos and their families about PrEP.</p><div id="res454335649" previewtitle="Richard Zaldivar runs The Wall Las Memorias, a Los Angeles nonprofit that hosts a support group for gay and bisexual Latino men."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Richard Zaldivar runs The Wall Las Memorias, a Los Angeles nonprofit that hosts a support group for gay and bisexual Latino men." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/03/Richard%20Zaldivar-8f72df66a819720d18b212fcbe29dfd7ba78c8e4-s400-c85.jpg" style="height: 233px; width: 310px; float: right; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="Richard Zaldivar runs The Wall Las Memorias, a Los Angeles nonprofit that hosts a support group for gay and bisexual Latino men. (Adrian Florido/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>&quot;There&#39;s a lot of fear and stigma still around talking openly about sex and their identity,&quot; Zaldivar said. &quot;So if they&#39;re not at that point, it&#39;s hard for someone to ... tell the doctor, hey I need [PrEP], because I&#39;m an active sexual player.&quot;</p></div></div></div><p>Stigma is not the only factor keeping Latinos off the HIV prevention pill. Truvada, the only drug currently approved as PrEP, costs $1,300 a month. Though it&#39;s covered by most insurance plans and by Medicaid, many Latinos remain uninsured, keeping the drug out of reach. As its name suggests, pre-exposure prophylaxis is a preventive strategy, but Latinos tend to avoid seeing the doctor until they&#39;re sick. Many doctors remain unaware of what PrEP is or which patients are good candidates for the drug.</p><p>For Zaldivar, however, all of these issues are moot if gay Latinos are unwilling to embrace their sexuality. Being ashamed of who they are makes them less likely to take steps to protect themselves, he said.</p><p>Every Tuesday evening, Zaldivar welcomes a couple of dozen men to the converted two-story house in northeast Los Angeles from which he runs his nonprofit. Over food, the guys talk about issues they face as gay Latinos. The meetings are a kind of support group for men grappling with their sexual identity.</p><p>It was at one of these meetings, over the summer, that Victor Barillas first told the group that Truvada had saved him.</p><p>&quot;Two weeks after being on the medication, I met this man that I began having sex with,&quot; Barillas recalled. &quot;And at first we did use protection. And then we didn&#39;t.&quot;</p><p>One morning, the man sent Barillas a text and asked to speak with him by phone. He told Barillas that he&#39;d tested positive for HIV, and that Barillas had been his only sexual partner for months.</p><p>Barillas rushed to get tested. He was negative.</p><p>&quot;I definitely believe that Truvada kept me negative,&quot; Barillas said, &quot;because I honestly believe that, thinking about the sex that we had, that I would be HIV positive.&quot;</p><p>The night that Barillas shared this story with the support group, he looked over at one of his friends in the room, Joey Ponce de Leon. Ponce de Leon was one of the guys who openly criticized men on Truvada as &quot;whores.&quot; But now, after hearing Barillas&#39; story, he was crying.</p><div id="res454335835" previewtitle="A resource table at The Wall Las Memorias includes a new Latino-oriented brochure for PrEP."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="A resource table at The Wall Las Memorias includes a new Latino-oriented brochure for PrEP." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/03/PrEP%20Brochure-c0a0552dfb81e3ed6577d64af3e94de606749fe1-s400-c85.jpg" style="height: 233px; width: 310px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: right;" title="A resource table at The Wall Las Memorias includes a new Latino-oriented brochure for PrEP. (Adrian Florido/NPR)" /></div><div><div><p>&quot;I felt extremely bad,&quot; Ponce de Leon recalled recently, &quot;because here I was condemning it, and I was kind of like, wow, I could&#39;ve lost him. And I apologized to him.&quot;</p></div></div></div><p>Ponce de Leon said it took some reflection to realize that his rush to judge men on Truvada stemmed from his own struggle growing up gay in a traditional, religious Latino family.</p><p>&quot;Growing up, I couldn&#39;t be that particular person that I wanted to be,&quot; he said. &quot;And I knew that I was either going to go to hell, or whatever, if I did do that.&quot; The fear of HIV was always lurking.</p><p>In Truvada, he said he saw a drug that allowed men to feel more comfortable in their sexuality than he ever did, and he resented it.</p><p>All that changed when he realized that Truvada had probably saved his friend. Though he&#39;s in a committed relationship and doesn&#39;t take PrEP himself, he said he, like Barillas, has become a PrEP advocate.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/11/04/454333337/stigma-keeps-many-gay-latinos-off-hiv-prevention-pill?ft=nprml&amp;f=454333337" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Tue, 22 Dec 2015 13:18:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/stigma-keeps-many-gay-latinos-hiv-prevention-pill-114252 Common ADHD Medications Do Indeed Disturb Children's Sleep http://www.wbez.org/news/common-adhd-medications-do-indeed-disturb-childrens-sleep-113922 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/adhd-sleep_custom-e9340e2576e9308325674866f871739028e579b2-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res457144752" previewtitle="Boy sleeping in bed"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Boy sleeping in bed" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/23/adhd-sleep_custom-e9340e2576e9308325674866f871739028e579b2-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="(iStockphoto)" /></div><div><p>For a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, meeting the daily expectations of home and school life can be a struggle that extends to bedtime. The stimulant medications commonly used to treat ADHD can cause difficulty falling and staying asleep, a study finds. And that can make the next day that much harder.</p></div></div><p>As parents are well aware, sleep affects a child&#39;s emotional and physical well-being, and it is no different for those with ADHD. &quot;Poor sleep makes ADHD symptoms worse,&quot; says&nbsp;<a href="http://psychology.unl.edu/pediatrichealthlab/people">Katherine M. Kidwell</a>, a doctoral student in clinical psychology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, who led the&nbsp;<a href="https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/Pages/ADHD-Medications-Make-it-Harder-For-Children-to-Sleep.aspx">study</a>. &quot;When children with ADHD don&#39;t sleep well, they have problems paying attention the next day, and they are more impulsive and emotionally reactive.&quot;</p><p>Stimulant medications boost alertness, and some studies have found a detrimental effect on children&#39;s sleep. They include amphetamines such as Adderall and methylphenidate such as Ritalin. However, other studies have concluded that the stimulants&#39; ameliorating effects improve sleep.</p><p>To reconcile the mixed results on stimulants and children&#39;s sleep, Kidwell and her colleagues undertook a meta-analysis, a type of study that summarizes the results of existing research. The team found nine studies that met their criteria. These studies compared children who were taking stimulant medication with those who weren&#39;t. The studies also randomly assigned children to the experimental group or the control group and used objective measures of sleep quality and quantity, such as assessing sleep in a lab setting or with a wristwatch-like monitor at home rather than a parent&#39;s report.</p><p>Taking a stimulant medication leads to poor sleep overall for children, the researchers reported online Monday in&nbsp;Pediatrics. They found that the more doses of medication a child took per day, the longer it took for that child to fall asleep at night. The study suggests that extended-release versions of stimulants, which are taken once a day, have less of an impact on how long it takes to fall asleep than immediate-release formulas, which are sometimes taken three times a day, with the last dose close to bedtime.</p><p>Furthermore, the quality of sleep, or sleep efficiency &ndash; the percentage of time one is asleep while in bed &mdash; was worse for those on stimulant medications, although those kids who had been on the drugs longer fared better than those who had just begun taking the medication. There was also a gender difference, with boys on stimulant medication getting poorer quality sleep than girls.</p><p>Finally, stimulants reduced the total amount of sleep children got at night. &quot;Families and pediatricians need to be aware that sleep problems are a real effect of stimulant medication,&quot; says Kidwell.</p><p>&quot;It&#39;s really good to see this,&quot; says&nbsp;<a href="https://psychology.fiu.edu/faculty/william-pelham/">William E. Pelham</a>, a clinical psychologist and Director of the Center for Children and Families at Florida International University, who studies ADHD in children and adolescents. Pediatricians are often quick to prescribe a medication without adequate follow-up, he says, and &quot;assessing sleep side effects is important &mdash; it needs to be something that pediatricians routinely do.&quot;</p><p>For families, Kidwell says that the bedtime routines all parents use &mdash; reading stories, sharing news about the day, quiet activities like coloring&mdash;are very helpful for kids with ADHD too. &quot;But parents may need to provide more structure, support, and simpler reminders for children with ADHD.&quot;</p><p>Aimee Cunningham is a freelance science journalist based in the Washington, D.C., area.</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/11/24/457137288/common-adhd-medications-do-indeed-disturb-childrens-sleep?ft=nprml&amp;f=457137288" target="_blank"><em>via NPR</em></a></p></p> Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:41:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/common-adhd-medications-do-indeed-disturb-childrens-sleep-113922 Work on parasite diseases earns Nobel Prize for medicine http://www.wbez.org/news/work-parasite-diseases-earns-nobel-prize-medicine-113173 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/AP_264208766266_0.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res445981163" previewtitle="Satoshi Omura, Youyou Tu and William C. Campbell share in the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine."><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Satoshi Omura, Youyou Tu and William C. Campbell share in the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/10/05/nobels-winners-medicine_custom-5c0e8a8c02c077dca0d1c876ac562805d17298e8-s800-c85.jpg" style="text-align: center; height: 263px; width: 610px;" title="Satoshi Omura, Youyou Tu and William C. Campbell share in the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (Courtesy Nobel Prize Committee)" /></p><p style="text-align: justify;">The medicines they helped develop are credited with improving the lives of millions. And now three researchers working in the U.S., Japan, and China have won the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Among the winners: William C. Campbell of Drew University in Madison N.J., for his work on the roundworm parasite.</p></div><p style="text-align: justify;">Born in Ireland, Campbell shares half the prize with Satoshi Omura of Kitasato University in Japan, who has researched the same parasite. The other half of the award goes to Youyou Tu of the China Academy of Traditional Medicine in Beijing, China, for her work in developing therapies for malaria.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Taken together, the three &quot;have transformed the treatment of parasitic diseases,&quot; according to the Nobel Prize committee. &quot;The global impact of their discoveries and the resulting benefit to mankind are immeasurable.&quot;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">All of the researchers were born in the 1930s; much of their key research was published around 1980. And their findings came after intense searches for existing natural components that might help fight diseases.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Working in Japan, Omura isolated novel strains of Streptomyces bacteria from soil samples that not only had antibacterial components, but also had the potential to combat other harmful microorganisms.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">In the U.S., Campbell explored the effects of Omura&#39;s Streptomyces cultures and found that, as the Nobel committee says, &quot;a component from one of the cultures was remarkably efficient against parasites in domestic and farm animals.&quot;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The active compound, called Avermectin, was further developed to become Ivermectin, which is now used around the world to protect people and animals from a range of parasites, from River Blindness to Lymphatic Filariasis (also known as Elephantiasis).</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&quot;I humbly accept this prize,&quot; Omura said when he was contacted by the Nobel committee today. Saying there are &quot;many, many researchers&quot; who are doing important work, he added, &quot;I may be very, very lucky.&quot;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Anecdotes have long held that Omura found the life-changing soil sample while he was doing what he loved: playing golf. He clarified that a bit today, saying it had happened &quot;very close to the golf course.&quot;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Tu revolutionized how malaria is fought by applying ancient techniques from China&#39;s traditional herbal medicine to isolate and purify a component from the plant&nbsp;Artemisia annua&nbsp;that could fight malaria in animals and people.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/IrNL27eWKOI?rel=0" width="560"></iframe></p><p style="text-align: justify;">Tu used those insights to extract the component, now known as Artemisinin, and to show that it could beat malaria. The Nobel committee says Artemisinin represented &quot;a new class of antimalarial agents that rapidly kill the Malaria parasites at an early stage of their development, which explains its unprecedented potency in the treatment of severe Malaria.&quot;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The plant that yielded the compound,&nbsp;Artemisia annua,&nbsp;is also known as qinghao, sweet wormwood and sweet Annie. Its use in traditional Chinese medicine dates back more than 2,000 years.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The work that led to the discovery of Artemisinin began in the late 1960s, when China launched a large-scale effort to develop an antimalarial treatment to protect North Vietnamese soldiers from the deadly disease.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">To illustrate how malaria works &mdash; and how humans have fought it &mdash; NPR&#39;s Adam Cole produced a video feature in 2012, explaining how that story ranges from the use of quinine (and the gin and tonic) to the Vietnam War.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&mdash;<em><a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/10/05/445976576/work-on-parasite-diseases-earns-nobel-prize-for-medicine?ft=nprml&amp;f=445976576" target="_blank"> via NPR</a></em></p></p> Mon, 05 Oct 2015 10:33:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/work-parasite-diseases-earns-nobel-prize-medicine-113173 Doctors grapple with how to talk to vaccine-hesitant parents http://www.wbez.org/news/science/doctors-grapple-how-talk-vaccine-hesitant-parents-111558 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Measles-parent_150213_oy.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Anna Jakubek&rsquo;s cozy apartment in Chicago&rsquo;s Rogers Park neighborhood can be chaotic in the mornings as she readies her six-year-old daughter, Nina, for school.</p><p>On weekdays, Jakubek makes sure Nina eats her organic berries, bacon and eggs, dresses her and brushes her hair. Then they rush out the door, hoping not to miss the bus.</p><p>Nina, who attends Chicago Public Schools, only received her MMR shot, against measles, mumps and rubella, a few months ago. Worried that her daughter would not be allowed to participate fully in school activities, Jakubek had her inoculated just before she started kindergarten.</p><p>But Jakubek still has not had her younger daughter, three-year-old Mila, vaccinated. With the exception of the MMR vaccine, Mila has received all the shots she should have, including Hepatitis A, Dtap, and more.</p><p>&ldquo;So what I really refuse right now is this MMR,&rdquo; she said.</p><p>Doctors recommend that children get the MMR vaccine between 12 and 15 months of age. But Jakubek, like many other vaccine-hesitant parents, believes it could cause autism, behavioral disorders, or problems with her child&rsquo;s nervous system. The original study that suggested a link between vaccines and autism <a href="http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2011/01/06/132703314/study-linking-childhood-vaccine-and-autism-was-fraudulent">has long been discredited</a>, and further studies have conclusively shown no link between vaccines and those conditions. Still, Jakubek is unconvinced.</p><p>&ldquo;I feel like getting the vaccination is a greater risk than getting (the) actual disease,&rdquo; said Jakubek, who herself had the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as a child growing up in Poland. &ldquo;If I had a choice not to vaccinate her at all, yeah, I wouldn&rsquo;t.&rdquo;</p><p>So far, Jakubek said she hasn&rsquo;t experienced much push-back on her beliefs. Other parents have not challenged her, and her children&rsquo;s pediatrician has respected her wishes.</p><p>&ldquo;She&rsquo;s not pushing, which I really appreciate that, she&rsquo;s not pushing,&rdquo; Jakubek said of the pediatrician. &ldquo;She wants (an) explanation why, and I deliver that explanation and she will tell me that this could be a deadly disease, and I have my opinion about this, too. So we exchange three or four sentences and this is it.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;There are physicians who have just given up,&rdquo; said Dr. Robert Jacobson, a pediatrician at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Jacobson says he looks at the recent resurgence of measles, as well as dismally low vaccination rates for other diseases, such as the flu, and he blames his fellow medical community.</p><p>&ldquo;That&rsquo;s our fault,&rdquo; he said. &ldquo;We&rsquo;re being challenged and we should rise up to the challenge and make sure our patients hear our recommendations.&rdquo;</p><p>For the last several years, Jacobson has been training other doctors on how to talk to parents like Jakubek. His methodology, which he calls the C.A.S.E. Approach, urges doctors to establish personal connections with vaccine-hesitant parents.</p><p>&ldquo;They want to hear your expertise, they want to hear your recommendation,&rdquo; Jacobson said of parents. &ldquo;They want to hear what you&rsquo;re doing with your own children, and what you would do if you were in their shoes.&rdquo;</p><p>Jacobson said he is dismayed when he sometimes hears about doctors who ban unvaccinated children from their practices, or who stuff parents&rsquo; arms with brochures on vaccines, rather than discuss the issue with them. In his trainings, Jacobson said he urges doctors to have those conversations in their offices when they come up</p><p>&ldquo;We&rsquo;ve got real work to do, and we can&rsquo;t just rely on being the high priests of medicine,&rdquo; he said.</p><p>For Jakubek, those discussions might push her away from her doctor. But she may end up vaccinating her younger daughter soon, anyhow.</p><p>In the wake of Illinois&rsquo;s measles resurgence, her younger daughter&rsquo;s daycare informed parents that they should get their children vaccinated. Jakubek said she&rsquo;d still rather wait, but she&rsquo;ll do it if she has to.</p><p><em>Odette Yousef is a WBEZ reporter. Follow her </em><a href="https://twitter.com/oyousef"><em>@oyousef</em></a><em> and </em><a href="https://twitter.com/wbezoutloud"><em>@WBEZoutloud</em></a><em>.</em></p></p> Fri, 13 Feb 2015 08:06:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/science/doctors-grapple-how-talk-vaccine-hesitant-parents-111558 Cook County Hospital makes history http://www.wbez.org/blogs/john-r-schmidt/2013-03/cook-county-hospital-makes-history-106011 <p><p>Cook County Hospital (<em>aka</em> Stroger) sometimes gets a bad rap. It&rsquo;s often forgotten that the hospital has a distinguished history. One important event in medical treatment took place there in 1937. The subject was blood.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/3-15--Jeff%20Dahl%20photo%2C%20Wikipedia%20Commons.jpg" title="Cook County Hospital (Jeff Dahl photo, Wikipedia Commons)" /></div><p>By the turn of the 20th Century, medical science had learned much about working with blood. Transfusions were becoming common. But blood will go stale after a while. If a patient needed blood, a live donor had to give it, directly and immediately.</p><p>Could blood be stored for longer than a few hours? Researchers worked on that problem for decades. During the early 1930s, Russia was able to set up a network of blood depots, where patients could have access to preserved blood. This interested Dr. Bernard Fantus.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/3-15--Dr.%20Fantus%20%28Smithsonian%20Institution%29.jpg" style="width: 255px; height: 382px; float: right;" title="Bernard Fantus. M.D. (Smithsonian Institution)" />Fantus was a Hungarian-born physician who had earned his M.D. at the University of Illinois. He became director of therapeutics at Cook County Hospital in 1934. In his new role he began a series of experiments on how to increase the storage time for blood.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">Using refrigeration and various additives, Fantus was able to preserve blood for up to ten days. Early in 1937 he made plans to open the Blood Preservation Laboratory at County.&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">But he didn&rsquo;t like that name! Sure, it described the work that was going on at the new facility. Trouble was, calling it the &ldquo;Preservation Laboratory&rdquo; made it sound like something out of a Dracula movie.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">America was in the middle of the Depression. Saving was on everyone&rsquo;s mind. After some rough times, banks were starting to rebound. With that idea in mind, Fantus decided to call his facility the Cook County Hospital Blood Bank. It opened on this date 76 years ago&mdash;March 15, 1937.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">A few months later Fantus published an article on the blood bank in the <em>Journal of the American Medical Association</em>. Other hospitals adopted the idea, and it spread world-wide.&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">Bernard Fantus died in 1940. Today the out-patient clinic at his hospital is named the Fantus Health Center.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div></p> Fri, 15 Mar 2013 05:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/blogs/john-r-schmidt/2013-03/cook-county-hospital-makes-history-106011 Improving doctor-patient relationships http://www.wbez.org/blogs/bez/2012-06/improving-doctor-patient-relationships-100011 <p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/doctor%20patient%20flickr.jpg" title="(flickr/Mercy Health)" /></div><p>Communication is paramount to the success of most relationships&mdash;especially in the case of doctors and patients, when lives can literally hang in the balance. OK, that may be a bit dramatic but imagine trying to put a puzzle together without all its pieces: Sure, you might be able to get the edges in order but you won&rsquo;t get the full picture. The same can be said of patient interviews; of course, these communications are often incredibly personal&mdash;and require a degree of comfort and trust.</p><p>Carolyn and Matthew Bucksbaum made their fortune building shopping malls. Last year, they gifted more than $40 million of that fortune to the University of Chicago to create the <a href="http://www.uchicago.edu/features/20110922_bucksbaum/sidebar.shtml" target="_blank">Bucksbaum Institute for Clinical Excellence</a>, a unique initiative that will focus on how to improve doctor-patient interaction. The institute&rsquo;s associate director, <a href="http://www.uchospitals.edu/physicians/matthew-sorrentino.html" target="_blank">Matthew Sorrentino</a>, says that there is emerging evidence that good communication with a patient can lead to better outcomes&mdash;when patients better understand their condition and course of treatment, Sorrentino explained, their compliance with medications and lifestyle recommendations improve.</p><p>So what do you look for in a doctor-patient relationship? Is it all about the bedside manner or do you prefer the brass tacks, &ldquo;just give it to me straight, Doc&rdquo; delivery? As the doctor-patient bond the bond is increasingly tested by modern medicine and all its trappings: insurance providers, specialists, the Internet and rising costs, Sorrentino and <a href="http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/emergencymed/faculty/Khare.Rahul.html" target="_blank">Dr. Rahul Khare</a>, who sees his fair share of patients in Northwestern&rsquo;s Emergency department, help us take a long hard look at what&rsquo;s happened to the doctor-patient relationship.</p><p>What kind of relationship do you have with your doctor?&nbsp;</p></p> Tue, 12 Jun 2012 08:18:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/blogs/bez/2012-06/improving-doctor-patient-relationships-100011 Surgeons in short supply in Uganda http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2012-01-20/surgeons-short-supply-uganda-95696 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2012-January/2012-01-20/uganda1.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><span class="piece-description-lead">Uganda desperately needs surgeons. In a country of 32 million people, there are only about a hundred specialist surgeons. As a result, accident victims with critical injuries must sometimes wait weeks or months for operations. </span></p><p><span class="piece-description-lead">One reason for the shortage: Ugandan medical students increasingly choose to work in the better paying field of HIV and AIDS care. Bonnie Allen reports.</span></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><em>The piece originally aired on the <a href="http://www.prx.org/group_accounts/5538-worldvision" target="_blank">World Vision Report</a>. We got it from the <a href="http://www.prx.org" target="_blank">Public Radio Exchange</a>.</em></p><p style="margin-left: 1in;">&nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 20 Jan 2012 18:59:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2012-01-20/surgeons-short-supply-uganda-95696