WBEZ | M(apps) & Data http://www.wbez.org/tags/mapps-data Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Chicago Homicides Up During Tumultuous 2015 For Police http://www.wbez.org/news/chicago-homicides-during-tumultuous-2015-police-114350 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/crime_scence_file.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Chicago murders rose to 468 in 2015, up from 416 the previous year. And while shootings increased, too, Chicago Police Department <a href="https://www.scribd.com/doc/294409498/Chicago-Police-Department-End-of-Year-Crime-Stats-for-2015">officials say overall crime decreased by 6 percent</a>. Police also say since 2011, overall crime has fallen by more than 37 percent.</p><p data-pym-src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/murders-2016/child.html">&nbsp;</p><script src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/murders-2016/js/lib/pym.js" type="text/javascript"></script><p>But Harold Pollack, co-director of the University of Chicago Crime Lab, cautions against too much emphasis on end-of-the-year numbers as some sort of &ldquo;magic&rdquo; indicator.</p><p>&ldquo;I don&rsquo;t say that as a way to try to evade accountability. I just think the accountability should come in what we are actually doing and what are the things we have to change, as opposed to what did the number turn out to be,&rdquo; Pollack said.</p><p>He said it&rsquo;s important to focus on the fundamental issues underlying violence, citing the need to control the illegal gun market and supply jobs for youth.</p><p>&ldquo;If we focus on those, year to year we may go up or down depending on what&rsquo;s going on,&rdquo; Pollack said, &ldquo;but over time I&rsquo;m convinced that we can bring the [murder] rate down.&rdquo;</p><p>The crime statistics released on New Year&rsquo;s Day come during a challenging time for the city. Public trust is eroded in the police department, and there&rsquo;s been a pall over the holiday season with the release of the Laquan McDonald video, which shows a white police officer pumping 16 bullets into a black teenager.</p><p>Protests pushing for police reform are almost a daily occurrence. Embattled Mayor Rahm Emanuel has fired the police superintendent and the head of the Independent Police Review Authority. The mayor also appointed a police task force. The U.S. Department of Justice is conducting an investigation into the police department. Earlier this week the mayor cut short a Cuba family vacation to deal with another police-involved shooting last weekend that left two black West Siders dead: <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/following-police-shooting-clean-questions-and-coping-austin-114310">Quintonio LeGrier, 19, and Bettie Jones, 55, who police say they shot by mistake</a>.</p><p>Among the <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/mayor-emanuel-announces-overhaul-chicago-police-training-tasers-114318">police reforms announced this week</a>: doubling the number of Tasers for officers who respond to calls for service, expanded use of body cameras and de-escalation tactics.</p><p data-pym-src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/shootings-2016/child.html">&nbsp;</p><script src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/shootings-2016/js/lib/pym.js" type="text/javascript"></script><p><i><a href="http://www.wbez.org/users/nmoore-0" rel="author"><span id="cke_bm_207S" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span>Natalie Moore</a> is WBEZ&rsquo;s South Side Bureau reporter. Email her at&nbsp;<a href="mailto:nmoore@wbez.org">nmoore@wbez.org</a>.&nbsp;You can follow her on </i><a href="https://twitter.com/natalieymoore"><i> Twitter</i><span id="cke_bm_207E" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></a></p></p> Fri, 01 Jan 2016 13:50:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/chicago-homicides-during-tumultuous-2015-police-114350 Expensive Private Schools Grow in Chicago http://www.wbez.org/news/expensive-private-schools-grow-chicago-114274 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/flickr David Blaikie.jpg" alt="" /><p><div>It&rsquo;s no secret that Chicago has seen a drop in the number of school-aged children over the past two decades.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>That&rsquo;s led to hundreds of <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/cps-board-votes-close-50-schools-107294" target="_blank">public </a>and <a href="http://www.wbez.org/programs/afternoon-shift/2015-05-19/afternoon-shift-state-chicago%E2%80%99s-catholic-schools-112055" target="_blank">parochial </a>schools closing.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>But in the last few years, another kind of school is opening -- schools that charge college prices for a K-12 education.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Didi Lewis helps families untangle the web of school options every year in her role as the school choice manager for the<a href="http://www.npnparents.org/" target="_blank"> Neighborhood Parents Network</a>. She said she&rsquo;s noticed a trend in recent years.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;There are the parents who want to stay in the city and want to make a go of it and don&rsquo;t want schools to be the reason they leave,&rdquo; Lewis said. It&rsquo;s an age-old dilemma, but one that has reversed in some parts of Chicago.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Census data shows that the percentage of extremely poor and working class families in the city has dropped in the last decade. On the other end of the spectrum, those making six-figures or more has grown.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Of all families in the city, those making $200,000 or more grew the most. Those families made up just 3 percent of Chicago families in 2005. Now, they make up 8 percent. (The trend holds true statewide, though the changes are less pronounced.)</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Most families can only afford public schools and of course, many upper middle class and wealthy families do still chose public options. As a graduate of Chicago Public Schools, Lewis said she always tells parents to check out their local public school.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><strong>New, expensive schools</strong></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Now, there&rsquo;s a handful of new private schools wooing upper-middle-class families --<a href="http://www.gemsworldacademy-chicago.com/page" target="_blank"> GEMS World Academy,</a> <a href="http://www.bennettday.org/" target="_blank">Bennett Day School</a> just opened,<a href="http://www.fusionacademy.com/" target="_blank"> Fusion Academy</a> and <a href="https://www.altschool.com/about-us" target="_blank">AltSchool</a> plan to open in the coming years, while <a href="http://www.nordangliaeducation.com/our-schools/chicago" target="_blank">The British School</a> and <a href="http://www.lyceechicago.org/" target="_blank">Lycee Francais </a>have expanded. These new expensive private schools are adding another layer to the school landscape of the city.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Cameron Smith is the founder of one of those new options. He opened Bennett Day School with a former teacher from Francis Parker named Kate Cicchelli. The school has preschool, kindergarten and first grade this year, but will expand one grade each year until 2020.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Bennett teachers are using a Montessori-like approach to education, called Reggio Emilia. The school also has a TinkerLab - a Silicon Valley trend that emerged from the Maker movement that believes people should be creators, not consumers.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>On a Saturday this fall, Smith spoke with WBEZ during a free Tinkerthon event with one of the founding board members of the San Francisco-based <a href="http://www.tinkeringschool.com/" target="_blank">Tinkering School</a>.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Smith said Chicago is booming with people hungry for Bennett&rsquo;s kind of innovative approach to school.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;What&rsquo;s happening in the city is really exciting, with companies like Boeing and Conagra moving their headquarters&hellip; and all the great things happening at 1871,&rdquo; Smith said. &ldquo;We&rsquo;re on Fulton just a block east of Halsted and there are six co-working spaces within four blocks of us.&rdquo;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><strong>Wooing tech companies</strong></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Mayor Rahm Emanuel has pushed to get more businesses to put down roots in the city, especially entrepreneurial tech companies like <a href="https://www.google.com/" target="_blank">Google</a>, <a href="https://www.groupon.com/" target="_blank">Groupon</a>, and <a href="http://www.yelp.com/" target="_blank">Yelp</a>.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Smith said he thinks the mayor is missing a piece: Where will the employees of those companies send their kids to school? What kind of education do they want?</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;In my day job, I was an investor in education companies and so I was learning about educational approach during the day, all the time,&rdquo; Smith said. &ldquo;There was this idea for a school that I had for my kids that I&rsquo;m not seeing that takes it as far as I like.&rdquo;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Smith grew up in Michigan -- a suburb of Detroit -- and went to the public schools there. When his first son was born, like many parents, he found himself overwhelmed with the &ldquo;alphabet soup&rdquo; of education in the city. He toured many different schools -- neighborhood public schools, selective enrollment schools, parochial, Montessori, and the existing elite schools, like Francis Parker.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;It just came to a point where my wife and I had a conversation and said, &lsquo;I&rsquo;ll quit my job in finance and we&rsquo;ll start a school for my son and now sons,&rsquo; because we think there are other families like ours,&rdquo; Smith said.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Tuition at Bennett starts at $17,500 and tops out at $24,500. Smith says the high price tag comes with something public schools can&rsquo;t guarantee -- stability and peace of mind.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;I wanted school to be focused on kids and the outcome of the kids and not necessarily be distracted by other things -- fundraising or the like,&rdquo; Smith said. &ldquo;I didn&rsquo;t want that to be a burden on our parents to have some kind of additional monetary requirement on them beyond tuition.&rdquo;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Bennett&rsquo;s tuition is low compared to Fusion Academy -- a private, for-profit school looking to open three new locations this fall in Chicago and<a href="http://www.chicagotribune.com/suburbs/oak-brook/news/ct-dob-new-school-tl-1126-20151123-story.html" target="_blank"> the suburbs</a>. Full-time tuition is $40,000 a year, though students can choose to take just one or two classes at a time if, say, their school doesn&rsquo;t offer it or they&rsquo;re typically homeschooled, said Mike Van Dinther, head of business development for Fusion.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Van Dinther said Chicago is not alone.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;There is growth in private school providers in many major cities in the country,&rdquo; Van &nbsp;Dinther said. &ldquo;I don&rsquo;t think it&rsquo;s unique to Chicago. You&rsquo;re also seeing it in New York, and in LA and San Francisco.&rdquo;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><strong>Ripple effect?</strong></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>It&rsquo;s too early to say what -- if any -- impact these new expensive schools could have on the public schools in the city.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><a href="http://www.tcf.org/experts/detail/richard-d.-kahlenberg" target="_blank">Richard Kahlenberg </a>is a fellow at The Century Foundation who studies economic and racial integration in schools.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>He says families have a constitutional right to choose private schools and many will. &nbsp;But policy-makers should keep an eye on the growth of these high-end schools.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;Our economy is becoming more and more stratified with wealthier people seceding from public institutions and that is to the detriment of all of us,&rdquo; Kahlenberg said. &nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Kahlenberg said public schools have to find ways to attract families who have options -- even the wealthiest in the city.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;If we continue to segment and segregate, then the original idea of the common school that brings children of all backgrounds together will be lost and that&rsquo;ll be a real tragedy,&rdquo; he said.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Wooing the middle and upper class is not on the top of Chicago Public Schools&rsquo; priority list right now. The district is trying to fill a $480 million budget hole with a junk bond rating.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Smith, the dad who founded Bennett Day School, said he doesn&rsquo;t see his school as hurting public schools. If anything, he said he hopes they can share some of their ideas and innovations with other public and private schools. &nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><em>Becky Vevea is an education reporter for WBEZ. You can follow her <a href="http://twitter.com/WBEZeducation">@WBEZeducation</a>.</em></div><div>&nbsp;</div></p> Tue, 29 Dec 2015 12:51:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/expensive-private-schools-grow-chicago-114274 Fare Game: When do CTA Buses Break Even? http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/fare-game-when-do-cta-buses-break-even-113884 <p><p>The midnight ride started it. Actually, it was about half past midnight. That&rsquo;s when Fred Pineda, who moved to the city seven years ago to attend the University of Chicago, would climb aboard the #6 bus to take him back to Hyde Park once he was done partying downtown. Fred says he made the trip often and &ldquo;usually there would only be about four or five of us on that bus, especially during weekdays. I was thinking, &lsquo;There&rsquo;s no way the CTA is making money off this route.&rsquo;&rdquo;</p><p>Fred has since moved to the North Side, and hasn&rsquo;t taken that trip in a while. But a question from those days has stuck with him, the same question he&rsquo;s posed to Curious City:</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align: center;"><em>How many fares does it take for a bus to get to the break even point?</em></p><p>The &ldquo;break even point&rdquo; is that sweet spot where the amount of cash coming into the farebox on a given bus line matches what is going out to cover the bus&rsquo;s operating costs.</p><p>This is a big question for the second-largest public transit system in the country. Just in the first half of this year, about 869,000 weekday trips were taken on CTA buses. The agency spends $764 million to maintain that service, with a good chunk of that amount coming from public funds.</p><p>Technically, the CTA <em>could</em> break even &mdash; &nbsp;at least on paper. To get at exactly how, we ran a two-part thought experiment. The first looks at what the break even point actually is, while the second investigates what the CTA would have to change in service, pricing, and access in order for bus operations to pay for themselves.</p><p>In laying out the serious financial gymnastics required to create a wholly self-sufficient CTA bus service, we realize this story is more complex than finding a magic price point: There&rsquo;s often an impulse to make people who use a service pay its full cost, but when it comes to public transit, even some fiscal watchdogs agree that the goal of &ldquo;breaking even&rdquo; is not all it&rsquo;s cracked up to be.</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Breaking even</span></p><p>To answer Fred&rsquo;s question, we have to determine what CTA buses earn, and compare that to what it costs to run the system. Most of the CTA&rsquo;s expenses fall into one of two categories: 1) overall costs (fuel, driver salaries, maintenance, and administration); and 2) capital costs (the price tags for new buses). According to transportation figures which the agency reports to the federal <a href="http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/">National Transit Database</a>, the CTA lines up fare collection data against its overall operating costs and excludes capital costs, since operating costs are where the bulk of the annual budget is directed.</p><p>The CTA&rsquo;s overall bus costs added up to $764,280,757 in 2013 &mdash; the latest year for which data are available.</p><p>In that same year, CTA buses earned $298,824,494 just in fares, or 39 percent of what it spent on its overall costs. The remaining 61 percent was mainly paid for with state and city subsidies deriving from sales taxes and Chicago&rsquo;s real estate transfer tax.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/fareboxrecoverycomparison.PNG" style="height: 388px; width: 620px;" title="" /></div><p>Although the CTA prefers not to look at its bus service through the &ldquo;break even&rdquo; lens, some of its buses do cross that threshold in certain circumstances, according to Yonah Freemark, a city planner who specializes in transportation and development policy for the <a href="http://www.metroplanning.org/people/staff-member/?id=67">Metropolitan Planning Council</a>.</p><p>Freemark bases his calculations on RTA data, as well as figures from the National Transit Database. He says it costs about $132 per hour for the CTA to operate a bus. Therefore, Freemark figures, in order to cover the full cost of its operations over a single hour, one bus would have to earn $132 per hour at the farebox. That covers costs for the driver, gas, administration, and maintenance. (Again, it leaves out capital costs, such as the bus itself.)</p><p>With a <a href="http://www.transitchicago.com/fares/">f</a><a href="http://www.transitchicago.com/fares/" target="_blank">ull fare set at $2 per person</a> (or $2.25 if you pay cash) a CTA bus would seemingly need just 66 passengers to come aboard during that hour in order for that bus to break even. But in 2013, the <em>average</em> rider only paid about a dollar per trip. This is because, in compliance with state and federal regulations, the <a href="http://www.transitchicago.com/travel_information/fares/reduced.aspx">CTA offers a large number of riders free or reduced fares</a>, including students, seniors, people in the military, and disabled passengers. There are also unlimited ride passes, and multiple rides taken via transfers.</p><p>&ldquo;Given the fact that the average passenger on a bus is only paying about $1 per trip,&rdquo; says Freemark, a bus needs about 132 riders over the course of an hour in order to cover its costs.</p><p>With 128 bus routes operating throughout Chicago and 35 suburbs, it seems that if you add up all of the service hours throughout the entire CTA bus system (math that the CTA has been reluctant to do or share, citing considerations of staff time), you are likely to find that (a) most buses most of the time do not break even, and (b) breaking even is most prone to occur during peak hours, and not on every line.</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">The cost of breaking even</span></p><p>The CTA has not announced plans to raise fares any time soon, and actually, a thought experiment may help understand why: What if the CTA wanted to break even? That is, what if the agency paid for all of its bus operating costs solely with what it earns from bus passengers?</p><p>According to Freemark, the fare price would have to skyrocket. &ldquo;You would need to increase the fare to $5.12 per trip,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;That&rsquo;s an increase of 156 percent.&rdquo;</p><p>That new $5.12 figure would be the equivalent of today&rsquo;s &ldquo;full fare&rdquo; price of $2.00. Under this scenario, reduced fares for veterans, seniors, and children would also rise proportionately, and Freemark&rsquo;s math accounts for the effects of free transfers and monthly passes. The bottom line, though, is that higher sticker price would fetch enough bus fares to cover the bus system&rsquo;s operating costs.</p><p>Freemark&rsquo;s take on this: &ldquo;Doing that would immediately result in a significant decline in the number of people taking the buses.&rdquo;</p><p>Freemark points to the <a href="https://hbr.org/2015/08/a-refresher-on-price-elasticity">concept of price elasticity</a>. As the price of something goes up &mdash; a candy bar, or a gallon of gas &mdash; the number of people willing to pay goes down. Transit elasticity, Freemark says, has a formula that&rsquo;s about -0.4, meaning every time fares increase by 10 percent, the number of riders drops by 4 percent. A full fare of $5.12 would equate to a price hike of 156 percent; Freemark expects CTA bus ridership would fall by 62.4 percent.</p><p>To test this thought experiment, we run our hypothetical price hike by Chicagoan Quinn Naughton, a regular bus rider who says &mdash; thought experiment or not &mdash; the CTA should never consider such a dramatic increase in fares.</p><p>&ldquo;People should protest, people should actually revolt,&rdquo; he says, adding that under our scenario, he would have to move &mdash; probably out of Chicago.</p><p>If the CTA wants to break even, Freemark says, the agency has a couple of other options, like increasing ridership. But, he warns &ldquo;if we more than doubled the number of people riding the bus everyday, you&rsquo;d need many, many more buses, so you&rsquo;d dramatically increase the cost of operations of the bus system.&rdquo;</p><p>Translation: You&rsquo;ll just end up spending more than you recover in fares. Freemark says faster buses with dedicated lanes and traffic signal priority would certainly boost ridership, and may bring the buses closer to breaking even. But that scenario would require political changes as well as new capital funds to adapt infrastructure.</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Fending for itself</span></p><p>So far, our experiment&rsquo;s gone into the mechanics of what policy-makers and transit planners call the &ldquo;<a href="http://publictransport.about.com/od/Transit_Funding/a/The-Basics-Of-Transit-Funding.htm">farebox recovery ratio</a>,&rdquo; which compares the money collected from transit riders and operating costs. Again, CTA&rsquo;s recovery rate for its bus system was close to 39 percent in 2013. Why doesn&rsquo;t the agency try to break even?</p><p>Some of the answer has to do with the consequences Freemark laid out: If CTA hiked bus fares, it might actually lose riders. But another part of the answer is that the agency&rsquo;s not required to break even. The state of Illinois requires agencies under the Regional Transportation Authority &mdash; including CTA (bus and rail combined), Metra, and Pace &mdash; to collectively meet a 50 percent farebox recovery ratio, meaning that those agencies earn at least about half of their operating costs just through fares.</p><p>The farebox recovery ratio was originally established to prevent transit agencies from building more train and bus lines than the public would use.</p><p>Laurence Msall, President of the <a href="https://www.civicfed.org/">Chicago Civic Federation</a>, a nonpartisan research group that studies fiscal sustainability, says the recovery ratio mandate also ensured that the CTA, along with the other agencies, &ldquo;wasn&rsquo;t running significant deficits, that it was collecting as much as it could in terms of the farebox, and that we weren&rsquo;t giving away the system.&rdquo;</p><p>In recent years, the region has consistently met or surpassed the state-mandated minimum, but on occasion there are calls for CTA to adopt plans to boost recovery rates. (Just one example: During the transit funding crisis of 2007, representative <a href="http://ilga.gov/house/transcripts/htrans95/09517001.pdf">Dave Winters of Rockford argued for fare increases and higher recovery rates</a> in Chicago-area transit agencies: &ldquo;The users of those services need to carry their own weight.&rdquo;)</p><p>As for the CTA&rsquo;s own take on the &ldquo;break even&rdquo; idea, agency spokeswoman Tammy Chase says &ldquo;that&rsquo;s not a calculation that we ever make or would. It&rsquo;s moot for us.&rdquo; She says the agency regards public transportation as a public service, &ldquo;not just providing customers service from Point A to Point B. It&rsquo;s broader than that; there&rsquo;s a broader economic good, for all of the public. It&rsquo;s more than a ride to us.&rdquo;</p><p>Still, the agency does pay attention to basic laws of economics. For example, Chase says CTA determines bus routes based on the projected needs of riders: &ldquo;We pay attention to ridership demand, where the most riders are.&rdquo;</p><p>That translates into a metric the agency calls &ldquo;productivity,&rdquo; or the average number of passengers on a bus during one hour. &ldquo;You want to be ideally between 35 and 55 customers on a bus,&rdquo; Chase says. The CTA&rsquo;s most common buses seat around 35 passengers. &ldquo;If you&rsquo;re getting to above 50 riders, some are standing. It&rsquo;s still a comfortable experience. If you&rsquo;re getting to around 70 people, that&rsquo;s a crowded bus.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><a href="http://interactive.wbez.org/curiouscity/cta/" target="_blank"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/CTA%20productivity%20screen%20grab%20embed2.png" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="" /></a></div><p>Chase says CTA adjusts schedules, the number of buses and even the size of buses to hit a standard for normal service hours. The overarching goal, she says, is to have no passenger in the city wait more than 30 minutes before the next scheduled bus arrives. (Disruptions in these routes can often lead to <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/why-buses-arrive-bunches-110941" target="_blank">&quot;bus bunching,&quot; which is tough to tackle.</a>)</p><p>Adjustments only go so far, though, and the agency does keep run some low-productivity lines. Chase says those examples exemplify how the CTA emphasizes public service over bottom line considerations like breaking even. Several buses provide essential transportation, if only to relatively few people: say, to those who might have no alternative for getting to school, to work, a pharmacy or grocery store.</p><p>Interestingly, even the Civic Federation&rsquo;s Laurence Msall says the break even idea is &ldquo;not a reasonable expectation,&rdquo; and the government needs to subsidize public transit in some form.</p><p>&ldquo;There is a very strong argument to be made that if Chicago, if the State of Illinois was in better financial shape, that it should be investing more in the public transportation system,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;We basically should be reducing even more the cost of riding the CTA to attract more riders or to expand the system.&rdquo;</p><p>Msall says the CTA has struggled with inefficiencies in the past, but right now, he thinks, the system can&rsquo;t get cheaper. It just costs too much to operate. It&rsquo;s worth the price, because CTA buses earn their keep everyday by cutting rush hour traffic and improving air quality.</p><p>Chicagoan Sarah Erwin, who relies almost solely on the CTA system to get around, agrees.</p><p>&ldquo;If you could have really great public transportation, you wouldn&rsquo;t have to have as many cars,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;We don&rsquo;t own a car. We specifically chose Lakeview where we can walk or get public transit or a Zipcar to where we need to go. So, it&rsquo;s vital to us.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/fred%20pineda%20crop.png" style="height: 285px; width: 280px; float: left;" title="(Photo courtesy Fred Pineda)" /><span style="font-size:24px;">More about our questioner</span></p><p>Fred Pineda got his doctorate at the University of Chicago in medical physics. Now he works at the university developing MRI technology. It makes sense that a science guy would ask such a numbers-heavy question. But Pineda, a native of Mexico City, also regularly rides the CTA, where he spends about two hours on his daily commute. &nbsp;</p><p><em>Christopher Johnson is an independent producer and reporter based in Chicago.</em></p></p> Fri, 20 Nov 2015 17:20:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/fare-game-when-do-cta-buses-break-even-113884 Chicago developers shell out millions rather than build affordable housing http://www.wbez.org/news/chicago-developers-shell-out-millions-rather-build-affordable-housing-113371 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/aro.png" alt="" /><p><p dir="ltr">The roar of construction blares at the intersection of Chestnut and Orleans, not far from the former Cabrini-Green public housing development. A <a href="http://nextapts.com/">sleek glass apartment</a> building with 310 units is set for an area now home to tech businesses and diverse retail.</p><p dir="ltr">The luxury high-rise will be equipped with a yoga studio, private balconies, cabanas by the pool and a coffee bar. But one thing it won&rsquo;t have is affordable housing.</p><p dir="ltr">Instead, the developer wrote a hefty $3.1 million check to the city of Chicago&rsquo;s affordable housing opportunity fund.</p><p dir="ltr">This is a common arrangement, and not just on the Near North Side.</p><blockquote><p dir="ltr"><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/chicago-developers-shell-out-millions-rather-build-affordable-housing-113371#map">Map of developments that opted to pay instead of build affordable housing</a></strong></p></blockquote><p dir="ltr">When residential developers want to build on city-owned land or receive financial help, Chicago asks for something in return. The city requires them to provide 10 percent of units at affordable prices or have them to pay into a fund. For homeowners, the term affordable means a family of four earning $76,000 a year. For rentals, a family of four earning $45,000.</p><p dir="ltr">WBEZ obtained a list of payments to the city&rsquo;s Affordable Housing Opportunity Fund. We found that from 2005-2015, developers have shelled out $77 million dollars to not include affordable housing in their buildings.&nbsp;The fees collected by the city were used, in the form of rent subsidies, to help underwrite affordable apartment units elsewhere.</p><p dir="ltr">The vast majority of properties that opted out are in trendy, expensive neighborhoods that are mostly white and have a dearth of affordable housing: River North, downtown, Wrigleyville.</p><p dir="ltr">That gave 27th Ward Alderman Walter Burnett pause.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;It made me think that, man, I&rsquo;ve been allowing these guys to opt out into support other affordable developments on the West Side and other areas in the ward but not here,&rdquo; Burnett said.</p><p dir="ltr">By &ldquo;here&rdquo; he means the pricey West Loop, a former seedy area that now hosts the restaurant glitterati and luxury condos. Burnett&rsquo;s ward is a peculiar mix. It ranges from the gentrifying area that used to be Cabrini-Green, to parts of the West Side that are vacant and low income.</p><p dir="ltr">Burnett has negotiated with developers to pitch in money for other affordable housing in his ward. But those units end up getting built in the high poverty areas.&nbsp;</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;I allowed this to happen. I allowed for one type of group of people with a certain amount of money in the neighborhood, and it needs to be mixed. So I said from here on out people are going to have to do some affordable over here. I can&rsquo;t let them opt out anymore,&rdquo; Burnett said.</p><p>He pushed the city to create <a href="http://www.cityofchicago.org/content/dam/city/depts/dcd/general/housing/ARO_Enhancement_Summary.pdf">changes in its affordable housing ordinance</a> that took effect this week. A developer who wants to build now at the very minimum has to provide one fourth of the 10 percent requirement for affordable units at the actual site. Or he could build those units off site within two miles -- or pay even more if it&rsquo;s outside of that radius.</p><p dir="ltr">In all of these scenarios, the developers would still pay a fee if they didn&rsquo;t meet the 10 percent goal. The new ordinance increases some of those fees from $100,000 to $225,000 thousand dollars per each unit not built.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;We&rsquo;re pushing in the right direction,&rdquo; Burnett said.</p><p dir="ltr">WBEZ called <a href="http://www.fifieldco.com/index.php">many</a> <a href="http://webstersquare.com/deveolper/">many</a> <a href="http://www.magellandevelopment.com/">local</a> <a href="http://centrumpartners.net/">developers</a> to find out why they write six- and seven-figure checks instead of including some affordable housing units. Either they didn&rsquo;t call back or refused to talk on the record.</p><p dir="ltr">But one developer group has turned the city&rsquo;s rule into a legal matter. In August, the Home Builders Association of Greater Chicago filed a complaint in Cook County Circuit Court.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;[The city] still thinks that they have to punish people to get what they want instead of offering an incentive that gets results,&rdquo; said Paul Colgan, of the association.</p><p dir="ltr">Colgan said developers would lose money on rentals and for-sale units if they included 10 percent affordable housing. He says a better way to get developers to comply would be to provide tax abatements or help them reduce building costs.</p><p>There is one change in the affordable requirements ordinance that Cogan said pleases developers. The chance to build off-site instead of at the development they are getting city assistance from.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;But the new ordinance, even though it has new incentives built into it, it&rsquo;s still has the same fundamental problem as the original ordinance had and that was it&rsquo;s taking under the law,&rdquo; Colgan said.</p><p dir="ltr">Taking property, Colgan argues, is unconstitutional. And his group is continuing the lawsuit.</p><p dir="ltr">Pouring millions of dollars into the city&rsquo;s coffers rather than deliver affordable housing units helps perpetuate racial and economic segregation in the city</p><p>A separate <a href="http://interactive.wbez.org/maps/lihtc/">WBEZ analysis</a> found that was also true for apartment complexes funded by federal low income housing tax credits. LIHTC developments are clustered on the South and West Sides &mdash; where it&rsquo;s cheaper, and there&rsquo;s less resistance.</p><p>But Marisa Novara of the Metropolitan Planning Council said this doesn&rsquo;t give families access to better neighborhoods &mdash; otherwise known as &lsquo;opportunity areas.&rsquo;</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;What if some portion of those buyout fees were set aside specifically for low income housing tax credit developments in low-poverty areas to bridge the financing gap that only grows larger when the property is higher valued,&rdquo; Novara said.</p><p dir="ltr">She said there&rsquo;s precedent for this. In Boston, a minimum of half of the developers&rsquo; opt-out fees must be spent in areas with less affordable housing than the city&rsquo;s average.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;It&rsquo;s one small example but you could look at really harnessing the market-rate activity that we have in high-value neighborhoods to do affordable development in the same type of neighborhoods,&rdquo; Novara said.</p><p dir="ltr">Because right now, at least under the old rules, that&rsquo;s not what Chicago is doing.</p><p dir="ltr">In the last two years, the city put money from the developer fund toward nine affordable housing developments.</p><p>Only one would probably be considered in an opportunity area &mdash; and it was for window replacement.</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;"><a name="map"></a></span></p><p><iframe frameborder="0" height="620" scrolling="no" src="http://interactive.wbez.org/maps/aro/" style="float: right; clear: right;" width="620"></iframe></p><p><em><a href="http://interactive.wbez.org/maps/aro/">Click for fullscreen map</a></em></p><p><em><a href="http://www.wbez.org/users/nmoore-0" rel="author">Natalie Moore</a> is WBEZ&rsquo;s South Side Bureau reporter. <a href="mailto:nmoore@wbez.org">nmoore@wbez.org</a>&nbsp;Follow Natalie on <a href="https://plus.google.com//104033432051539426343" rel="me">Google+</a>, &nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/natalieymoore">Twitter</a></em></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 16 Oct 2015 04:55:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/chicago-developers-shell-out-millions-rather-build-affordable-housing-113371 Section 8 voucher holders face blatant discrimination on Craigslist http://www.wbez.org/news/section-8-voucher-holders-face-blatant-discrimination-craigslist-113330 <p><p><em>This story was updated&nbsp;</em><em>to add additional information&nbsp;</em><em>Oct. 15, 1:12 p.m.&nbsp;</em></p><p>Despite a 25-year old Chicago law banning the practice, landlords across the city continue to explicitly discriminate against Section 8 voucher holders, WBEZ has found.</p><p>Since 1990, the city&rsquo;s <a href="https://www.cityofchicago.org/content/dam/city/depts/cchr/AdjSupportingInfo/AdjFORMS/OrdinanceBooklet2012.pdf">Fair Housing Ordinance</a> has deemed it illegal to discriminate against families who pay all or part of their rent with Housing Choice Vouchers. More commonly known as Section 8, the vouchers are a federal subsidy intended to help low-income families, the elderly and disabled pay for rental housing on the private market. The Chicago Housing Authority, which administers the program in the City of Chicago, provides voucher assistance to nearly 43,000 households.</p><p>But a WBEZ analysis of Craigslist housing ads found that discrimination against voucher holders continues, in ways that are sometimes blatant, and touches nearly all parts of Chicago. At the same time, a disproportionate number of ads specifically encouraged voucher holders to apply for apartments in high-poverty, high-crime neighborhoods.</p><p>WBEZ&rsquo;s investigation began after listener David Mahler notified us of a Craigslist posting this past May that advertised a one-bedroom unit in Chicago&rsquo;s Rogers Park neighborhood.</p><p>&ldquo;At the bottom, (we) noticed that there was a little disclaimer that said &lsquo;no Section 8 or minorities,&rsquo;&rdquo; said Mahler, a community engagement manager at a non-profit.&nbsp;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/rogerspark.jpg" title="A screen grab of the Craigslist ad listener David Mahler noticed specifying no Section 8 or minorities." /></div><p>Mahler said he was shocked to see an ad that discriminated against minorities so openly, as that&rsquo;s a violation of federal law. However, he said it wasn&rsquo;t the first time he&rsquo;d seen ads that refused Section 8 or voucher holders.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>WBEZ created a database of all Chicago Craigslist housing ads during the month of June that mentioned Section 8, housing choice vouchers, or variants of those terms. Additionally, we captured all such ads that were listed that month in suburban Cook County, which enacted similar source of income protections for voucher holders in 2013.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/how-we-analyzed-discrimination-craigslist-housing-ads-113331">Read more on how we compiled the data</a></strong></p><p>It came out to more than 2,800 ads. On average, four to five listings a day were unwelcoming to voucher holders in the City of Chicago, using language such as &ldquo;No Section 8,&rdquo; &ldquo;not Section 8 approved,&rdquo; &ldquo;not a Section 8 building,&rdquo; and &ldquo;no vouchers.&rdquo; In suburban Cook County, ads that mentioned housing choice vouchers or Section 8 were discriminatory more than 25 percent of the time.</p><p data-pym-src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/craigslist-chart/child.html">&nbsp;</p><script src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/craigslist-chart/js/lib/pym.js" type="text/javascript"></script><p>&ldquo;They can&rsquo;t say that they don&rsquo;t participate in the Section 8 program because every landlord in Chicago essentially has to participate in the voucher program,&rdquo; said Christine Klepper, Executive Director of a <a href="http://www.thecha.org/residents/services/mobility-counseling-program/">mobility counseling</a> program called Housing Choice Partners. &ldquo;It doesn&rsquo;t mean they can&rsquo;t screen their tenants &mdash; they can certainly do that if they screen for credit or they screen for criminal background or they screen for whatever. But they can&rsquo;t just screen out voucher holders, that&rsquo;s illegal.&rdquo;</p><p>Klepper&rsquo;s non-profit helps families with housing choice vouchers use their subsidies to move to so-called &ldquo;<a href="http://www.thecha.org/assets/1/6/Opportunity_Area_Final_8.5_x11_w_Limited.pdf">opportunity areas</a>,&rdquo; with less poverty and low concentrations of subsidized housing. Fair housing advocates say that often, these moves can help low-income families climb out of poverty by giving children access to safer environments and better schools, and improving job opportunities for adults. But Klepper says it&rsquo;s difficult.</p><p>&ldquo;Families are discriminated against because they have a voucher,&rdquo; said Klepper. &ldquo;All those stereotypes about what voucher holders look like and how they behave. Also, landlords will talk about not wanting to deal with a government program.&rdquo;</p><p>In Chicago, where 88 percent of voucher holders are black, the apartment hunt can feel like a cruel throwback to decades when blacks weren&rsquo;t allowed into a lot of Chicago neighborhoods.</p><p>&ldquo;I&rsquo;ve had some [landlords] that come straight out and tell me, &lsquo;We&rsquo;ve had negative experiences with voucher-holders destroying units before, and we&rsquo;re not currently accepting vouchers,&rsquo;&rdquo; related Aneesah Johnson Ford, an African-American insurance salesperson working to get her business degree.</p><p>Ford wanted to move her family to Chicago&rsquo;s North Side where she says it&rsquo;s safer and more diverse. But nearly two months into her search, she was still unable to find a place that would accept her voucher. In addition to using Craigslist and other online listing websites, Ford paid some apartment hunting services to assist with the search. But she said one leasing agent advised her to redirect her preferences.</p><p>&ldquo;He said, &lsquo;Well, you know what, I&rsquo;m going to be really honest with you, on the North Side, they really don&rsquo;t particularly like voucher holders,&rsquo;&rdquo; Ford recalled. &ldquo;So he said I should discontinue my search on the North Side altogether, and he said that he was going to try to tap some resources here in Hyde Park.&rdquo;</p><p>The anti-Section 8 ads we found on Craigslist were actually all over the city. Rogers Park, Lakeview, Logan Square, Gold Coast, River North, Bronzeville, Garfield Park, Woodlawn, and more.</p><p data-pym-src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/craigslist-1/child.html">&nbsp;</p><script src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/craigslist-1/js/lib/pym.js" type="text/javascript"></script><p>Worried that her 90-day window to use &mdash; or lose &mdash; her voucher could run out, Ford said she had all but given up on her hope of living where she wants.</p><p>A <a href="http://cafha.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/CLCCRUL-CHA-testing-report.pdf">CHA-commissioned study</a> found that more often than not, housing providers in the city &mdash; even some who already rented to tenants with vouchers &mdash; discriminated against prospective tenants who said they had vouchers. Most common was verbal steering of applicants to certain buildings, refusal to negotiate and inferior service. WBEZ&rsquo;s analysis of Craigslist ads shines a light on more obvious violations of the city law, and points to a need for both more enforcement and more education.</p><p>WBEZ called dozens of people who posted discriminatory ads. Nearly all of them refused to speak for attribution. But several said they feel that participating in the Housing Choice Voucher program is a bureaucratic hassle. When a voucher-holder applies for a unit, CHA has to then inspect it to make sure the rent is acceptable, and the apartment is up to code. In fact, many said they thought they had to be &ldquo;pre-approved&rdquo; to participate in Section 8.</p><p>Others said they had heard from friends that Section 8 tenants trash their apartments. Under Chicago&rsquo;s Fair Housing Ordinance, none of these are acceptable reasons to refuse voucher holders the right to apply for housing.</p><p>By far the most common excuse given by housing providers was simple ignorance of the law.</p><p>Al Williams said his concerns about the Housing Choice Voucher program trace back to the only time he rented a unit to a Section 8 tenant.</p><p>&ldquo;He would report to Section 8 any problem &mdash; without reporting to me,&rdquo; said Williams. &ldquo;So &hellip; if the water coming out from his kitchen sink faucet lost pressure, he would report to Section 8 first. And I would learn that from Section 8. I&rsquo;d go in the mail, I&rsquo;d get a letter, the letter will have some type of ultimatum from Section 8, you know, &lsquo;Fix this or your rent stops.&rsquo;&rdquo;</p><p>Williams said that raised a red flag for him: he worried the same would happen if a tenant were to intentionally damage one of his units, perhaps to break a lease early.</p><p>&ldquo;If the landlord is not positioned to start going to court and doing all that,&rdquo; he said, &ldquo;chances are the landlord may just cut his losses and move on.&rdquo;</p><p>Ever since his experience with that one voucher-paying tenant, Williams said all his ads for apartments he owns in the Auburn-Gresham and Chatham neighborhoods have said, &ldquo;No Section 8.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/craigslist-illustration-2.PNG" title="Screen grab of a number of Craigslist ads discouraging to voucher holders." /></p><p>But Williams, like many of the landlords WBEZ spoke with, also appeared genuinely unaware of Chicago&rsquo;s Fair Housing Ordinance.</p><p>&ldquo;I don&rsquo;t think there&rsquo;s any law that illegalizes rejection of Section 8,&rdquo; he said.</p><p>&ldquo;We&rsquo;ve done some training of property management companies. We haven&rsquo;t done it recently,&rdquo; said Joann Newsome, Director of Human Rights Compliance for the Chicago Commission on Human Relations. &ldquo;But...the big ones already know the rules.&rdquo;</p><p>The Commission, which enforces Chicago&rsquo;s Fair Housing Ordinance, handles roughly 70 housing complaints a year, most of which have to do with Section 8 discrimination. Newsome said it&rsquo;s not uncommon for mom and pop operations to be genuinely unaware of Chicago&rsquo;s ordinance.</p><p>&ldquo;The average person just wants income property,&rdquo; Newsome said. &ldquo;The average person probably doesn&rsquo;t even look into housing laws.&rdquo;</p><p>While the Commission has the authority to initiate its own investigations into Craigslist ads like the ones WBEZ found, it&rsquo;s too short-staffed. Newsome said in her 12 years there, the number of investigators who look into fair housing violations shrank from seven to three. As the city continues to cut expenses, the Commission has not requested that money be restored.</p><p>But WBEZ heard from many voucher holders who said that they don&rsquo;t bother filing complaints with the Commission when they encounter discriminatory treatment.</p><p>&ldquo;Unfortunately a lot of people don&rsquo;t complain, because they feel like (there) ain&rsquo;t nobody listening, this ain&rsquo;t gonna get me nowhere, and they get angry and frustrated and they just be through with it. Which is not good,&rdquo; said Rhonda Jones, a retired retail professional living in Washington Park. &ldquo;Because that&rsquo;s what I did. I was angry and was like, forget it.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Craigslist---Rhonda-Jones.jpg" title="Rhonda Jones wanted to live near family in the Beverly neighborhood, but landlords refused her voucher. Instead, she moved to Washington Park, where many landlords are eager to attract Section 8 tenants. (WBEZ/Odette Yousef)" /></div><p>Jones said she had hoped to live in Beverly, near her family, but landlords there refused to take her voucher. In retrospect, she said she regrets not having reported them to the city. &ldquo;If I had to do it all over again, I would have,&rdquo; she said. But Jones has come to love her spacious, newly-refurbished apartment in Washington Park.</p><p>&ldquo;This is considered &lsquo;the &lsquo;hood,&rsquo; if you understand what I mean,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;But for me, I like this side of town because I feel like it&rsquo;s going to change.&rdquo; Also, she loved the new appliances, fresh paint and outdoor patio that make her 3-bedroom unit comfortable and welcoming to her fourteen grandchildren as they visit her throughout the year.</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="100" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/228529523&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>Indeed, WBEZ&rsquo;s Craigslist analysis found that Washington Park sits in a South Side cluster of neighborhoods where a disproportionate number of ads specifically recruited voucher-holders. During June, nearly 2100 listings in Chicago actually contained language such as &ldquo;Section 8 ok,&rdquo; or &ldquo;Section 8 welcome.&rdquo; However, nearly all were in high-poverty areas not deemed to be CHA opportunity areas. We found the seven neighborhoods with the greatest number of pro-voucher ads were all on the city&rsquo;s South Side and have poverty rates above 25 percent.</p><p>&ldquo;There&rsquo;s a whole crop of landlords who have properties in the low-income neighborhoods who have a really hard time finding market-rate tenants who are able to pay their rent on time, (or) who are able to pay their rent at all, in some cases,&rdquo; said Eva Rosen, a post-doctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins University&rsquo;s Poverty and Inequality Research Lab. &ldquo;Because the poverty rate is so high there, [landlords] are turning to the voucher program as a way to actually collect rent in a more reliable way.&rdquo;</p><p>Rosen has studied how landlords influence voucher-holders&rsquo; decisions about where to live through incentives and pressure tactics.</p><p>But what&rsquo;s wrong with landlords in low-income neighborhoods having a chance to bring in good, reliable income?</p><p>&ldquo;What&rsquo;s wrong with it is that the voucher program was created to try to offer families an opportunity to move to better neighborhoods,&rdquo; Rosen responded. &ldquo;To escape poor, segregated neighborhoods, and to try to find homes in more integrated places with better schools and better jobs, and that&rsquo;s very part of the ethos of the voucher program is to help deconcentrate poverty. So if we&rsquo;re seeing that families are actually moving back into poor neighborhoods with their vouchers, then we should really be thinking about why that&rsquo;s happening and how to prevent it.&rdquo;</p><p>Rosen said part of this could be corrected by a new effort from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to set vouchers at amounts that reflect more localized housing values. If vouchers are worth less in poorer neighborhoods, and more in opportunity areas, voucher households might choose to locate in areas with less concentrated poverty.</p><p>&ldquo;Everybody is held back when the lowest income people are held back, and they don&rsquo;t have that opportunity to move up the income ladder,&rdquo; said Klepper. &ldquo;And the voucher program is intended to do that, to help these families move up that ladder, to get them out of poverty. And what do we do? We isolate them in neighborhoods by themselves with no jobs, underperforming schools, and then point a finger and say, &lsquo;Oh they&rsquo;re poor, they don&rsquo;t want to do better,&rsquo; when in fact they do. They just need the chance and the opportunity to do it.&rdquo;</p><p>Meanwhile, Ford&rsquo;s search for an apartment in a North Side opportunity area ended just as she had feared: she ran out of time on her voucher and had few options. Forced to move her family to an area where she didn&rsquo;t want to live, she hopes to look for housing again next year.</p><p><em>Odette Yousef is a WBEZ reporter. Follow her </em><a href="https://twitter.com/oyousef"><em>@oyousef</em></a><em> and </em><a href="https://twitter.com/wbezoutloud"><em>@WBEZoutloud</em></a><em>.</em></p></p> Wed, 14 Oct 2015 07:52:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/section-8-voucher-holders-face-blatant-discrimination-craigslist-113330 Despite mandate, affluent suburbs fail to build affordable housing http://www.wbez.org/news/despite-mandate-affluent-suburbs-fail-build-affordable-housing-113274 <p><p>A couple of years ago the congregation at Zion Lutheran Church gathered to decide what to do with five and a half acres of grassy open space surrounded by lush trees on the north side of its property. &nbsp;</p><p>The church has called the prosperous suburb of Deerfield home since the mid-1950s and most of the area is surrounded by large single-family homes. But Pastor David Kyllo said members ruled out building more McMansions.</p><p>&ldquo;We were a little bit concerned about that because that&rsquo;s really not giving back to the community,&rdquo; Kyllo said.</p><p>He says another idea bubbled to the surface: affordable housing.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/lihtc1_151012_nm.jpg" title="David Kyllo is pastor of Zion Lutheran Church in Deerfield. The church wanted to build affordable housing on its property but dropped the proposal after heavy opposition from village residents. (WBEZ/Natalie Moore)" /></div><p>Zion Lutheran saw this as an opportunity to build housing for people who work in the area, but can&rsquo;t afford to live there. The congregation voted to go forward with the plan and a developer was brought on board. Called Zion Woods, it would consist of 48 apartments for families of four earning $45,000 a year with rents no more than $900 a month.</p><p>The church wanted to use Low-Income Housing Tax Credits, the largest federal initiative for building affordable housing. The LIHTC program, begun in 1986, gives developers the tax credits as an incentive to promote fair housing and integration.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><strong><a name="map"></a><a href="http://interactive.wbez.org/maps/lihtc/" target="_blank">MAP:&nbsp;Low-Income Housing Tax Credits in the Chicago metro area</a></strong></p><p>WBEZ analyzed where LIHTC credits have been used since the program&#39;s inception and found affordable housing tends to be clustered in areas with higher rates of poverty and racial segregation. That means fewer developments are being built in wealthy suburbs like Deerfield.</p><p>About 25 miles north of Chicago, the village is home to corporations like Walgreens and Baxter. It&rsquo;s population is 94 percent white, and the median income is $103,000. With access to good schools and jobs, Deerfield is considered an &ldquo;opportunity area&rdquo; for families in need of affordability and more amenities.</p><p>This was one of the reasons behind Zion Lutheran&rsquo;s proposed development. But it soon became clear that its benevolent mission didn&rsquo;t inspire everyone.</p><p>In May, the church presented its proposal at a public meeting of the Deerfield Plan Commission (<a href="http://deerfieldil.swagit.com/play/05142015-972" target="_blank">the video can be found here</a>) and opposition was fierce. Even before the meeting opponents sent&nbsp;<a href="http://www.deerfield.il.us/news/default.aspx?Archive=y&amp;ArticleId=395">dozens of letters</a>&nbsp;to the village, criticizing the development and a necessary zoning change.&nbsp;</p><p>Many neighbors cited concerns about density, traffic and declining property values. Others worried about school overcrowding (district officials have said those fears are unfounded). One resident speculated that children in the housing development will be &quot;prone to violence and theft.&quot;</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;"><span style="font-family:arial,helvetica,sans-serif;">&#39;But Not Next Door&#39;</span></span></p><p>This isn&rsquo;t the first time Deerfield has been caught up in a controversy over new housing.</p><p>Back in 1959, the uproar over a proposed integrated subdivision <a href="http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1959/11/19/page/73/article/housing-plan-in-deerfield-under-attack" target="_blank">made national headlines</a>. Residents used racist comments to talk about the threat to their property values. Some even characterized integrated housing as an economic stab in the back. Ultimately, the homes were never built.</p><p>The entire episode was chronicled in the book&nbsp;<em><a href="http://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=16521289779&amp;searchurl=tn%3Dbut+not+next+door%26sortby%3D20" target="_blank">But Not Next Door</a>&nbsp;</em>(1962), written by Harry and David Rosen, brothers and social workers who lived in Deerfield. It was referenced more than once by supporters of the Zion Woods project during the public hearing in May.&nbsp;</p><p>For decades after World War II, housing policy favored suburbs like Deerfield. There was federal financing for single family homes. New expressways helped facilitate white flight. The Fair Housing Act of 1968 was supposed to fix this. But nearly 50 years later, the law still has more bark than bite.</p><p>Deerfield Mayor Harriet Rosenthal insists the village is addressing the issue of affordable housing in its comprehensive plan.</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s a roadmap for the future and if there&rsquo;s an opportunity for a site to be developed as affordable housing, the village would support it if it fit into the area well,&rdquo; she said. When asked if the village was actively trying to get that kind of development, Rosenthal responded: &ldquo;not at the moment, but we&rsquo;re not discouraging it.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/1_ZionWoods_Prefil_Material050815-75.jpg" title="A proposed rendering of the Zion Woods affordable housing development. The LIHTC-funded project includes 48 apartments for families of four earning $45,000 annually with rents no more than $900/month. (courtesy of Eckenhoff Saunders Architects)" /></div><p>In 2009, no LIHTC developments were in Chicago suburban opportunity areas. Today, that number is improving, but there is still resistance in many communities.</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="100" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/228056868&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>Jessica Berzac is a developer who works particularly in the Northwest suburbs. She recently worked on an independent living development in Wheeling for people with various disabilities. The prosperous suburb is deemed an opportunity area. The median household income is higher than the region&rsquo;s average and there&rsquo;s high access to jobs, abundant commercial activity and good schools.</p><p>Berzac said initially neighbors objected and repeated familiar anxieties.</p><p>&ldquo;&#39;These people will wander the streets and change the character of my neighborhood. When I bought my home here 30 years ago, I expected to only be surrounded by single-family homes,&#39;&rdquo; Berzac recalled.</p><p>Originally, the Wheeling village board said no to the development. Berzac&rsquo;s company sued. A settlement was reached and recently Berzac finally closed on the property &mdash; five years after she began.</p><p>Another suburban affordable housing project, Myers Place in Mt. Prospect,&nbsp;breezed through for Berzac&rsquo;s team. It, too, is independent living with supportive services for the mentally ill and disabled.</p><p>Delfina Constanza has lived at Myers Place for two years. She&rsquo;s a domestic violence survivor and suffers from depression.</p><p>&ldquo;I was living in my car when I moved here,&rdquo; she said.</p><p>Constanza had been on a waitlist to find supportive housing. Then she received a piece of good news in the mail.</p><p>&ldquo;That&rsquo;s when the letter came and I was like shocked. I couldn&rsquo;t believe it. Tears came to my eyes of course but because I was so happy. Finally, after so many years of waiting and waiting,&rdquo; Constanza said, adding that living at Myers Place &ldquo;has built my confidence a little bit more. I have established myself here. I&rsquo;m comfortable here. I feel safe here. And I like the surroundings as far as stores and library across the street.&rdquo;</p><p>She pays three hundred dollars a month in rent for her one bedroom apartment, and has on-site services to manage her depression.</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;"><span style="font-family:arial,helvetica,sans-serif;">Lots of &lsquo;opportunity,&rsquo; little development</span></span></p><p>Getting suburbs in opportunity areas to embrace affordable housing can still be an uphill climb, but that&#39;s starting to change because of various federal and state policies.</p><p>This past July, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Secretary Julian Castro visited Chicago to&nbsp;<a href="http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/press/press_releases_media_advisories/2015/HUDNo_15-084">announce a new rule</a>: locales that receive HUD funding must turn in a plan outlining their affordable housing strategies.</p><p>&ldquo;This represents a new partnership with cities and other public entities. One that makes it easier to fulfill the goals of the 1968 Fair Housing Act,&rdquo; Castro said at a former Chicago public housing site on the South Side.</p><p>Just a month before, the U.S. Supreme Court&nbsp;<a href="http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/06/supreme-court-inclusive-communities/396401/">ruled that even unintentional policies</a> that segregate minorities in poor neighborhoods are in violation of the Fair Housing Act, which bans racial discrimination. The case centered on Low Income Housing Tax Credits.</p><p>These were two huge wins for affordable and fair housing that advocates say will have an impact in Illinois.</p><p>The Illinois Housing Development Authority allocates federal tax credits to sell to investors to generate private equity for affordable housing developments. That reduces the developer&rsquo;s debt who can in turn offer lower rents.</p><p>Excluding Chicago, IHDA allocates $23 million dollars in tax credits for the state.</p><p>&ldquo;We&rsquo;ve seen an abundance for affordable housing and tax credit projects in particular within certain communities and not others,&rdquo; said Mary Kenney, the recently departed executive director of IHDA.</p><p>Kenney said 10 years ago the agency started looking at unemployment and poverty. Officials analyzed where tax credits were going &mdash; and where they were not.</p><p>IHDA came up with a plan and won&rsquo;t accept affordable housing applications in places where there&rsquo;s an abundance. Developers now receive more points if their proposal is for an opportunity area.</p><p>This last go-round of low income tax credit awardees included one third in opportunity areas.</p><p>&ldquo;When I speak publicly, one of the first things I say to people is you walk by buildings I&rsquo;ve financed every single day and you don&rsquo;t know it,&rdquo; Kenney said.</p><p>Like the four-story, 39 unit Myers Place in Mt. Prospect where Delfina Constanza lives.</p><p>Kenney said other tools can nudge defiant communities. Illinois&#39;s Affordable Housing Planning and Appeal Act was enacted in 2003 to encourage local governments to incorporate affordable housing into their communities.</p><p>Yet many affluent municipalities, like Deerfield,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.chicagotribune.com/suburbs/highland-park/news/ct-hpn-suburbs-affordable-housing-mandate-tl-0813-20150807-story.html">skirt the law</a> citing home rule. The state said Deerfield is in violation but nonetheless faces no penalties.</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s never had its first case. And it&rsquo;s largely because they don&rsquo;t have the teeth in terms of enforcement,&quot; Kenney said. &quot;I&rsquo;d love to see the [State Housing Appeals Board] empowered. If you asked me one easy thing we could do, we could tighten up the statute down in Springfield. We could make it applicable to home rule units.&quot;</p><p>Other advocates have argued for a regional government to help balance where affordable housing goes so municipalities don&rsquo;t act on their own.</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;"><span style="font-family:arial,helvetica,sans-serif;">Just don&rsquo;t call it &lsquo;affordable housing&rsquo;</span></span></p><p>Gail Schechter, executive director of Open Communities, a north suburban group that promotes integration, is looking for new approaches. The group used to have &#39;housing&#39; in its name but dropped it to sound more inclusive.</p><p>&ldquo;If you&rsquo;re an advocate for low-income people and their right to live where they choose, and you believe in mixed-income housing, hammering that as it is, is not necessarily going to convince people,&rdquo; Schechter said.</p><p>Back at Zion Lutheran Church in Deerfield, Pastor Kyllo said people are definitely not convinced. He sits on a bench facing the open land where members had hoped to build 48 units of much-needed affordable housing.</p><p>Not long ago the congregation withdrew its proposal for Zion Woods.</p><p>Kyllo admits they capitulated to the pressure.</p><p>&ldquo;I wish that I could say otherwise. People have a discriminatory taste in their thoughts. I don&rsquo;t think they have a realistic look at what life could be like. I don&rsquo;t think they&rsquo;re willing to change and look at new ways of thinking. I don&#39;t think they are looking at the possibility about what a greater integration could mean for the community and the richness that could draw on,&rdquo; Kyllo said.</p><p>But he&rsquo;s not giving up. And when his team goes back to the drawing board, he says they&rsquo;ll take a lesson with them.</p><p>Don&rsquo;t use the term &ldquo;affordable housing.&rdquo;</p><p><iframe frameborder="0" height="620" scrolling="no" src="http://interactive.wbez.org/maps/lihtc/" style="float: right; clear: right;" width="620"></iframe></p><p><em><a href="http://interactive.wbez.org/maps/lihtc/">Click for fullscreen map</a></em></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><em><a href="http://www.wbez.org/users/nmoore-0" rel="author">Natalie Moore</a>&nbsp;is WBEZ&rsquo;s South Side Bureau reporter. Email her at&nbsp;<a href="mailto:nmoore@wbez.org">nmoore@wbez.org</a>. Follow Natalie on&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/natalieymoore">Twitter</a>.</em></p></p> Mon, 12 Oct 2015 05:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/despite-mandate-affluent-suburbs-fail-build-affordable-housing-113274 Shadow city: How Chicago became the country's alley capital http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/shadow-city-how-chicago-became-countrys-alley-capital-113279 <p><p>When&rsquo;s the last time you paid attention to alleys?</p><p dir="ltr">Chances are, unless you&rsquo;re taking out garbage or trying to squeeze a U-Haul back there, you rarely think about the narrow lane that can cut through a block.</p><p>Here&rsquo;s at least one reason to take note: Chicago is the alley capital of the country, with more than 1,900 miles of them within its borders. (If you left Chicago by plane and flew southwest for that distance, you&rsquo;d end up just shy of Mexico City.)</p><p dir="ltr">Chicago architect Dan Weese would never take <em>his</em> alley for granted. To him, the alley is a many-splendored thing. Dan grew up in Lincoln Park, a North Side neighborhood with plenty of alleys, and he spent a lot of time playing in the alley behind his family&rsquo;s rowhouse. As he puts it, the alley was the &ldquo;rec room of the block.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;I remember on Saturday mornings, all the garage doors would open up, and people would be working on cars, or working on a woodworking project, or taking the garbage out, and you could have a relationship with them,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;It was very different than the people you would meet on your street.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">For Dan, alleys aren&rsquo;t just utilitarian service lanes. They&rsquo;re an important social gathering place &mdash; an informal parallel to the street out front. He&rsquo;s been thinking about them so much, that he sent us this question:</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align: center;"><em>How was it decided that Chicago should have alleys?</em></p><p dir="ltr" id="docs-internal-guid-81fba680-53c1-436f-eefe-33254711a1b9">Well, the answer to Dan&rsquo;s question got us more than we bargained for. It involves a story that spans centuries, and that same story not only explains Chicago&rsquo;s enormous network of alleys but also why some parts of the region are conspicuously alley-free.<a name="map"></a></p><div class="image-insert-image "><a href="http://interactive.wbez.org/curiouscity/alleys/" target="_blank"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/MAPEMBED1.png" style="height: 497px; width: 620px;" title="" /></a></div><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Hip to be square</span></p><p>What gives? Why all the alleys &mdash; and why the divide between Chicago communities with and without them?</p><p dir="ltr">According to Michael Martin, alley expert and professor of landscape architecture at Iowa State University, the &ldquo;why alleys&rdquo; question is easy to answer. You just have to go back to the late 1700s, decades before Chicago was founded. America was young, and had hardly touched any of its newest territories to the west.</p><p>&ldquo;There&#39;s one thing you can do without having to explore all of it,&rdquo; says Martin. &ldquo;Lay a grid over that giant swath of land, and divide it up in ways that you can then take that land and you can sell it, you can deed it over to people.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">The federal government&rsquo;s National Land Ordinance of 1785 imposed a massive grid over everything west of the Ohio River, dividing uncharted territory into square townships, each 36 square miles in size. Those townships were then sliced into progressively smaller sections, all the way down to the city block.&nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;As you think about finer and finer scales of design, what&#39;s happening is those squares are being infilled and infilled,&rdquo; says Martin. &ldquo;The big grid was always the framework within which people developed things, and that leads to towns having square blocks, and ultimately the alley inside of that block.&rdquo; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p dir="ltr">This expanding grid eventually hit the Chicago area.</p><div class="image-insert-image ">According to cartographer and Chicago history buff Dennis McClendon, alleys had become so commonplace in the American West that the Illinois General Assembly &ldquo;simply expected it to happen in Chicago.&rdquo;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/yjGmPNP.png" style="height: 443px; width: 620px;" title="Thompson's plat map of Chicago in 1830, showing alleys. (Source: Alfred Theodore Andreas, 1884. History of Chicago.)" /></div></div><p dir="ltr">The particulars came into play with the Illinois &amp; Michigan Canal. In the 1820s, the U.S. Congress had granted the state of Illinois enough land to dig a canal to connect Lake Michigan and the Illinois River. The state planned to finance the construction by establishing towns along the canal and selling the land to developers.</p><p>The I&amp;M Canal Commission hired surveyor James Thompson to lay out Chicago at the eastern end of the canal in 1830. To attract prospective land buyers, the General Assembly ordered that the new town of Chicago be &ldquo;subdivided into town lots, streets, and alleys, as in their best judgment will best promote the interest of the said canal fund.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Thompson was apparently a law-abiding man: His town plan for Chicago had 58 blocks, and every single one had an alley.</p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">The practical side </span></p><p>As it turns out, it&rsquo;s a good thing that Thompson planned Chicago with alleys. The city was a filthy, stinky, disease-ridden place in those days. Rear service lanes were essential for collecting trash, delivering coal, and stowing human waste &mdash; basically, keeping anything unpleasant away from living quarters.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;This was one of the reason why alleys have this dark and nasty reputation,&rdquo; says Martin. &ldquo;They were very much the grimy service part of daily life. It wasn&#39;t expected that this would be a well-maintained landscape; it was kind of a landscape of raw utility.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">In that same vein, McClendon theorizes that widespread horse ownership in the West translated into a lot of horse dung in the city, which would&rsquo;ve encouraged city planners to include alleys. &ldquo;The horse has the inflow and outflow problems,&rdquo; McClendon says. &ldquo;You have to bring in a lot of hay, you have to muck out a lot of manure. ... That&#39;s one of the reasons that you want to have a service lane that&rsquo;s segregated from where the womenfolk of the town are walking, or other places that you want to be more tidy and well-kept.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Riverside and the beginning of the end of Chicago-area alleys</span></p><p>For its boom years in the 1800s, Chicago was an alley monster; it planned new blocks with alleys, annexed towns with alleys, and added territory to its alley-riddled gridiron. But all grid things must come to an end, and soon communities started popping up <em>without</em> alleys.</p><p dir="ltr">The first of those communities arrived in 1869. That year, Frederick Law Olmsted &mdash; the father of landscape architecture (and who <a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/chicago/filmmore/ps_olmsted.html" target="_blank">later played a huge role in Chicago&rsquo;s landscape</a>) &mdash; planned the community of Riverside, which was situated on what was considered to be the far western outskirts of the Chicago region. It was the first planned suburb in America, and the earliest sign of divergence from Chicago&rsquo;s alley trend.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/riverside3.png" style="width: 620px;" title="Olmsted's Riverside community was intentionally designed without alleys. " /></div></div><p>Constance Guardi, from the Riverside Historical Commission, takes me on a walking tour of the town. As we stroll down winding, tree-lined streets, she points to old, beautiful houses set back behind lush, rolling lawns. Guardi explains that <a href="http://www.snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/pubs/riverside.htm" target="_blank">Olmsted wanted to create the town of the future</a>: a community that combined the peacefulness of the country with the luxury of the city.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;The plan was so that it would meander, rather than that hustle and bustle,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;This was to be relaxed. ... So that you would be able to really just have a quiet and lovely life.&rdquo;</p><p>She says Olmsted&rsquo;s master plan for Riverside didn&rsquo;t include alleys, because they just weren&rsquo;t necessary in the wide open spaces of the Illinois countryside. It so happens that Guardi is exactly the kind of person Olmsted had in mind when he planned Riverside. She grew up in a Chicago neighborhood with alleys, and she never cared for them.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;I&#39;ll tell you why I didn&#39;t like alleys,&rdquo; she says. &quot;They were dirty! ... Everybody&#39;s garbage was out there all the time.&rdquo;</p><p>For years after it was established, Riverside was an outlier. Other suburbs that popped up around it in the years to come &mdash; like Berwyn and Cicero &mdash; followed Chicago&rsquo;s lead with alleys and a grid. Look at a map of the area today, and <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/@41.8274292,-87.8140036,4839m/data=!3m1!1e3" target="_blank">Riverside is a squiggly green island in a sea of squares</a>.</p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Where the alley ends</span></p><p>By the turn of the century, though, more city planners jumped on Olmsted&rsquo;s bandwagon and began designing communities to be beautiful and clean &mdash; counterpoints to the density and industry they wanted to avoid.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;Instead of the old boring grid of the national survey and of the old town,&rdquo; Martin says, &ldquo;we&#39;re now going to do curving streets because they&#39;re modern and they&rsquo;re different.&rdquo;</p><p>As a sign of the times, a 1913 development competition in the suburbs of Chicago yielded almost no designs with alleys; instead, the proposals featured curvilinear streets, and blocks with interior courtyards. (The <a href="http://labs.libhub.org/dallaspl/portal/Being-a-disquisition-upon-the-origins-natural/r0AULVUK/" target="_blank">account is contained in a book</a> authored by alleys scholar Grady Clay.) In one proposal for the contest, <a href="https://chipublib.bibliocommons.com/item/show/310167081" target="_blank">Frank Lloyd Wright advocated for the abolition of alleys</a>.</p><p dir="ltr">Martin says the death of the alley came about from this shift in urban planning principles, but other factors contributed, too, including improvements in sanitation technology.</p><p>&ldquo;Once you have systems like sanitary sewers or garbage collection that can be done in an efficient way, you don&#39;t really have to have an alley,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;So we decided that the street was capable of handling all that stuff.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Then, the automobile came along. In 1920 there were about 8 million car owners in the country; by the end of the decade that number jumped to 23 million. Widespread auto ownership meant there were fewer stables and less horse poop in the city. More importantly, the automobile increased the mobility of working Americans, allowing people to live way out in the sparse suburbs, where the house lots were spacious and streets didn&rsquo;t have to conform to a dense city grid.</p><p>&ldquo;Now it becomes possible to build cities at lower densities, [with] bigger lawns, and bigger landholdings for each house,&rdquo; says McClendon. &ldquo;And that allows you to have a side garage or a side driveway. You no longer have to have the vehicle access through this service lane in the rear.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/4suburballeys.png" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="As you move further away from the city, alleys start falling away. " /></div><p dir="ltr">The move away from alleys in the early 20th century &mdash; combined with <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/gulp-how-chicago-gobbled-its-neighbors-109583" target="_blank">the end of Chicago&rsquo;s growth via annexation</a> &mdash; solidified the divide between alley places and non-alley places in the Chicago region. While new suburban towns and outlying communities forged bravely into an alley-free world, Chicago&rsquo;s historic core and the older suburbs were stuck with their alleys.</p><p>You can see the effects today. Within the Chicago city limits, 90 percent of residential blocks have alleys. But as you move from the city center, alleys begin to fall away. Not immediately, mind you. Suburbs like <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Oak+Park,+IL/@41.883979,-87.7844989,468m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880e34ba3f1db787:0xdf588d7dd5d4aea8!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Oak Park</a>, <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Evanston,+IL/@42.0309362,-87.6892455,409m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880fcffd34e80a77:0x6f21a10d05c0671a!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Evanston</a>, and <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Blue+Island,+IL/@41.6589961,-87.6852451,348m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880e235fa95f5f05:0xff39e83b04f67cb4!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Blue Island</a> are chock-full of alleys, but in suburban communities like <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Naperville,+IL/@41.7539285,-88.1657724,1137m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880e5761e216cd07:0x87df9c2c7f203052!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Naperville</a> and <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Tinley+Park,+IL/@41.5707306,-87.7919136,728m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880e158c05a8f865:0xeeefdc310816d898!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Tinley Park</a>, alleys are much harder to find.</p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Repurposing a relic</span></p><p>The role of Chicago&rsquo;s alleys has obviously changed; even though the city doesn&rsquo;t need alleys for the same reasons it did back in the 1800s, they&rsquo;re still essential parts of the city environment. Today, residents put recycling back there instead of piles of horse dung. And, utilities deliver phone service and electrical power through alleys rather than coal.</p><p dir="ltr">Plus, after centuries of building up around them, alleys are pretty hard to get rid of. A few American cities have instituted &ldquo;alley vacation&rdquo; programs. They&rsquo;re not so fun as they sound: The programs basically involve vacating the alley as a public service lane. For the program to work, however, every alley-abutting homeowner has to agree to extend their property line into the middle of the alley. Not many cities have followed through with the administrative nightmare.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/green%20alley.jpg" style="height: 414px; width: 620px;" title="A Chicago alley retrofitted with permeable pavers that prevent flooding and allow water to seep into the soil. (Flickr/Center for Neighborhood Technology)" /></div><p>Instead of eliminating them, Chicago is reimagining its alleys. In 2006, Chicago became one of the first cities in the country to conduct a <a href="http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/cdot/provdrs/street/svcs/green_alleys.html" target="_blank">&ldquo;green alley&rdquo; program</a>, resurfacing alleys to prevent runoff and decrease solar heat absorption. In the last several years, the Chicago Loop Association has been experimenting with alleys as social spaces, <a href="http://loopchicago.com/ACTIVATE" target="_blank">using them to host pop-up art events</a>.</p><p dir="ltr">Martin says Chicago&rsquo;s current approach holds promise for the future, and many contemporary urban planners and architects agree. The <a href="https://www.cnu.org/" target="_blank">New Urbanist school of thought</a> considers them to be both useful infrastructure and an important part of the cultural landscape.</p><p>&ldquo;Now you see people designing and building things where the alley is actually a functioning social space, a gathering space, where the neighbors can actually connect with each other in their own somewhat intimate urban narrow space instead of on the street,&rdquo; says Martin. &ldquo;So you have a two-sided situation in these neighborhoods, and I think that&#39;s a very positive development.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/dan%20weese%20%2801%29.jpg" style="float: left; height: 240px; width: 320px;" title="Questioner Dan Weese" /><span style="font-size:24px;">More about our questioner </span></p><p>&ldquo;My curiosity about the alleys came about because it&#39;s part of the landscape and it&#39;s one of these things that you don&#39;t really think about,&rdquo; says Dan Weese. &ldquo;It&#39;s in the background, but it actually forms a really important part [of the city].&quot;</p><p dir="ltr">As for any takeaways from our reporting? He says it&rsquo;s especially interesting that the alley hasn&rsquo;t become entirely irrelevant.</p><p>&ldquo;There was this structure that apparently came about because the folks in the canal commission thought it was a good idea to put in alleys, and then human behavior adapts to that and morphs it,&rdquo; he says.</p><p dir="ltr">Architecture happens to run in Dan&rsquo;s veins. His uncle is none other than renowned architect Harry Weese. (Curious City profiled one of Harry Weese&rsquo;s buildings, the <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/real-estate-and-religion-tale-seventeenth-church-christ-scientist-110980" target="_blank">Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist.</a>) Most of Dan&rsquo;s cousins are architects or designers and his parents founded an award-winning architecture firm &mdash; <a href="http://www.wlwltd.com/" target="_blank">a firm that he now works for</a>.</p><p>When he was a kid, Dan played kick-the-can and raced go-carts in the alley behind his house. He also broke a lot of stuff back there.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;You could do more destructive, less socially acceptable things in the alley,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;It was just a little more rough and ready, and you could kind of let your hair down a little bit.&rdquo;</p><p>Now 50 years old, Dan lives with his wife and three children, just three blocks from the rowhouse he grew up in. Unfortunately the couple lives in a highrise, and the alley isn&rsquo;t nearly as good for playing as the one he remembers.</p><p>That is, Dan&rsquo;s all grown up, and he prefers nerding out about alleys and their history, rather than destroying things in them.</p><p><span style="font-size:20px;"><a name="data"></a>Download our data</span></p><p>Want to make your own alley map? <a href="https://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-assets/maps/downloads/chicago_alleys.zip" target="_blank">Click here to download the data</a>.</p><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><em>Steven Jackson is an independent producer living in Chicago. Follow him on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/_sbjackson" target="_blank">@_sbjackson</a>.&nbsp; </em></p><h2 class="ProfileHeaderCard-screenname u-inlineBlock u-dir" dir="ltr">&nbsp;</h2><p dir="ltr">&nbsp;</p></p> Sat, 10 Oct 2015 16:55:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/shadow-city-how-chicago-became-countrys-alley-capital-113279 CPS lowers graduation rate after errors found http://www.wbez.org/news/cps-lowers-graduation-rate-after-errors-found-113148 <p><p dir="ltr">The official graduation numbers that Mayor Rahm Emanuel touted throughout his first term and his re-election campaign were wrong.</p><p dir="ltr">Chicago Public Schools is revising its official graduation rate after WBEZ and the Better Government Association&nbsp;found thousands of <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/emanuel-touts-bogus-graduation-rate-112163">dropouts were being misclassified</a> as transfers.</p><p dir="ltr">The official graduation rate for 2014 was actually 66.3 percent, not 69.4 percent, officials said late Thursday. Every year dating back to 2011, the year Emanuel took office, was revised down two to three percentage points.</p><p dir="ltr">Earlier this year, records obtained by WBEZ and the Better Government Association under the Illinois Freedom of Information Act revealed that since 2011, at least 2,200 students across 25 district high schools were counted as having transferred out of the district, when in reality, they were dropouts.</p><p dir="ltr">At just those 25 CPS high schools, more than 1,000 of the dropouts were mislabeled as moving out of town or going to private schools, but were actually attending CPS alternative schools. More than 600 of the mislabeled dropouts were listed as getting a GED, when state law is clear that students who leave school to enroll in GED programs or attend alternative schools are dropouts.</p><p dir="ltr">One school, Curie Metropolitan High School, labeled more than 100 dropouts every year as leaving to be homeschooled. Another 1,300 of the so-called transfers had no explanation of what school they were supposedly transferring to or were vaguely listed as going to different states or countries.</p><p dir="ltr">When asked in June, district officials acknowledged problems with the system&rsquo;s accounting, but said they had no plan to go back and adjust the numbers.</p><p dir="ltr">John Barker, the district&rsquo;s chief of accountability, said all of those students, plus similar misclassifications at all of the district&rsquo;s 100-plus high schools were put back into <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/front-center/behind-cps-graduation-rates-system-musical-chairs-111786">the calculation</a>.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;So what you&rsquo;re seeing is an adjusted rate that&rsquo;s a little bit lower because you have more students in the denominator,&rdquo; Barker said. To understand how CPS calculates its graduation rate, watch this animated video.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="465" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/i0EibDr47gc" width="620"></iframe></p><p dir="ltr">Chief Education Officer Janice Jackson said the errors were concerning, but she&rsquo;s still encouraged that the number of students graduating is increasing.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;The fact that more students have graduated did not change,&rdquo; said Chief Education Officer Janice Jackson. &ldquo;Even with the adjusted rate, we have more students as far as the number.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Jackson said some of recent gains are due to the <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/new-alternative-schools-some-run-profit-companies-come-hefty-price-tag-110239">aggressive expansion</a> <a href="http://www.wbez.org/sections/special-series/meet-companies-profit-when-cps-students-drop-out-111665">of for-profit alternative schools</a> in the city, many which provide half day, mostly online programs that allow students to <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/same-diploma-different-school-111581">earn their high school diploma in a fraction of the time</a>. She said the district won&rsquo;t be opening any more of those schools because CPS is in a financial crunch, not because some existing operators have questionable business practices.</p><p dir="ltr">But the raw number of graduates from 2014 to 2015 increased by just 84 students, from 20,232 to 20,316, for a 2015 rate of 69.9 percent, according to district data provided late Thursday. Barker could not immediately say how many dropouts had to be reclassified in the new rate.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Capture_1.JPG" title="Source: Chicago Public Schools" /></div><p>Jackson acknowledged that principals and other staff could feel pressure to improve their school&rsquo;s public reputation. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;I don&rsquo;t doubt that there are some principals who feel a great degree of pressure,&rdquo; Jackson said, adding that she wants to provide more support instead of just layer on more accountability.</p><p dir="ltr">Barker said the district is <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/cps-acknowledges-errors-takes-steps-count-dropouts-correctly-112180">still planning to train school clerks</a> and has developed an internal system to flag misclassifications sooner.</p><p><em>Becky Vevea is an education reporter for WBEZ. You can follow her <a href="http://twitter.com/WBEZeducation">@WBEZeducation</a>.</em></p></p> Thu, 01 Oct 2015 22:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/cps-lowers-graduation-rate-after-errors-found-113148 How strictly do Chicago police enforce bike traffic laws? http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/how-strictly-do-chicago-police-enforce-bike-traffic-laws-112992 <p><p>If you ride a bike, ask yourself: Do you stop at every stop sign? How about every red light? If the answer is no to either of those, well, technically you&rsquo;re breaking the law.</p><p>But it&rsquo;s the more egregious behavior from cyclists &mdash; weaving through cars, cutting people off, running red lights despite oncoming traffic &mdash; which our questioner,<a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/how-strictly-do-chicago-police-enforce-bike-traffic-laws-112992#lowy"> Chicagoan Ron Lowy</a>, sees all too often.</p><p>Sometimes he&rsquo;s even looked on as cyclists bike the wrong direction down a bike lane, no hands on the handlebars, while text messaging. &ldquo;I&rsquo;m not making this up,&rdquo; he says.</p><p>Lowy is a cab driver, usually considered the sworn enemy of bicyclists. But here&rsquo;s the thing: Lowy is also a dedicated cyclist. He commutes by bike almost everyday and rides for pleasure and exercise. But what he sees around him, at times, looks incredibly dangerous, enough for him to ask Curious City:</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align: center;"><em>How strictly do Chicago police enforce bike traffic laws?</em></p><p>Getting an answer to Lowy&rsquo;s question matters because, for one, Chicago streets are not as safe as they could be. <a href="http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-bike-deaths-illinois-met-20141027-story.html">A 2014 safety report found that Illinois</a> had the fifth-highest number of bicyclist fatalities in the nation, a total of 29 in 2012, a steady increase from previous two years. In Chicago, the number of deaths of bicyclists has<a href="http://www.redeyechicago.com/news/local/redeye-fatal-bike-crashes-chicago-20150111-story.html"> surged in the past two years</a>, from three in 2013 to eight in 2014. It&rsquo;s a troubling shift the city&rsquo;s transportation commissioner calls &ldquo;significant.&rdquo; If one aim of bike traffic law is to prevent dangerous behavior on the part of bicyclists, it&rsquo;s fair to ask how often police nab offenders.</p><p>But here&rsquo;s another reason to consider how strictly the city enforces its bike rules: The city&rsquo;s encouraging residents to ride bikes and even commute by bike. If those long-term plans pan out, Chicago could see more and more bicyclists on the road, competing with cars and pedestrians for space.</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Measuring enforcement</span></p><p>First, some bad news. Ideally, it would be best to answer Lowy&rsquo;s question with precise figures about how many bicyclists are on Chicago streets, then follow with an apples-to-apples comparison of how often police ticket riders versus how often they ticket motorists. The data we have in hand can&rsquo;t tell that story, but &mdash; and here&rsquo;s the good news &mdash; we did obtain data on how often the city enforces bike traffic laws and what types of behavior attract tickets.</p><p>Responding to<a href="http://llnw.wbez.org//bike%20laws%20CPD%20FOIA%20response%201.pdf" target="_blank"> our Illinois Freedom Of Information request</a>, the Chicago Police Department reports issuing 13,150 traffic-related tickets to bicyclers between 2006 and August of this year. &nbsp;(<a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/how-strictly-do-chicago-police-enforce-bike-traffic-laws-112992#trends">Here are the trends</a> and <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/how-strictly-do-chicago-police-enforce-bike-traffic-laws-112992#type">breakdown by ticket type</a>)</p><p>What to make of this figure, though? Have the thousands of tickets issued by the CPD translated into an awareness of bike traffic enforcement?</p><p>To get a better sense of this, we head to <a href="https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoCriticalMass">Critical Mass</a>, a monthly mass ride through downtown Chicago that doubles as a rally for greener modes of transport. There, we ask folks their impressions of bike laws and how the city enforces them.</p><p>Among the crowd, we ask a cyclist named Lily whether she&rsquo;d ever gotten a ticket on her bike.</p><p>&ldquo;No, you can get a ticket? I didn&rsquo;t know you could get a ticket,&rdquo; she says.</p><p>When asked what she thinks might warrant a ticket for a traffic violation, she provides a short list: &ldquo;Improper crossing? Improper turning? Running stop signs. Running over people?&rdquo;</p><p>(Yup, yup, yup, and yup. These are all ticketable.) &nbsp;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/TICKET%20DUO%20FOR%20WEB.png" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="Michael Gilewicz got a $70 ticket at the intersection of Addison and Clark streets and carries it around with him. (WBEZ/John Fecile)" /></div><p>At the same Critical Mass event, we manage to find Michael Gilewicz, who got a $70 ticket at the intersection of Addison and Clark streets. The ticket is such a novelty to him that he carries it around, almost like a trophy. Whipping it out, he explains that he&rsquo;d gotten pulled over for speeding, biking against the flow of traffic and disobeying red lights. Michael says when the judge read off the list of infractions, he looked at her and laughed.</p><p>&ldquo;Yeah, I was,&rdquo; he laughs.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><a href="http://llnw.wbez.org//bike laws indesign.pdf" target="_blank"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/rulestobikeby.png" style="height: 225px; width: 300px; float: right;" title="Continue to see our own version of Chicago's bike rules" /></a></div><p>The apparently low level of awareness of tickets or ticketing comes as no surprise to Ron Burke, the executive director of the Active Transportation Alliance, a local organization advocating for better biking, walking and transit.</p><p>&ldquo;There is too little enforcement of traffic policies across the board in Chicago and even in the suburbs,&rdquo; Burke says. &ldquo;Whether that&rsquo;s the case for people driving, walking and even riding a bike.&rdquo;</p><p>Burke says that while well over 90 percent of traffic injuries and fatalities are caused by motorists, bike behavior factors in, too. It&rsquo;s important, he says, that we encourage good behavior across the board. And that, he adds, is done by enforcing the road rules and issuing hefty fines for those who don&rsquo;t follow them.</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;"><a name="type"></a>When city police enforce bike laws, what are they targeting?</span></p><p>In Illinois, traffic laws apply to cyclists, so when CPD targets cyclists, it&#39;s for those state statutes as well as city ordinances that apply to bikes.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Number_of_reported_bicycle_violations_by_type%2C_2006-2015-__chartbuilder.png" style="height: 299px; width: 620px;" title="" /></div><p>Within the 9 years of CPD data available to us, &nbsp;the most frequent violation is <a href="http://www.amlegal.com/nxt/gateway.dll/Illinois/chicago_il/title9vehiclestrafficandrailtransportati/chapter9-52bicycles-operation?f=templates$fn=altmain-nf.htm$q=[field%20folio-destination-name:%279-52-010%27]$x=Advanced#JD_9-52-010">9-52-020, &ldquo;Riding bicycles on sidewalks and certain roadways.&rdquo;</a> (The ordinance covers riding on certain non-bikeable roads like Lake Shore Drive, but the vast majority of infractions involve sidewalks). Similar data obtained from Chicago&rsquo;s Department of Administrative Hearings show that over the past year, tickets for riding on the sidewalk are way up. In fact, between 2013 and 2014 sidewalk-riding violations more than doubled, to 4,467 from 2,082.</p><p>Burke says that while enforcement is lacking everywhere, when cyclists do get ticketed it&rsquo;s usually the riders who are doing the most dangerous types of riding.</p><p>&ldquo;Riding fast on a sidewalk in a crowded pedestrian environment,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;Blasting through an intersection and potentially hitting a pedestrian.&rdquo;</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;"><a name="trend"></a>A trend in Chicago&rsquo;s bike enforcement</span></p><p>In recent years, as the number for cyclists rise, Chicago and other cities around the country have started to ticket more frequently.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Number_of_reported_bicycle_violations_by_year%2C_2006-2015-_Amount_chartbuilder.png" style="height: 349px; width: 620px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid;" title="" /></div><p>The Chicago Department of Transportation and city police have been conducting stakeouts around the city, targeting intersections with high crash rates. There, they crack down on risky behavior of bicyclists and motorists.</p><p>CDOT and the police are conducting more and more of these safety stakeouts. According to CDOT data, they&rsquo;ve already hit a record so far this year: 126 stakeouts, with more than 2,000 warnings given to cyclists. The first year the city began recording the events, in 2011, they conducted just 62 such stakeouts. &nbsp;</p><p>Incidentally, some Chicago-area suburbs are seeing the same trend in enforcement. Several North Shore communities have also started cracking down on group cycling. This summer, from late July and into August, the <a href="http://www.cityhpil.com/CivicAlerts.aspx?AID=429">Highland Park Police Department joined forces with four other city police departments</a> to conduct enforcement and education stops for cyclists and motorists. The action came after the departments received numerous citizen complaints about cyclists&rsquo; behavior along several well-traveled North Shore paths.</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Fostering a cycling culture</span></p><p>As Chicago ramps up its bike enforcement, it&rsquo;s also encouraging more residents to bike. It&rsquo;s busy building a better cycling infrastructure with two-way bike lanes with their own traffic lights. It also launched <a href="https://www.divvybikes.com/about">the bike sharing program, Divvy</a>, and placed bike borrowing stations across the city.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/flickr-chicago%20bicycle%20program%20infrastructure%20making%20FOR%20WEB.jpg" style="height: 414px; width: 620px;" title="Chicago bicycling infrastructure is improving, but cyclists are often confused about bike laws. (Flickr/Chicago Bicycle Program)" /></div><p>Still, all this momentum raises the question: If the city is investing so much in a better biking culture, shouldn&rsquo;t it be even more explicit and consistent about what type of behavior it expects from cyclists?</p><p>Burke says it should and he credits the city for conducting the high-profile stakeouts. He says he&rsquo;s impressed with how much the city has increased them while at the same time including the ATA and their <a href="http://chicagocompletestreets.org/your-safety/education-encouragement/ambassadors/">Bike Ambassador program</a> in the stakeouts. This approach, he says, makes these enforcement actions educational as well.</p><p>But Burke also predicts that over time, more and more cyclists will follow the rules of the road. He chalks it up to &ldquo;pack mentality.&rdquo;<a href="http://www.ucdenver.edu/about/newsroom/newsreleases/Pages/More-cyclists-on-road-can-mean-less-collisions.aspx"> As more people bike, they are more likely to comply</a> with common sense safety and less likely to be influenced by the few rogue cyclists who choose to ignore the law.</p><p>&ldquo;You get more people on bikes. You actually start to get better behavior on average of cyclists,&rdquo; Burke says.</p><p>What&rsquo;s more, data suggest that<a href="http://www.cpr.org/news/story/some-cyclists-obey-laws-some-dont-cu-denver-researcher-wants-know-why?utm_source=Facebook&amp;utm_medium=Social&amp;utm_campaign=FBCPR5434"> better biking infrastructure also builds more complaint riders</a>. Just six months after the city built the two-way protected bike lanes on Dearborn Street, complete with their own traffic signals, compliance with red light traffic laws<a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-06-10/classified/ct-met-getting-around-0610-20130610_1_cyclists-signals-bike-traffic"> was up 161 percent</a>, according to the city.</p><p><a name="lowy"></a>Our questioner, Ron Lowy, says he thinks despite the shiny new bike lanes, some folks will always choose to break the law. That is, until Chicago takes a stand.</p><p>&ldquo;They ride carelessly because they know they&#39;re not going to get fined for it,&rdquo; Lowy says of reckless cyclists. &ldquo;But the bottom line is you can&#39;t blame anybody but the city of Chicago.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/question%20asker%20FOR%20WEB_0.jpg" style="height: 394px; width: 300px; float: left;" title="Questioner Ron Lowy at WBEZ. " /><span style="font-size:24px;">About our questioner</span></p><p>A self-described &ldquo;man about town dude&rdquo;, Ron Lowy is a musician, cab driver and bicycle advocate.</p><p>Lowy lives in Uptown, but drives his cab all around the city. And over the years, he&rsquo;s seen quite a few accidents of bicyclists hitting cars, cars hitting cyclists, cyclists hitting pedestrians. &ldquo;A majority of them,&rdquo; he says, &ldquo;was not the car&#39;s&rsquo; fault.&rdquo;</p><p>Lowy agrees with the ATA&rsquo;s Ron Burke; more enforcement would make cyclists, pedestrians and motorists safer. But he is also more nuanced about whether bikes and cars should be treated as equals&mdash;subject to all of the same rules of the road.</p><p>&ldquo;Depending on the situation, bikes are a different story than cars,&rdquo; Lowy says. He believes crowded and highly trafficked thoroughfares should be tightly enforced. But side streets, during off peak hours when there is little traffic, not so much. &nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;I&#39;d be lying if I said I never disobeyed the law,&rdquo; Lowy says. &ldquo;[But] I don&#39;t run red lights. I&#39;ll run neighborhood stop signs, but I slow down dramatically and look&hellip;common sense is a big part of this.&rdquo;</p><p><em>Meribah Knight is a freelance journalist in Chicago and reports for WBEZ&rsquo;s Curious City. Follow her at<a href="http://meribahknight.com"> meribahknight.com</a> and on Twitter at <a href="https://www.twitter.com/meribah">@meribah</a>.</em></p><p><em>Curious City intern John Fecile provided research and reporting for this story.</em></p><div>&nbsp;</div><p>&nbsp;</p><div>&nbsp;</div></p> Fri, 18 Sep 2015 16:45:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/how-strictly-do-chicago-police-enforce-bike-traffic-laws-112992 Illinois test results plummet under new Common Core exams http://www.wbez.org/news/illinois-test-results-plummet-under-new-common-core-exams-112957 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/IMAG3394.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>As expected, the percentage of Illinois schoolchildren deemed to be meeting standards has plunged in the state&rsquo;s first year of Common Core testing, prompting state superintendent Tony Smith to declare the scores &ldquo;simply a <a href="http://www.isbe.net/assessment/pdfs/parcc/parcc-supt-ltr-091115.pdf" target="_blank">new baseline</a> from which we can move forward&rdquo; and warn that he doesn&#39;t want the lower results used &ldquo;to shame teachers or schools.&rdquo;</p><p>This <a href="http://www.isbe.net/assessment/pdfs/parcc/parcc-prelim-state-lvl-results.pdf" target="_blank">first look at scores</a> from the controversial PARCC test may not be representative&mdash;the results, which Smith called a &ldquo;super draft,&rdquo; leave out between 25 and 30 percent of the nearly 1.1 million tests taken, according to the Illinois State Board of Education. Paper-and-pencil versions of the exams, given in situations where schools did not have the capacity to test all students by computer, are still being scored, the agency says. Right now, the state is only releasing results from tests students took online.</p><p>The scores show:</p><ul><li>In elementary school, where students are tested in grades 3 through 8, between 33 percent and 38 percent of students met or exceeded standards in English. The percentage meeting standards in math was generally lower&mdash;between 26 percent and 36 percent.</li></ul><ul><li>In high school, just 31 percent of students met or exceeded expectations in English. For math, the percentage meeting expectations was 17 percent, with zero percent exceeding those standards.</li></ul><p>Determinations like those&mdash;no students exceeding math standards in Illinois&mdash;re-opened criticisms of the exams.</p><p>It&rsquo;s &ldquo;ludicrous&rdquo; said Cassie Creswell, a leader in the local anti-testing movement who considers the test &ldquo;illegitimate&rdquo; and who encouraged parents to opt their children out of the PARCC last spring. &ldquo;How many students get a 3, 4 or 5 every year in AP Calculus? Those students aren&rsquo;t exceeding expectations? How many kids from Illinois public high schools go on to Ivy League schools ? Stanford, U of C, MIT. And yet somehow zero percent of students are exceeding expectations in math.&rdquo;</p><p>Cresswell described a war going on between &ldquo;people who want to privatize public education and those that don&rsquo;t,&rdquo;and said she saw profit motives for education materials, test-prep companies, and privately run schools in convincing &nbsp;the public their schools are failing.</p><p>Others see the PARCC, short for Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, as a necessary if sobering elevation of standards in a world in which the U.S. has fallen behind on international exams.</p><p>&ldquo;Things are changing,&rdquo; state superintendent Smith told Illinois reporters. &ldquo;What the kids need to know and be able to do to be successful tomorrow is not what they needed to know and be able to do yesterday. So these new assessments are going to help us figure that out.&rdquo;</p><p>Smith said it was &ldquo;unacceptable&rdquo; that the state does not have all test score results back yet&mdash;students took a first round of PARCC exams in March and a second in May. Under the old ISAT exams, districts and schools would already have their scores.</p><p>Pearson, the world&rsquo;s largest education company, has a <a href="http://www.isbe.net/board/meetings/2014/jun/2014-06.pdf" target="_blank">four-year contract totaling $161 million</a> to develop, administer and score Illinois&rsquo; exams. Pearson said Wednesday it is on track to meet all the deadlines in its contract. It is slated to deliver the final batch of test results to the state on Monday. State officials say they will then conduct an extensive data quality check, at least a two-week job, before beginning to compile PARCC results for districts&mdash;and updating Wednesday&rsquo;s preliminary statewide numbers.</p><p>Smith said it&rsquo;s the state&rsquo;s goal to make good on an original promise of the new Common Core tests&mdash;that results would be returned to schools and families much sooner, so parents and schools can address academic shortfalls.</p><p>The deadlines in this first year of the exam were set by PARCC, Inc., a consortium of states, including Illinois, collaborating on the creation of the new Common Core test. That consortium recently set &ldquo;<a href="http://www.parcconline.org/news-and-updates/325-setting-cut-scores" target="_blank">performance levels</a>&rdquo; for the exam, which Illinois&rsquo; state school board <a href="http://www.isbe.net/assessment/pdfs/parcc/parcc-performance-level-pres.pdf" target="_blank">adopted </a>Wednesday.</p><p>The levels are:</p><p>Level 1: Did not meet academic expectations</p><p>Level 2: Partially met academic expectations</p><p>Level 3: Approached academic expectations</p><p>Level 4: Met academic expectations</p><p>Level 5: Exceeded expectations</p><p>Parents will see where their child falls in both math and reading. Individual scores are expected later this fall.</p><p>Robin Steans, executive director of the education advocacy group Advance Illinois, says many more parents this year will see that their child is not meeting standards. &nbsp;She says that should prompt conversations with schools and teachers, which she sees as positive.</p><p>&ldquo;They should take it seriously, they should absolutely talk with teachers,&rdquo; said Steans. However, &ldquo;they shouldn&rsquo;t assume that something went wrong at the school or the classroom&mdash;but that we&rsquo;ve made some changes that hopefully, ultimately are going to be good for their child in terms of better preparing them for what&rsquo;s really out there.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" height="173" 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fZeLbP406H4k8KeHL7Vm0+yjZGisZZ4d4kk+VinsRxkHmvouil2tpZ3GtpX1urHzb/wuT43/APROP/KHe/8AxdXPjHpXibxVN8OdSTQL+a5CCa/jtbKVltXYwlgwwSmCG4Y54PpX0NRTTs0+zuJq6a7qx4R8U/h/4w0v4kQfEP4bRC5vCgW6tVALEhdpO0n51ZcAgcgjI9Ryuta/8bPijpEvhq58HDTLS5K+fK1hLagqGB5eZiMZAPy819Q0VKStZ6opt3utzxb4g+BL/Rv2Z4vCmkW1xqt7a+QGS0haRpG80M5VQCcZJ/CvQvhraXFh8MPDtrfW8ttcQ6fEksMyFHRgoyCp5B9q6eir5n71+ruTypWt0Vjw/wALaBrFv+1b4k1e40m+i02a1ZYr17Z1hkO2LgORtPQ9D2Ne4UUVP2Yx7Kw/tN9z5K0fUPib8PPHfim88M+CL69j1O+kJe50m5kUqJXKlShXg7uvPau88I/FT4tar4u06x8Q+BDZaZPMFubgaPdxmNMcnczkD8RXvNFEdEl2CWt/M+cfBHw1k+JfxI8T+JviV4e1C3spJMWlreJNal8nCkcqx2ooHpk1v/EX9n7wlF4B1OfwboEkOswR+bb+VcTzNJtIJQIzkEkZA4znFe30UmlyqK0sO/vOTPlPxJpvjDxL8NfANvc+F9b+36RdS21wh06bcsa+XscgrnBXjPTKmvbPi/4A/wCE78EsliPL1nTz9o0+YZDBxyUBHI3Yx9cHtXoFFOXvJ+t/np/kKPutPsrfK7/zPn39nHwnq9rp/i218XaNqFnHqKxIwv7Z4jOCJA+N4G773P1rGi8KfFX4I6tfnwRZ/wDCQaDcPvWIQmfPIALRKQ4cDAJXgj6cfTdFOTblzLtYFtZ97nzJqVt8ZfjRZxaRrmh2/h/SPODzPNatb4K99sjGQ9eMYB9a9R+IPwvl8S/Bu18KadcI97pkUP2WWUbRI8SbcH+7uGfpmvSqKTs48vz+YJtS5j5h03x38dfC+lw+Hf8AhDZrxrVFgjupNLmmZVxhf3kbeW2Bjnn3rrPhZ4N8T/D7wv4q8XeI7Oa68QalG00dhAvmyuw3MMhM/Mzt0HQD8B7lRTbbT7vqCSVl0XQ+dvhF8ENO17w/fa18TtDupNSvLt2jhunmtnRe7FVKnLMT17AY60nxg+B+m6H4bstW+GWg3Sala3amWK0ee5kdD0YKWY/KwHT1NfRVFJ9OXS1vwBdb63v+J4V8QPh5r/xE0Hw9448PRS6X4ts7WMzWdwpgdmXnA342srbsbsAg9axIviT8eonXSW8ErLdKAhu30yXDHGcmQOIvx6V9IUUdX23sHRd0eQ/Bb4a+I/C+q6x4n8Z3MP8Aautcy20QU7CW3szFflySei8D1ryjR9Q+Jvw88d+Kbzwz4Ivr2PU76Ql7nSbmRSolcqVKFeDu689q+taKOqa0srB3v1dz520/4vfGm41O1huvh55UEkyJI/8AYl4NqkgE5L4GBX0TRRTvpYVtbnz5r3g3Ufih+0W48SaJqMXhfS4DEss0MsMVyF7K/H3nb+E8ha7DU/2d/h3PpN3Fp2gm2u3hdYJhe3DeW+DtbDSEHBxwRXqdFTb3OUq75uY+UdO0nxk/7PPiDwff+F9aW6s76GWzQ6fLmVGlBcJ8vzYIJ47NmvefB3hyLUfgvo+geI7BwkulxwXNrcRlWQ7eQQeVYH8QRXa0VTd00+tvwViUrNNdL/i7nz18LtN8XfCr4nXvhS60rVNQ8MXsv7m+htZJIYmP3JCwG1cj5WHYgHtXpnxn0+81T4Qa7Z6ZaT3l1LEgjgt4jI7nzFPCgEngV3NFTL3ocrKi+WfMvU4j4N2F5pfwi0Gz1O0ns7qKFhJBcRmN0PmMeVOCK8/+Kfw/8YaX8SIPiH8Nohc3hQLdWqgFiQu0naT86suAQOQRkeo93oqpNynzrcmCUY8vQ+Xta1/42fFHSJfDVz4OGmWlyV8+VrCW1BUMDy8zEYyAfl5r6B8CeGP+EN8C6VoBmEz2cO2SQdGcksxHtknFdBRQnZWXULXab6HlnxN0jU/E/wAS/A2kw6fdy6Ta3bahe3KwMYUKcorP90E4YYP94V6nRRSWkbDerueQftJ6Lquu/DqyttE0y81KddSR2is7dpWC+W4yQoJxyOfeuFsPix8a9P062sofh0zR20SxIX0O9JIUADPz9eK+maKSVr+Y5O9vL/hzwbxHqXjf4gfs664fEHhi4tdaN7HHDYW2nzo8kavG24RsWY9W5HHHtXpHwksbvTfhN4fs9RtZrS6htdskE8ZR0O48FTyK7Giqvvbrb8FYm2qfa/4nh/gvQNYtf2pPFWrXWk30Omz20iw3kls6wyHMXCuRtPQ9D2Nej/E20ub/AOFviO0sbeW5uZtPlSKGFC7uxXgBRyT7CupoqWr01DsrFJ2m5edz5P8ABfjT4weBfC8Gg6R8Prma1gZ2V7rRbtnJZixyVYDqfSvS/hr8Rfib4k8Zxad4x8Hf2TpjQyO1z/ZdzBhgPlG6RivNey0VfNrdkW0sjw/4faBrFl+0t4x1S80m+t9PuIpRDdy2zrFKTJGRtcjB6Hoe1R/HX4b6nLqNn488B28/9uWcifaI7KMtLKAflkCryzDofVfpXulFRtGKX2S7+9JvqfOXxOv/ABf8TvDHhLRIPCutWMl3OsmqmTT5kS3kB2DJK4C8s/J6Yr0GH9nr4ZxwIknh0yuqgM5vrkFjjrgSY59q9MoqtNdN3cnXTXY+ePA3g/U/APx01zQYdB1CXwjrMTQi4FtJJAiFdyAyYI4yycnvzWYvhj4o/A/WtQPgWw/4SDQLp96ReQ0/sN0aEOHA4JXgjk+g+mqKWtl5K3qvMbs2/PX5nzXpXg74hfGLxtpmt/EnTv7I0XTm3LavCYd+GyUWJiX+YgZZu3SvpQDAwOlFFO+nKthdbs8L+Avh/WdH8eeN7jV9IvrCG6uAYJLq2eJZR5shypYANwQePWvdKKKXRLsrD+033PLf2htI1LW/hU9po2n3WoXJvIW8m0gaV8DOTtUE4rtfA1vNafD7w/b3cMkE8Om26SRSqVZGEaggg8gg9q3aKI+6mu7v+FgerT7DJgTBIAMkqcD8K+Q/Aes/Fb4bQ6jbaD4CvrmO9nErteaPdOQRkDG0rx+dfX9FJaO47+7Y8B8NfFf4wal4p0yy1jwF9ksLi6jjubj+xrtPKjLAM25nwMDnJ4q94m0DWJ/2sPD2rwaTfS6ZDaKsl6ls5hQ7ZeC4G0Hkd+4r3CirTs0+3+RLV013PLfjn8M/+E68K/b9Jh/4n2mAyWxQYaZOpiz6919/qa56DVPFni39nHXNL8QeH9Yi1+1thbhZ7GVXvBkbXUFcs2Bg47jPevc6Kzt7so9GVf3oy6o4L4Jade6T8HtEstUs7iyuoll8yC5iaN0zK5GVYAjgg12Wq6Zba1o93pl+nmW15C0Mq+qsMH+dW6Kuo+dtvqTBclrHy/a+G/iz8ENUvo/B+nnxBolw+9VSBrhWPQMY0IdXAwCRx9ccLdeHPiz8b9TsYvGFh/wj+hQSb3RoDbqpHBIjcmRnIzjPH0zz9P0Ul05tbDfW2lzxX4/eEruT4R6PonhXSby+WxvIUjt7OB5nSNYnUEhQTjpz716DceFLLxT8Mbbw/r1uRHNp8Ubq64eFwgwwz0ZT/Kupooeqkn1dw6xa+yrfjc8E+CcfjHwF4q1DwP4h0fU5tGMrmz1FbWRreNxzkPjaEcc9eG9yar/BnwTq274iWev6Te2Fvqw8iI3ds8QlDGYZXcBuHzDp6ivoOih6rXtYFpt3ufOX7OXgTXdH8Q65qXiTS76xkgtRZ232yF494ZiW2bhyBtHT1rC8GaZ4w8J/Cjx1bQ+GNaGo6lNFa20a6fNvZWDh3UbckBc89MketfVVFEveVvK343Babd7/AIWPEPh3+z74Sk8B6bP4y0KSfWLiPzbjzbieFo9xyEKK6gEDAPGc5rnPH3w0m+G/xD8MeJPhl4cv57WF83VtZpNdFSp5JyWYBkYjrjivpKiq5vfUl3El7ri+p4Z4G0PWIv2n/E+s3Okahb6bdWr+Tdz2rpE5PlEAMRgng8exrA/aE+Feqy6wPEng6wvLsaniLUrOwieRmccrIUUHIOBn0IB6mvpKioa92K/l0KT1bfU8hvvhlJ45/Z80DQbxX0/VrKyhkg+0RlTFMqYKOp5AIJB9OvauEsvFvx38F2EPho+FW1LyEEMF4bGS5IX7q/vY22cY/i5xjNfTNFVJ3k33EtIpdjxz4J/DLW/D+pal4u8ctu1/VMjy2cM0SsdzFiONzEDgdAPwHluj6h8Tfh5478U3nhnwRfXsep30hL3Ok3MilRK5UqUK8Hd157V9a0UN6prorB0d+rufO2n/ABe+NNxqdrDdfDzyoJJkSR/7EvBtUkAnJfAwK+iaKKL6WFbW4UUUUhhRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFFFFABRRRQAUUUUAFUdV1vStBtVutc1Oz023dxGst5cLCjMQSFBYgZwCcexq9XLfED4f6V8R9Ag0jXLi8gt4bpbpWs3VXLBWUAllYYw57elAEv/AAsfwR/0OXh//wAGkH/xVH/Cx/BH/Q5eH/8AwaQf/FV5m37LPgVf+Yr4gP0uIP8A4zSf8Mt+Bf8AoKeIf/AiD/4zUOpFdR2Z6b/wsfwR/wBDl4f/APBpB/8AFUf8LH8Ef9Dl4f8A/BpB/wDFV5l/wy34F/6CniH/AMCIP/jNH/DLfgX/AKCniH/wIg/+M0vaQ7hZnpv/AAsfwR/0OXh//wAGkH/xVH/Cx/BH/Q5eH/8AwaQf/FV5l/wy34F/6CniH/wIg/8AjNH/AAy34F/6CniH/wACIP8A4zR7SHcLM9N/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzL/AIZb8C/9BTxD/wCBEH/xmj/hlvwL/wBBTxD/AOBEH/xmj2kO4WZ6b/wsfwR/0OXh/wD8GkH/AMVR/wALH8Ef9Dl4f/8ABpB/8VXmX/DLfgX/AKCniH/wIg/+M0f8Mt+Bf+gp4h/8CIP/AIzR7SHcLM9N/wCFj+CP+hy8P/8Ag0g/+Ko/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qvMv+GW/Av/QU8Q/+BEH/AMZo/wCGW/Av/QU8Q/8AgRB/8Zo9pDuFmem/8LH8Ef8AQ5eH/wDwaQf/ABVH/Cx/BH/Q5eH/APwaQf8AxVeZf8Mt+Bf+gp4h/wDAiD/4zR/wy34F/wCgp4h/8CIP/jNHtIdwsz03/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qj/AIWP4I/6HLw//wCDSD/4qvMv+GW/Av8A0FPEP/gRB/8AGaP+GW/Av/QU8Q/+BEH/AMZo9pDuFmem/wDCx/BH/Q5eH/8AwaQf/FUf8LH8Ef8AQ5eH/wDwaQf/ABVeZf8ADLfgX/oKeIf/AAIg/wDjNH/DLfgX/oKeIf8AwIg/+M0e0h3CzPTf+Fj+CP8AocvD/wD4NIP/AIqj/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qvMv+GW/Av/AEFPEP8A4EQf/GaP+GW/Av8A0FPEP/gRB/8AGaPaQ7hZnpv/AAsfwR/0OXh//wAGkH/xVH/Cx/BH/Q5eH/8AwaQf/FV5l/wy34F/6CniH/wIg/8AjNH/AAy34F/6CniH/wACIP8A4zR7SHcLM9N/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzL/AIZb8C/9BTxD/wCBEH/xmj/hlvwL/wBBTxD/AOBEH/xmj2kO4WZ6b/wsfwR/0OXh/wD8GkH/AMVR/wALH8Ef9Dl4f/8ABpB/8VXmX/DLfgX/AKCniH/wIg/+M0f8Mt+Bf+gp4h/8CIP/AIzR7SHcLM9N/wCFj+CP+hy8P/8Ag0g/+Ko/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qvMv+GW/Av/QU8Q/+BEH/AMZo/wCGW/Av/QU8Q/8AgRB/8Zo9pDuFmem/8LH8Ef8AQ5eH/wDwaQf/ABVH/Cx/BH/Q5eH/APwaQf8AxVeZf8Mt+Bf+gp4h/wDAiD/4zR/wy34F/wCgp4h/8CIP/jNHtIdwsz03/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qj/AIWP4I/6HLw//wCDSD/4qvMv+GW/Av8A0FPEP/gRB/8AGaP+GW/Av/QU8Q/+BEH/AMZo9pDuFmem/wDCx/BH/Q5eH/8AwaQf/FUf8LH8Ef8AQ5eH/wDwaQf/ABVeZf8ADLfgX/oKeIf/AAIg/wDjNH/DLfgX/oKeIf8AwIg/+M0e0h3CzPTf+Fj+CP8AocvD/wD4NIP/AIqj/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qvMv+GW/Av/AEFPEP8A4EQf/GaP+GW/Av8A0FPEP/gRB/8AGaPaQ7hZnpv/AAsfwR/0OXh//wAGkH/xVH/Cx/BH/Q5eH/8AwaQf/FV5l/wy34F/6CniH/wIg/8AjNH/AAy34F/6CniH/wACIP8A4zR7SHcLM9N/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzL/AIZb8C/9BTxD/wCBEH/xmj/hlvwL/wBBTxD/AOBEH/xmj2kO4WZ6b/wsfwR/0OXh/wD8GkH/AMVR/wALH8Ef9Dl4f/8ABpB/8VXmX/DLfgX/AKCniH/wIg/+M0D9lrwKT/yFfEA/7eIP/jNP2kO4WZ6b/wALH8Ef9Dl4f/8ABpB/8VR/wsfwR/0OXh//AMGkH/xVebf8Mq+B/wDoK+IP/AiD/wCM0f8ADKngj/oK+IP/AAIg/wDjNWI9J/4WP4I/6HLw/wD+DSD/AOKo/wCFj+CP+hy8P/8Ag0g/+Krzb/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/8AGaP+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/AMZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzb/AIZU8Ef9BXxB/wCBEH/xmj/hlTwR/wBBXxB/4EQf/GaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P8A/g0g/wDiqP8AhY/gj/ocvD//AINIP/iq82/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf/ABmj/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/wDGaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P/wDg0g/+Ko/4WP4I/wChy8P/APg0g/8Aiq82/wCGVPBH/QV8Qf8AgRB/8Zo/4ZU8Ef8AQV8Qf+BEH/xmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qj/AIWP4I/6HLw//wCDSD/4qvNv+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/wAZo/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf8AxmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/8A4NIP/iqP+Fj+CP8AocvD/wD4NIP/AIqvNv8AhlTwR/0FfEH/AIEQf/GaP+GVPBH/AEFfEH/gRB/8ZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw/wD+DSD/AOKo/wCFj+CP+hy8P/8Ag0g/+Krzb/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/8AGaP+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/AMZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzb/AIZU8Ef9BXxB/wCBEH/xmj/hlTwR/wBBXxB/4EQf/GaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P8A/g0g/wDiqP8AhY/gj/ocvD//AINIP/iq82/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf/ABmj/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/wDGaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P/wDg0g/+Ko/4WP4I/wChy8P/APg0g/8Aiq82/wCGVPBH/QV8Qf8AgRB/8Zo/4ZU8Ef8AQV8Qf+BEH/xmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qj/AIWP4I/6HLw//wCDSD/4qvNv+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/wAZo/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf8AxmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/8A4NIP/iqP+Fj+CP8AocvD/wD4NIP/AIqvNv8AhlTwR/0FfEH/AIEQf/GaP+GVPBH/AEFfEH/gRB/8ZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw/wD+DSD/AOKo/wCFj+CP+hy8P/8Ag0g/+Krzb/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/8AGaP+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/AMZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzb/AIZU8Ef9BXxB/wCBEH/xmj/hlTwR/wBBXxB/4EQf/GaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P8A/g0g/wDiqP8AhY/gj/ocvD//AINIP/iq82/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf/ABmj/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/wDGaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P/wDg0g/+Ko/4WP4I/wChy8P/APg0g/8Aiq82/wCGVPBH/QV8Qf8AgRB/8Zo/4ZU8Ef8AQV8Qf+BEH/xmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qj/AIWP4I/6HLw//wCDSD/4qvNv+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/wAZo/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf8AxmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/8A4NIP/iqP+Fj+CP8AocvD/wD4NIP/AIqvNv8AhlTwR/0FfEH/AIEQf/GaP+GVPBH/AEFfEH/gRB/8ZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw/wD+DSD/AOKo/wCFj+CP+hy8P/8Ag0g/+Krzb/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/8AGaP+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/AMZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzb/AIZU8Ef9BXxB/wCBEH/xmj/hlTwR/wBBXxB/4EQf/GaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P8A/g0g/wDiqP8AhY/gj/ocvD//AINIP/iq82/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf/ABmj/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/wDGaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P/wDg0g/+Ko/4WP4I/wChy8P/APg0g/8Aiq82/wCGVPBH/QV8Qf8AgRB/8Zo/4ZU8Ef8AQV8Qf+BEH/xmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qj/AIWP4I/6HLw//wCDSD/4qvNv+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/wAZo/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf8AxmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/8A4NIP/iqP+Fj+CP8AocvD/wD4NIP/AIqvNv8AhlTwR/0FfEH/AIEQf/GaP+GVPBH/AEFfEH/gRB/8ZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw/wD+DSD/AOKo/wCFj+CP+hy8P/8Ag0g/+Krzb/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/8AGaP+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/AMZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzb/AIZU8Ef9BXxB/wCBEH/xmj/hlTwR/wBBXxB/4EQf/GaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P8A/g0g/wDiqP8AhY/gj/ocvD//AINIP/iq82/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf/ABmj/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/wDGaAPSf+Fj+CP+hy8P/wDg0g/+Ko/4WP4I/wChy8P/APg0g/8Aiq82/wCGVPBH/QV8Qf8AgRB/8Zo/4ZU8Ef8AQV8Qf+BEH/xmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/AP4NIP8A4qj/AIWP4I/6HLw//wCDSD/4qvNv+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/wAZo/4ZU8Ef9BXxB/4EQf8AxmgD0n/hY/gj/ocvD/8A4NIP/iqP+Fj+CP8AocvD/wD4NIP/AIqvNv8AhlTwR/0FfEH/AIEQf/GaP+GVPBH/AEFfEH/gRB/8ZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw/wD+DSD/AOKo/wCFj+CP+hy8P/8Ag0g/+Krzb/hlTwR/0FfEH/gRB/8AGaP+GVPBH/QV8Qf+BEH/AMZoA9J/4WP4I/6HLw//AODSD/4qj/hY/gj/AKHLw/8A+DSD/wCKrzb/AIZU8Ef9BXxB/wCBEH/xmj/hlTwR/wBB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width="635" /></p><p>Illinois&rsquo; statewide results will be comparable across state lines&mdash;something impossible under prior testing systems in which each state had developed its own accountability exam.</p><p>Ten states and Washington, D.C. are part of PARCC. But as Common Core has been attacked from both the left and the right, states have pulled out of the consortium. Ohio is the only other state to have <a href="http://www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2015/09/ohios_common_core_test_results.html" target="_blank">released PARCC results</a> so far.</p><div>&nbsp;</div><div><em>Linda Lutton is&nbsp;a WBEZ education reporter. </em><em>Follow</em><em> her at&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/WBEZeducation" target="_blank">@WBEZeducation</a></em></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Wed, 16 Sep 2015 23:01:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/illinois-test-results-plummet-under-new-common-core-exams-112957