WBEZ | Martin Luther King Jr. http://www.wbez.org/tags/martin-luther-king-jr Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Studs Terkel's 1963 Train Ride to Washington http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/studs-terkels-1963-train-ride-washington-111414 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/mlk.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Among the hundreds of thousands who joined Martin Luther King, Jr. for the 1963 March on Washington D.C for civil rights were some 800 Chicagoans who traveled there overnight by train. Chicago legend Studs Terkel went with them. He brought his tape recorder and chronicled the whole journey. The voices and thoughts of his fellow travelers bring us all a little closer to that historic experience. The trip culminated with King&#39;s now-famous &quot;I Have a Dream&quot; speech.</p><p><em>Find more audio from Studs Terkel&#39;s archives at WFMT&#39;s <a href="http://studsterkel.org" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">studsterkel.org</a></em></p></p> Fri, 16 Jan 2015 12:39:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/studs-terkels-1963-train-ride-washington-111414 Remembering Dr. King in Chicago http://www.wbez.org/programs/afternoon-shift/2013-01-21/remembering-dr-king-chicago-105051 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/dr.%20king%20small%20AP.jpg" style="height: 419px; width: 620px;" title="Dr. Martin Luther King addresses a crowd estimated at 70,000 at a civil rights rally in Chicago’s Soldier Field in 1964. (AP/Charles E. Knoblock)" /></div><p>And so, we celebrate Martin Luther King Day, a big holiday for furniture sales and discounts. Depending on where you live, you may be able to take advantage of MLK discounts at Broyhill, La-Z-Boy, Ethan Allen and American Mattress.</p><p>In 1964, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. won the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1966, he came to Chicago.</p><p>The Civil Rights leader rented an apartment on the West Side and led a march of some 700 supporters through the Marquette Park neighborhood, a white ethnic enclave on the Southwest Side, to protest housing segregation. Thousands of jeering, taunting whites had gathered. The mood was ominous. One placard read: &ldquo;King would look good with a knife in his back.&rdquo;</p><p>Someone threw a rock. It struck King on the head. He fell to one knee. He stayed on the ground for several seconds. As he rose, aides and bodyguards surrounded him to protect him from the rocks, bottles and firecrackers that rained down on the demonstrators.<br /><br />Later King said this: &ldquo;I have to do this, expose myself, to bring this hate into the open. I have seen many demonstrators in the South, but I have never seen anything so hostile and so hateful as I&rsquo;ve seen here today in Chicago.&rdquo;</p><p>WELCOME TO CHICAGO . . . RICHARD J. DALEY, MAYOR.</p><p>Daley did not greet King warmly. He did not like outsiders pointing out Chicago&rsquo;s faults. Mayor Daley said this: &ldquo;Maybe he doesn&rsquo;t have all the facts. He is a resident of another city.&rdquo;</p><p>But it was Daley who gave us Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, yes? It happened like this.</p><p>When the Democratic National Convention was on its way to Chicago in 1968, Daley was not, as one might think given the way things had turned out, concerned about the war protesters and other long-haired &ldquo;agitators&rdquo; expected to come to town. One forgets that the people he most feared might upset the convention were blacks. His paranoia was fueled by the devastating West Side riots that had taken place earlier that year in the wake of the April assassination of Dr. King.</p><p>So it was decided that police would pressure black militants and gang members, arresting some and hassling others, getting across the &ldquo;behave or else&rdquo; message. But Daley&rsquo;s savvy dictated a less aggressive maneuver, and on August 1, 1968 the City Council met to placate the black community by renaming a street in honor of King.</p><p>Many descriptions of this meeting have been written. Non better captured it than Mike Royko in <em>Boss</em>, his biography of Daley:</p><blockquote><p>The meeting was remarkable with one administration Alderman after another eulogizing King as a great man, forgetting that they had assailed him when he was alive. Daley himself described his relationship with King as one of great friendship and mutual understanding, claiming that King had told him what a fine job he was doing for the city&rsquo;s blacks.</p><p>The street selected for the name change was South Park Way, which ran through predominantly black sections of the South Side. There were suggestions that the street chosen cut through the whole city (Western Avenue, perhaps), but Daley wouldn&rsquo;t listen. He knew that in white neighborhoods street signs would be defaced or destroyed.</p></blockquote><p>So that is how South Park Way became Dr. Martin Luther King Drive. And today, in Dr. King&rsquo;s honor, Sears has 50 percent off mattresses and Kmart is offering free shipping.</p></p> Mon, 21 Jan 2013 13:34:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/afternoon-shift/2013-01-21/remembering-dr-king-chicago-105051 Evolution of Chicago's handgun ban http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-06-27/evolution-chicagos-handgun-ban-88376 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2011-June/2011-06-27/102835733.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Chicago’s top cop Garry McCarthy has been criticized for <a href="http://www.nbcchicago.com/blogs/ward-room/emanuel-mccarthy-sabina-124439094.html" target="_blank">recent comments</a> he made about gun control in a predominately black parish. Race relations were a factor when the City of Chicago first implemented a hand gun registry in 1968. To learn how Chicago got there, contributer <a href="http://www.robertloerzel.com/" target="_blank">Robert Loerzel</a> explored the history, using archival recordings from the <a href="http://www.uic.edu/depts/lib/specialcoll/services/rjd/findingaids/Crawfordf.html" target="_blank">Bob Crawford Audio Archive</a> at the University of Illinois at Chicago.<br> <br> ANNOUNCER ON WFAA-TV, DALLAS: You’ll excuse me if I’m out of breath. A bulletin, this is from the United Press, from Dallas. President Kennedy and Governor John Connelly have been cut down by assassins' bullets in downtown Dallas. They were riding in an open automobile when the shots were fired. The president, his limp body carried in the arms of his wife, Jacqueline, was rushed to Parkland Hospital.</p><p>AUDIO: Taps being played at JFK's funeral.</p><p>The assassination of President John F. Kennedy shocked the nation in 1963. The years that followed were a time of civil-rights protests, police brutality, race riots and increasing urban crime. Chicago's murder rate more than doubled in the 1960s. Some people, including Mayor Richard J. Daley, said stricter gun laws were needed. Tensions flared in 1966 when Martin Luther King, Jr. came to Chicago. He spoke at Solider Field on July 10.</p><p>KING: Now is the time to get rid of the slums and the ghettos of Chicago. Now is the time to make justice a reality all over this nation. Now is the time.</p><p>King preached nonviolence, but two days after his speech, African-Americans rioted on the West Side, after police shut off the water spraying from a fire hydrant in the middle of a heat wave. Snipers fired at police from rooftops. Six officers were shot and wounded. Two black residents were killed by police gunfire.</p><p><em>MUSIC: Mothers of Invention, "Trouble Every Day"</em></p><p>President Lyndon Johnson got on the phone with Mayor Daley. The White House secretly recorded their call, as Daley made the case for gun control.<br> <br> WHITE HOUSE TAPE DALEY: Something has to be done, Mr. President, about the sale of the guns.</p><p>Daley's voice can be heard faintly on the tape. Here's actor Neil Giuntoli, reading Daley's words to LBJ.</p><p>GIUNTOLI/DALEY: Outside the suburbs in the city, we have control, but what the hell, in the suburbs, there are — you go out to all around our suburbs and you've got people out there, especially the non-white, are buying guns right and left. Shotguns and rifles and pistols and everything else. There's no registration. … There's no, and you know, they've had trouble with this national gun law, but after the president's assassination, someone ought to do something.<br> JOHNSON: We thought so, but you can't get the Congress to vote for it, these damn conservation leagues and everybody come—<br> GIUNTOLI/DALEY: By God, when they see this thing that happens here, they get surprised...</p><p><em>MUSIC: The Montgomery Gospel Trio, the Nashville Quartet, and Guy Carawan, "We Shall Overcome."</em></p><p>Daley blamed outside agitators for bringing violence to Chicago, but King was pleading with Chicago's blacks to stop the violence. At the time, conservatives blamed the civil-rights movement for creating disorder. Politicians made speeches about "law and order." Some of them seemed to be using that phrase as a code for racial repression. Still, crime was increasing, and many people really were concerned about it.</p><p><em>MUSIC: Buffalo Springfield, "For What It's Worth."</em></p><p>In 1967, Daley pushed for a state law requiring the registration of all guns. His bill was defeated. The Illinois General Assembly approved a Republican compromise. It was supported by the National Rifle Association and Illinois State Rifle Association. Instead of registering every gun, the state registered gun owners. It was the Firearm Owners Identification Card.</p><p>The compromise wasn't good enough for Daley. In January 1968, the City Council ordered the registration of all firearms in Chicago. But before Daley's ordinance took effect, America was stunned by another assassination.</p><p>ROBERT F. KENNEDY: Martin Luther King was shot and was killed tonight in Memphis, Tennessee.</p><p>"VIOLENT TRIBUTE" TV REPORT: By 4 o'clock Friday afternoon, huge portions of the West Side ghetto were aflame.</p><p>Daley issued an executive order that temporarily banned the sale of all guns and ammo. And—as for the arsonists—he ordered police to "shoot to kill."</p><p>RICHARD J. DALEY: Men poised with Molotov cocktails, incendiaries or firebombs of any kind are the same as the assassins who pulled the triggers on the gun that killed the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and the late President John F. Kennedy. We cannot resign ourselves to the proposition that civil protest must lead to death and devastation, to the abandonment of the law that is fundamental for the preservation of the rights of all people and their freedom.</p><p>A month after the riots, Daley's new gun law took effect. Chicagoans registered 165,000 guns. And then, another assassination made news.</p><p>KENNEDY PRESS AIDE FRANK MANKIEWICZ: Senator Robert Francis Kennedy died at 1:44 a.m. today, June 6, 1968.</p><p>In August, police and demonstrators clashed at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.</p><p>SCENE FROM <em>AMERICAN REVOLUTION 2</em> DOCUMENTARY: Kill! Kill! Kill! Kill! Hey, kill! C'mon, kill! C'mon! C'mon, I'm over here! Shoot! Use those knives, c'mon! Shoot to kill! Kill! Shoot to kill! C'mon. Kill!</p><p><em>MUSIC: The MC5, "Kick Out the Jams."</em></p><p>Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley continued pushing for gun control. In 1972, he testified at Congress and called for a national ban on handguns. Here's some of his testimony, re-enacted by Neil Giuntoli:</p><p>DALEY/GIUNTOLI: As far as I'm concerned, the only purpose of a handgun in unauthorized hands is to kill ... The handgun makes no positive contribution to our society. It kills — whether by accident or on purpose.</p><p>When Daley died in 1976, his hopes for gun laws remained unfulfilled. Four years later, another series of violent events prompted more calls for gun control.</p><p>CHANNEL 2: Channel 2, the 10 o'clock news...</p><p>It all started on December 8, 1980.</p><p>WALTER JACOBSON: The handgun that killed John Lennon, the .38-caliber pistol, is manufactured solely for the purpose of killing people. All handguns that are manufactured in the United States are solely for the purpose of killing people. They have nothing to do with hunting, for sport or for food. They are for murdering people. Period.</p><p><em>MUSIC: John Lennon, "Watching the Wheels."</em></p><p>Over the coming weeks, gunfire claimed eleven lives at the Cabrini-Green public housing project. By now, Jane Byrne was the mayor of Chicago, and she was calling for stricter gun laws. To show solidarity with the residents, Byrne moved into Cabrini-Green on March 31, 1981. One day earlier, another shooting made national headlines.</p><p><em>VOICES: Mr. President Reagan! Mr. President! [shots, screaming]</em></p><p>And then, on May 13, yet another assassination attempt, this time in Rome.</p><p>CBS — DAN RATHER: They heard gunfire and saw the pope turn pale and collapse, bloody, into the arms of his aides. Pope John Paul II had been shot.</p><p>Amid the growing concern, the suburb of Morton Grove outlawed handguns. In early 1982, Mayor Byrne urged the Chicago City Council to prohibit all new handguns.</p><p>BYRNE: There are human beings all over this city that tonight, tonight, may innocently be shot by a criminal with a nonregistered gun, who will get away with it. And are we to sit and say, because nobody did it before, we won't do it now? The city is too important, and its people are too important.</p><p>The City Council debated the ordinance on March 19, 1982. Aldermen Richard Mell and Marian Humes spoke out against it.</p><p>HUMES: This is a con game that's being run here, that's all it is.</p><p>Aldermen Timothy Evans and Edward Burke supported the ban.</p><p>BURKE: What it does do, hopefully, is put a freeze on the number of handguns that are presently opened by people in the city of Chicago.</p><p>The City Council approved the ordinance by a vote of thirty to eleven. And what‘s been the result? NRA Lawyer Stephen Halbrook says it hasn’t had any effect on crime.</p><p>HALBROOK: I think it's made it impossible for law-abiding citizens to have handguns to protect their families in their own homes.</p><p>City of Chicago lawyer Benna Solomon disagrees. She says the law is an important tool for police to make arrests.</p><p>SOLOMON: Because we have a handgun ordinance… when a police officer is on surveillance or on patrol and sees a suspicious bulge in someone's waistband, that alone provides probable cause to believe that a crime has been committed... So it allows the police officer to intervene, right then and there.</p><p>Last year, the Chicago police seized more than 8,000 guns. Homicides decreased 10 percent in 2009, but the death toll was still staggering: 458 murders. Out of that total, 352 people were killed with handguns.</p><p><em>MUSIC: The Jimi Hendrix Experience, “Hey Joe.”</em></p></p> Mon, 27 Jun 2011 12:56:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-06-27/evolution-chicagos-handgun-ban-88376 Is Mayor Daley the #1 gun control advocate in America? http://www.wbez.org/blog/justin-kaufmann/2011-04-04/mayor-daley-1-gun-control-advocate-america-84714 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//blog/photo/2011-April/2011-04-04/AP11022812198.jpg" alt="" /><p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/blog/insert-image/2011-April/2011-04-04/AP11022812198.jpg" style="width: 497px; height: 219px;" title=""></p><p>Today, Mayor Richard M. Daley spoke at a ribbon cutting for a new housing development in North Lawndale bearing Martin Luther King, Jr.'s name. Today is the anniversary of MLK's assasination in 1968.</p><p>He did not take questions at this press availability. But what he did do was spend a few minutes riling up the crowd on the need for more gun control. It's a good speech for championing his cause as a politician, but it strikes me that there are probably no other politicians in this country that would go as far as calling out the gun lobby and publicly outing the federal government for not doing more.</p><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Gun_control_advocates">Wikipedia has a list of the top 35 gun control advocates in America</a>. The list includes prominent Democrat politicians like Sen. Fienstein (California), Sen. Charles Shumer (NY) and James Brady (the official gun control advocate). The list also includes Chicago Mayor-elect Rahm Emanuel.</p><p>But I would like to make an argument that none of those politicians sound like this:</p><p><audio class="mejs mediaelement-formatter-identified-1332483430-1" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/sites/default/files/Daley-guns.mp3">&nbsp;</audio></p><p>Now that Mayor Daley enters into his final month in office, will we expect the same advocacy from our new mayor?</p></p> Mon, 04 Apr 2011 19:27:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/blog/justin-kaufmann/2011-04-04/mayor-daley-1-gun-control-advocate-america-84714 Local woman recognized for heroic efforts http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/local-woman-recognized-heroic-efforts <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//Rosazilla-Grillier.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>&quot;Eight Forty-Eight&quot; kicked off Martin Luther King, Jr. Day celebrations a little early this year by giving a nod to the everyday heroes among us. Rosazlia Grillier lives in Englewood on the South Side; she was recently named an <a target="_blank" href="http://www.allstate.com/diversity/Beyond-February/give-back-day.aspx ">Allstate Give Back Day Hero</a>. She&rsquo;s one of four Allstate Heros and the only pick from Chicago.</p><p>Not that long ago, Griller wouldn&rsquo;t have considered herself much of a hero. But a turning point came when she went to a meeting of <a target="_blank" href="http://www.cofionline.org/">COFI </a>&ndash; the Community Organizing and Family Issues group.</p><p><strong>RELATED</strong>:<br /><a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFAD9RY-aRw" target="_blank">Allstate Give Back Day 2011</a></p><p><em>DJ&nbsp;John Ciba's Music Button: The Birmingham Spirituals, &quot;New Thing Going Around&quot;</em></p></p> Fri, 14 Jan 2011 14:50:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/local-woman-recognized-heroic-efforts MLK Jr. inspires European anti-hate movements http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/mlk-jr-inspires-european-anti-hate-movements <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2010-November/2010-11-02/swastika_medium.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, there&rsquo;s been a resurgence in Europe of neo-Nazi and anti-immigrant activities. According to human rights groups, hate crimes are up continent-wide against Africans, Arabs, Jews and Gypsies.</p><p>And while much attention is paid to racist &quot;skinheads,&quot; particularly in Germany, Sweden, and Russia, far less attention is paid to vibrant, grass-roots, anti-racism movements across the continent.</p><p>Independent producer Phillip Martin looks at the history of Europe&rsquo;s anti-racism movement after communism&rsquo;s fall and how Martin Luther King Jr. inspired the daughter of a Jewish resistance fighter and concentration camp survivor to fight anti-Semitism and hate.</p><p><em>This story is from the </em><a href="http://www.prx.org"><em>Public Radio Exchange</em></a><em>. </em></p></p> Wed, 03 Nov 2010 02:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/mlk-jr-inspires-european-anti-hate-movements Tribute to Bishop Brazier http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/tribute-bishop-brazier <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2010-October/2010-10-28/arthur brazier.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>When the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. took to the streets of Chicago, many marched alongside him. But few matched the fervor of Bishop Arthur M. Brazier. Brazier was a vital spiritual leader in the civil rights movement.</p><p>Last week, the Chicago native was freed from a long battle with cancer. Bishop Brazier was 89.</p><p>His body will lie in state today at the <a href="http://www.acog-chicago.org/">Apostolic Church of God</a>. That&rsquo;s where the bishop led a congregation of more than 20,000 members for nearly 50 years. Others knew him through his work with the <a href="http://www.twochicago.org/">Woodlawn Organization.</a></p><p>Brazier was actively involved in Chicago&rsquo;s fight for affordable housing. He opposed plans by the University of Chicago to displace residents for a proposed expansion. <a href="http://www.metropolitanapostolic.org/">Rev. Leon Finney Jr.</a>, president of The Woodlawn Organization, says Brazier was at the forefront of the faith-based approach.&nbsp; Bishop Brazier also worked against gangs and crime.</p><p>His resolve and determination may stem from his time in the Army. He was drafted during World War II and served as a staff sergeant in India and Burma.&nbsp; But it was Brazier&rsquo;s work on the home front that would make him an inspiration.</p><p>Hearing of his death, President Obama called Bishop Brazier &quot;one of our nation's leading moral lights.&quot;&nbsp; Tens of thousands are expected to attend tonight&rsquo;s service at the Apostolic Church of God in Woodlawn. <br /> <br />The church will also host a service tomorrow at 11 a.m.</p></p> Thu, 28 Oct 2010 15:18:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/tribute-bishop-brazier