WBEZ | Film http://www.wbez.org/sections/film Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Film Portrays a 'Perfect Storm' That Led to Unwanted Sterilizations for Many Latinas http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/film-portrays-perfect-storm-led-unwanted-sterilizations-many-latinas-114675 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/no_mas_bebes.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>About 40 years ago, when she was 24, Consuelo Hermosillo had an emergency caesarean section at Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center. In the new documentary<em>&nbsp;No Más Bebés, </em>she recalls asking her doctor what type of birth control she should use going forward.</p><p>&quot;He goes, &#39;You don&#39;t need anything. We cut your tubes,&#39;&quot; Hermosillo says in the film. &quot;And I said, &#39;Why?&#39; And he said, &#39;Well you signed for it.&#39; And I said, &#39;Me?&#39;&quot;</p><p><a href="http://www.nomasbebesmovie.com/"><em>No Más Bebés (No More Babies)</em>,</a>&nbsp;which airs on PBS on Feb. 1, tells the story of how 10 immigrant Mexican women, Hermosillo included, sued LA County doctors, the state and the U.S. government in 1975 for allegedly violating their civil rights. The women&#39;s cases were similar. Each had an emergency cesarean section and each said she was either unaware that she signed for a tubal ligation or was told by a medical professional that not signing for one could mean death for her and her unborn child.</p><p><em>No Más Bebés&nbsp;</em>examines how the lawsuit,&nbsp;<em>Madrigal v. Quilligan,</em> came to be, how questions of informed consent &mdash; or lack thereof &mdash; and coercion played into the case, and how the collision of various societal issues resulted in stories like Hermosillo&#39;s.</p><p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="435" scrolling="no" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/aseQlmKg25U" title="No Mas Bebés, which airs on PBS on Feb. 1, tells the story of how 10 immigrant Mexican women sued Los Angeles County doctors, the state and the U.S. government in 1975 for allegedly violating their civil rights." width="620"></iframe></p><div id="storytext"><p>&quot;When you&#39;re a filmmaker, the easiest thing to do is make a film about the good guys and the bad guys, the heroes and the villains,&quot; says&nbsp;No Más Bebés&nbsp;director&nbsp;<a href="http://www.asianam.ucla.edu/people/renee-tajima-pe%C3%B1a">Renee Tajima-Peña</a>. Tajima-Peña says she and co-producer&nbsp;<a href="http://itvs.org/films/no-mas-bebes/filmmaker">Virginia Espino</a>, a historian who wrote her dissertation on the case, wanted to tell a multilayered story, one that revealed how even the best intentions could do harm.</p><p>Tajima-Peña and Espino explore the roles played by federally funded family-planning programs; a growing popular movement to curb population growth that attracted both environmentalists and anti-immigration proponents; doctors fresh out of medical school working in under-resourced maternity wards; cultural misunderstandings; and the popular belief that poor women who need public assistance should abstain from having children.</p><p>Taken together, these factors created what Tajima-Peña calls a &quot;perfect storm&quot; resulting in the sterilization of thousands of vulnerable women across the country in the late &#39;60s and early 1970s. She and Espino say their goal was to document a history that continues to repeat itself &mdash; they point to&nbsp;<a href="http://cironline.org/reports/female-inmates-sterilized-california-prisons-without-approval-4917">nearly 150 women sterilized in California prisons between 2006 and 2010</a>&nbsp;as the most recent example.</p><p>In telling this history, the film highlights the role played by the Family Planning and Population Research Act, which Congress passed in 1970 allocating millions for family-planning purposes. That money went to fund contraceptives, education, research and training. &quot;You&#39;ve got money for family planning programs, which were good programs and provided contraceptives for women who couldn&#39;t afford it,&quot; says Tajima-Peña. Congress also lifted a ban on federal funding for sterilization, so hospitals that provided the indigent with medical care, like Los Angeles County General Hospital, could apply for government money to perform tubal ligations.</p><p>Meanwhile, lobbying efforts in Washington, fueled by a fear of overpopulation gripping the nation, led to yet more funding for family planning programs. Inspired by the popularity of biologist Paul Ehrlich&#39;s best-selling 1968 book,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/01/us/the-unrealized-horrors-of-population-explosion.html">The Population Bomb</a>, which predicted that at some point in the 1980s, overpopulation would make it impossible for the planet to support humanity, members of the &quot;zero population movement&quot; worked to convince the public that having children was a very bad idea. Some went so far as promoting the sterilization of women deemed to have had too many. (They also called for a dramatic reduction to immigration.)</p><p>Then, there were divisions within the feminist movement on how sterilization fit into the bigger picture of reproductive rights. Mainstream white feminists marched for &quot;the right to choose,&quot; including unfettered access to sterilizations, contraception and abortions. Feminists of color also called for abortion rights and easy access to contraception, but broke with white feminists on the issue of sterilization, arguing that for women of color, sterilization was not always a matter of choice. They called for waiting periods before tubal ligation procedures, and Latina activists called for Spanish-language consent forms.</p><p>In&nbsp;No Más Bebés, California politician&nbsp;<a href="http://www.latimes.com/la-oe-morrison-new29-2009aug29-column.html">Gloria Molina</a>, who was active in the Chicana feminist movement in the 1970s, says the idea of a waiting period was &quot;totally offensive&quot; to white feminists, who, she says, pushed for sterilization upon demand. &quot;They weren&#39;t taking into account that if you were Spanish-speaking, and if you don&#39;t speak English, you were being denied a right, totally,&quot; Molina says in the film.</p><p>And then there was the long-held stance, still popular today, that poor women should not have children they can&#39;t afford to support, especially poor women of color. For decades,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.uic.edu/orgs/cwluherstory/CWLUArchive/puertorico.html">Puerto Rican women had been subjected to sterilizations at various points</a>&nbsp;as a way to combat astronomical unemployment and poverty on the island; a 1965 survey found that a third of Puerto Rican mothers living on the island at the time had been sterilized.&nbsp;<a href="https://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&amp;type=summary&amp;url=/journals/american_indian_quarterly/v024/24.3lawrence.html">Native American women</a>&nbsp;were sterilized at the hands of the Indian Health Service in the 1970s. Poor African-American women on government assistance were also sterilized across the country during that time period.&nbsp;<a href="https://www.splcenter.org/seeking-justice/case-docket/relf-v-weinberger">A particularly damning case</a>, brought two years before&nbsp;<em>Madrigal v. Quilligan</em>, involved two black sisters sterilized at ages 14 and 12 in Alabama.</p><p>So, to recap: You had a surge of federal money for sterilizations, mainstream feminists calling for easier access to them, a fear that overpopulation would soon destroy the planet and the fear that poor women were burdening the country with children whom taxpayers would need to feed, clothe and educate. This nexus of events &mdash; and the consequences, intended and unintended, that followed &mdash; is the knot that&nbsp;No Más Bebés&nbsp;tries to untie.</p><p>&quot;Why were they doing it?&quot; Consuelo Hermosillo, one of the 10 plaintiffs in&nbsp;<em>Madrigal v. Quilligan</em>, asks on camera at one point in the film, nearly 40 years after her sterilization at LA County General. &quot;I always keep these questions with me, and I never get those answers,&quot; she says.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/01/31/464596760/in-no-m-s-beb-s-a-perfect-storm-led-to-unwanted-sterilizations-for-many-latinas?ft=nprml&amp;f=464596760"><em>via NPR</em></a></p></div><div class="tags" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px 0px 44px 130px; padding: 0px 15px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 14px; line-height: 14px; font-family: 'Gotham SSm', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; vertical-align: baseline; overflow: hidden; max-width: 680px; position: relative; float: none; width: auto; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Tue, 02 Feb 2016 12:01:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/film-portrays-perfect-storm-led-unwanted-sterilizations-many-latinas-114675 New Film Puts Spotlight on Toughest Marathon in the World http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift/2016-01-29/new-film-puts-spotlight-toughest-marathon-world-114644 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Barkley Marathon-Barkleymovie.com_.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>You think the Chicago marathon is tough? How about New York, or Boston? Those runs are like trip on a merry-go-round compared to The Barkley Marathons.&nbsp;</p><p>Based on a failed prison escape, the Barkley takes entrants over 100 miles of the roughest, most mountainous backwoods Tennessee terrain imaginable. 1000 have tried. Only 14 have finished. Filmmaker Annika Iltis talks about the race and the film ahead of two weekend screenings at the Gene Siskel Film Center.</p></p> Fri, 29 Jan 2016 12:47:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift/2016-01-29/new-film-puts-spotlight-toughest-marathon-world-114644 Worldview: January 22, 2016 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-22/worldview-january-22-2016-114583 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Iran-Pakistan.jpg" title="Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, right, talks with Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif during their meeting in Tehran, Iran, Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2016. (AP Photo/Vahid Salemi)" /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/243300801&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Pakistan mediates diplomatic crisis in Middle East</span><br />Relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran have been strained ever since Saudi Arabia executed a Shiite cleric earlier this month. That move led to protests in Iran and Saudi Arabia recalling its Ambassador from Tehran. Now, Pakistan has made a move to help mediate a reconciliation between the two countries. Earlier this week &nbsp;Nawaz Sharif, the prime minister of Pakistan, went to Riyadh in an attempt to ease tensions between Saudi Arabia and Iran. We&rsquo;ll take a look at why Pakistan has decided to take on the role of mediator with Alex Vatanka, senior fellow at the Middle East Institute and Jamestown Foundation.</p><p dir="ltr"><strong>Guest:</strong> Alex Vatanka is a senior fellow at the Middle East Institute and Jamestown Foundation.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Zulu%20Dawn%201.jpg" title="The original movie poster for the 1979 film, Zulu Dawn (Courtesy of Samarkand)" /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/243300797&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Zulu Dawn and the 137th anniversary of the Battle of Isandlwana</span><br />On January 22nd, 1879, Zulu tribesmen slaughtered British forces at the Battle of Isandlwana, in present-day South Africa. <em>Zulu Dawn</em>, a 1979 film that dramatizes the events, stars Peter O&rsquo;Toole and Burt Lancaster. Comedian Aaron Freeman says he used to have an annual viewing party to mark the Battle of Isandlwana because it&rsquo;s one time when the colonized beat the colonizers. For the 137th anniversary of the Battle, WBEZ film contributor and director of Facets Multimedia, Milos Stehlik, joins Freeman to discuss <em>Zulu Dawn</em> with the film&rsquo;s co-producer, Nate Kohn, currently professor of entertainment &amp; media studies at the University of Georgia.</p><p dir="ltr">Guest: Milos Stehlik, is the director of Facets Multimedia.<br />Guest: &nbsp;Aaron Freeman is a comedian.<br />Guest: &nbsp;Nate Kohn is a filmmaker and co-producer of <em>Zulu Dawn</em></p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Weekend%20Passport-rick-schoogirls-iran.jpg" title="Rick Steves with schoolgirls in Iran. (Courtesy of Rick Steves)" /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/243300794&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Weekend Passport: Rick Steves on how, why and where to travel</span><br />Each week global citizen Nari Safavi helps listeners plan their global weekend. This week he&rsquo;ll get a little help from travel guru Rick Steves, who helps listeners plan more than just an international weekend. Steves is in Chicago for the 2016 Chicago Travel and Adventure Show.</p><p>Guest: Nari Safavi is &nbsp;co-founder of Pasfarda Arts and Cultural Exchange.<br />Guest: Rick Steves is a travel writer and &nbsp;host of <em>Rick Steves&rsquo; Europe</em>.</p></p> Fri, 22 Jan 2016 17:02:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-22/worldview-january-22-2016-114583 The Real Goal for These Cricket-Crazy Maasai Men? Ending 'The Cut' http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/real-goal-these-cricket-crazy-maasai-men-ending-cut-114554 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/warriors_custom-c9708124c18ecf8fa20fc38ff5c2c890bb669f4f-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res463709637" previewtitle="A new documentary shows how the young Maasai men in Il Polei fell in love with cricket — and use the sport to send a message to their village elders."><div data-crop-type="">You&#39;ve never seen a sports team like this one.</div></div><p>Dotted across a dusty rectangle of dirt in the Kenyan savanna, bare-chested Maasai men in traditional clothing &mdash; plaid red fabrics and colorful accessories made of feathers and beads &mdash; are playing a sport known for its stiff whites: cricket.</p><p>But winning isn&#39;t the team&#39;s No. 1 goal. It&#39;s putting the practice of female genital mutilation, which has affected girls as young as six in the community, into a permanent time-out.</p><p>The&nbsp;<a href="https://www.facebook.com/Maasai.Cricket.Warriors/">Maasai Cricket Warriors</a>, as they&#39;re called, are the subject of<em>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.warriorsfilm.co.uk/">Warriors</a>,</em> a documentary film by British director Barney Douglas. It follows the Maasai players from their village of Il Polei all the way to London for their first cricket championship.</p><p>The film, which comes out on DVD this month, premiered in Los Angeles last September and has been shown in the U.K., South Africa and Kenya. Forty-five percent of the profits will go toward creating a community youth center in Il Polei.</p><p>Even before cricket came to town, the village knew what FGM meant for Maasai girls.<a href="https://globalcricketcommunity.com/index.php/profiles/international-profiles/142-sonyanga-ole-ngais-captain-maasai-cricket-warriors">Sonyanga Ole Ngais</a>, one of the stars of&nbsp;<em>Warriors</em>&nbsp;and the team captain, witnessed three of his sisters undergo the pain of &quot;the cut.&quot;</p><p>Once they were circumcised, they were considered ready for marriage and were quickly married off. Their education ended abruptly.</p><p>Ngais and the younger generation of Maasai men in the village know the power of an educated female. In the movie, they tell how she can help the men and raise up the community as a whole. But to encourage this behavior, the men know they have to speak up, too.</p><div id="res463809253"><div><div>&nbsp;</div></div></div><p>&quot;In their society, men are dominant,&quot; says Douglas. &quot;So for this reason, it&#39;s partly the young men&#39;s responsibility to stand up and say, &#39;FGM is not right. It&#39;s unacceptable. We want our young women to go to school.&#39; &quot;</p><p>And how did cricket come into the picture?</p><p><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/in/aliyabauer">Aliya Bauer</a>&nbsp;introduced cricket to the area in 2007 during a long-term research trip on baboons for the University of California. The South African thought it might be fun, plus she missed playing the sport. Bauer shipped in some equipment, contacted the local chief for his support and taught the villagers how to play.</p><p>They were hooked &mdash; the Maasai found the movements of the game similar to hunting and spear-throwing, a big part of their culture. In 2009, a group of six or seven young men in their teens and early 20s decided to start an official team, the Maasai Cricket Warriors, with Bauer as their coach.</p><p>But they didn&#39;t just want to play. They wanted to use their growing popularity as a cricket team to champion their opposition to FGM.</p><p>The men hoped that by banding together as a sports team, they could gain the clout needed in Maasai society to stand up to the elders against FGM &mdash; and get them to reconsider the tradition&#39;s importance.</p><p>The Warriors also wanted to inspire youth. They taught children how to play cricket and traveled to schools to speak to students about FGM, gender equality and HIV/AIDS, a disease that has affected the Maasai community.</p><p>They led by example, vowing not to marry any woman who has undergone the cut.</p><p>&quot;If you want to join the team, you have to subscribe to the objective of ending FGM,&quot; says Douglas. &quot;And you have to practice what you preach.&quot;</p><p>The elders were skeptical that cricket could make any real impact against FGM in Il Polei.</p><p>&quot;We have not yet seen the fruits that this cricket team has brought to the community,&quot; says one village elder early in the film.</p><p>In 2013, when the team decided to compete in the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.lastmanstands.com/usa">Last Man Stands</a>&nbsp;amateur cricket championship in London, things started to change. The community was buzzing with excitement over the team&#39;s trip. Children were clamoring to play cricket.&nbsp;The adults were proud.</p><p>&quot;Their journey to London greatly enhanced their status and allowed them to question their elders,&quot; says Douglas. &quot;This is something a warrior should&nbsp;never&nbsp;do.&quot;</p><p><em>Warriors&nbsp;</em>climaxes with a conversation between the village elders and the players. Perched on a flat rock and staring out into the vast Kenyan savannah, members of the old generation and the new engage in a civil debate about the tradition of FGM.</p><p>&quot;This is your time, this is your life,&quot; says one village elder in the scene. &quot;We old people are through. We need to ask the [young men what they think about FGM]... it is you guys who will marry.&quot;</p><p>The elders give the young men their blessing to stop marrying girls who have been circumcised, which could then discourage families from enforcing the practice.</p><p>Today, the Maasai Cricket Warriors has grown to more than 25 members. A girls&#39; team has formed. Both teams travel to schools in and around the area to teach children how to play cricket and encourage young people to speak out against FGM.</p><p>Ngais, the team captain, now studies communications and electronic media at Daystar University in Nairobi. He hopes to work in the film industry when he graduates.</p><p>&quot;What I hope comes across is that young people can affect change,&quot; says Douglas. &quot;Young people can get a bad reputation sometimes. But the Warriors did it with the right intentions. It&#39;s an inspiring message.&quot;</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/01/21/463709275/the-real-goal-for-these-cricket-crazy-maasai-men-ending-the-cut?ft=nprml&amp;f=463709275" target="_blank"><em>via NPR</em></a></p></p> Thu, 21 Jan 2016 15:25:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/real-goal-these-cricket-crazy-maasai-men-ending-cut-114554 How Film and Media Stereotypes Affect the African-American Experience http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-15/how-film-and-media-stereotypes-affect-african-american-experience <p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/12%20years%20good%20good.jpeg" title="Lupita Nyong'o in a scene from the motion picture, ’12 Years a Slave’. For her performance, Nyong'o won the 2013 Academy Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role. (Entertainment One)" /><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/242572058&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">How Film and Media Stereotypes Affect the African-American Experience</span></strong></p><p>For Black women, combating negative cultural and media imagery has been an uphill climb. For <em>Worldview&rsquo;s</em> occasional series, <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/images-movies-and-race"><em>Images Movies and Race</em></a>, we reflect on this Martin Luther King Day with a look back to a compelling and award&ndash;winning 2010 conversation on racial imagery in American media and film. Richard Steele will talk with Brenda Verner, an historian, media analyst and Chicagoan, about historic representations of Black women AND men in American culture and how it&rsquo;s affected the African-American experience. From her childhood in Altgeld Gardens - through her studies at Cornell and Harvard - to being a national writer and speaker &ndash; Verner says she&rsquo;s dedicated her life to &ldquo;informing and empowering&rdquo; African-Americans.</p><p><strong>GUESTS:&nbsp;</strong></p><p><a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/real-deal-best-wbezs-richard-steele-according-his-colleagues-110914">Richard Steele</a> is a host/producer for WBEZ and Vocalo</p><p>Brenda Verner is an historian and media analyst</p><p><em><strong>This conversation won a <a href="http://www.nabj.org/?STERADIO2011">2011</a> National Association of Black Journalists &#39;Radio Excellence Award&#39;</strong></em></p></p> Mon, 18 Jan 2016 06:00:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-15/how-film-and-media-stereotypes-affect-african-american-experience Suicide bombing in Indonesia http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-15/suicide-bombing-indonesia-114496 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Indonesia-3.jpg" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="In this Thursday, Jan. 14, 2016, file photo, police officers are deployed near the site of an explosion in Jakarta, Indonesia. Counterterrorism forces apparently did not anticipate Thursday’s attack, though authorities announced last month that they knew of a credible threat. Security personnel, however, were able to respond rapidly. That was partly luck _ police happened to be in the area on other business _ but it still bolstered the image of security forces and government. (AP Photo/Dita Alangkara, File)​" /><br /><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/242166836&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></div><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Indonesia&rsquo;s battle against extremism</span><br />Indonesia has conducted a series of raids and increased security around tourist sites, following yesterday&rsquo;s suicide bombings. The Islamic State has claimed responsibility for the attack in Jakarta. Several suspects were arrested and at least one suspected militant was killed . Indonesia has been battling extremists for at least a decade. We discuss the latest attack and what it means with Jeffrey Winters, the founding director of the Equality Development and Globalization Studies program at Northwestern University.</p><p><strong>Guest:</strong> Jeffrey Winters is the founding director of the Equality Development and Globalization Studies program at Northwestern University and a specialist on South Asia.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/22351463952_238a3300e2_k.jpg" style="height: 448px; width: 620px;" title="Ousmane Sembène on the set of Moolaade 2003. (Courtesy of the Sembene Estate " /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/242166205&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><br /><span style="font-size:24px;">Documentary recalls the life of &ldquo;father of African&rdquo; film</span><br />Senegalese writer and director Ousmane Sembène is often referred to as the &ldquo;father of African cinema.&rdquo; Sembène only had an elementary school education but became one of Africa&rsquo;s most celebrated directors. A new documentary, &lsquo;Sembene!&rsquo; tells the story of his life. Film contributor Milos Stehlik and filmmakers Samba Gadjigo and Jason Silverman, join us to talk about the film and the life of Ousmane Sembène. It&rsquo;s showing at the Gene Siskel Film Center.</p><p><strong>Guests:</strong> Milos Stehlik is the director of Facets Multimedia<br />Jason Silverman is the co-director of &lsquo;Sembene!&rsquo;<br />Samba Gadjigo is the co-director of &lsquo;Sembene!&rsquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Weekend%20Passport%20photo.jpg" style="height: 471px; width: 620px;" title="A 4H Club visits The Races of Mankind exhibition at The Field Museum in 1944. In the original exhibition The Races of Mankind¸ a large sculpture titled “Unity of Man” stood in the center, portraying the then-current concept of three “main races”. Sculptures in halls off the central area portrayed sub-categories of “racial types.” (Photo courtesy of The Field Museum)" /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/242165988&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><span style="font-size:24px;">Weekend Passport: Sculpture exhibit examines our views on race</span><br />Each week global citizen Nari Safavi helps listeners plan their international weekend. This week he&rsquo;ll tell us about an exhibit at the Field Museum that re-examines our conceptions about race- starting in the 1930&rsquo;s through today. He&rsquo;s joined by curator Alaka Wali.</p><p><strong>Guests:</strong> Nari Safavi is one of the founders of Pasfarda Arts and Cultural Exchange<br />Alaka Wali, is the curator of North American Anthropology at the Field Musuem. She is an urban anthropologist and curator of <em>Looking at Ourselves: Rethinking the Sculptures of Malvina Hoffman</em></p></p> Fri, 15 Jan 2016 16:46:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-15/suicide-bombing-indonesia-114496 Seeing The Financial Crisis Through ‘The Big Short’ http://www.wbez.org/programs/here-and-now/2016-01-19/seeing-financial-crisis-through-%E2%80%98-big-short%E2%80%99-114517 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/0115_big-short1-624x399.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="attachment_99962"><p>Goldman Sachs agreed late yesterday to pay $5 billion to end investigations into claims that it knowingly sold faulty mortgage bonds in the run-up to the 2008 financial crisis. JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America and Citigroup have already settled.</p></div><p>This comes during a week that the financial crisis has been in the news for other reasons. Yesterday, &ldquo;The Big Short,&rdquo; based on the Michael Lewis book that documents the events that led up to the 2008 crisis, was nominated for five Oscars.</p><p><em>Here &amp; Now&#39;s</em> Robin Young takes a look at the film and how things have changed since 2008, with&nbsp;Barry Ritholtz&nbsp;of&nbsp;Ritholtz Wealth Management and&nbsp;Sylvia Alvarez&nbsp;of&nbsp;the Housing &amp; Education Alliance.</p><div id="attachment_99964"><a href="http://s3.amazonaws.com/media.wbur.org/wordpress/11/files/2016/01/0115_big-short2.jpg" title="In “The Big Short,” Christian Bale plays the eccentric real-life trader Dr. Michael Burry, one of the few who figures out how unstable the housing market is. (Paramount Pictures)"><img alt="In &quot;The Big Short,&quot; Christian Bale plays the eccentric real-life trader Dr. Michael Burry, one of the few who figures out how unstable the housing market is. (Paramount Pictures)" src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/media.wbur.org/wordpress/11/files/2016/01/0115_big-short2-624x351.jpg" style="height: 349px; width: 620px;" title="In “The Big Short,” Christian Bale plays the eccentric real-life trader Dr. Michael Burry, one of the few who figures out how unstable the housing market is. (Paramount Pictures)" /></a><p>&mdash; <a href="http://hereandnow.wbur.org/2016/01/15/financial-crisis-the-big-short" target="_blank"><em>via Here &amp; Now</em></a></p></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 15 Jan 2016 13:16:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/here-and-now/2016-01-19/seeing-financial-crisis-through-%E2%80%98-big-short%E2%80%99-114517 A Nigerian Actress Had an Unlikely Dream: Make a Movie About Fistula http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/nigerian-actress-had-unlikely-dream-make-movie-about-fistula-114451 <p><p>&quot;Dry&quot; is a tiny word with many interpretations: a well-made martini, a fluffy towel after a hot bath, a subtle wit.</p><p>But for&nbsp;<a href="http://www.endfistula.org/">2 million women worldwide</a>&nbsp;suffering from an obstetric fistula, &quot;dry&quot; means rebirth. It means the incessant flow of human waste dripping down their thighs has ceased at last, that their tenure as a social pariah has come to an end.</p><p>An obstetric fistula is a hole between the vagina and bladder &mdash; or vagina and rectum, in some cases &mdash; that develops as a result of tissue death during prolonged obstructed labor in childbirth. The hole means the woman&#39;s urine (or, in some cases, feces) will simply leak out of her body. There is no way to control it.</p><p>Women who develop fistula are most likely to be poor, uneducated and without access to a skilled birth attendant. It persists as an insidious and under-reported condition in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The woman could be 15 or 35. It could be her first pregnancy or her tenth. Very little connects those afflicted with the condition, aside from the act of trying to bring a life into the world.</p><p>After successful surgery for a fistula, the surgeon says, &quot;You are dry.&quot; And everything changes. The smell is gone. The burning, infected skin is gone. The humiliation is gone.</p><p>The punch packed into this one modest word is exactly what Nigerian filmmaker and actress&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bellanaija.com/2015/08/07/so-precious-stephanie-linus-opens-up-about-her-pregnancy-journey-in-genevieve-magazine/">Stephanie Linus</a>, 33, had in mind when she chose&nbsp;<em>Dry&nbsp;</em>as the title for her new film. The film was released in the U.S. in November and is available for rent on iTunes and&nbsp;<a href="http://www.amazon.com/Dry-Stephanie-Linus-Dr-Zara/dp/B017QHELTU">Amazon</a>; this month, it was nominated for nine&nbsp;<a href="http://www.360nobs.com/2015/12/see-the-full-list-of-africa-magic-viewers-choice-awards-2016-nominees/">Africa Magic Viewers&#39; Choice Awards</a>, including &quot;best overall movie.&quot;</p><div>Linus&#39; fictional protagonist is a girl named Halima who, at 13, is married off to a much older man, gives birth to a stillborn baby and develops a fistula.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>For Linus, fistula is a human rights issue. I spoke with her about giving such a little-known health condition the big-screen treatment, and what she thinks needs to change in order to make eradication a possibility. Below are excerpts from our conversation.<hr /><p><strong>It was refreshing to see an obscure topic transformed into a Nollywood drama. When did you first encounter fistula?</strong></p></div><div>In Nigeria, we have the north and the south. My second year at university, a friend of mine came back from the north. She was telling me about young girls being married off, with the end result being fistula. The story was very strange to me, and I was like, &quot;Are you sure this is happening in Nigeria?&quot; The thought never left my mind that, wow, I was lucky I had access to education and that I&#39;m able to decide what happens to my body.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/stephanie-directing-50_custom-f735c698a04797f18394186033addb01b323a6a5-s400-c85.jpg" title="Director Stephanie Linus on the set of Dry. (Courtesy of Next Page Productions)" />So I started researching. I remember going to Sierra Leone, because I discovered [fistula is] not only a Nigerian thing. So I was just trying to figure out what I can do to help.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><strong>There have been a couple of documentaries on fistula, but I believe this is the first time it&#39;s been framed as entertainment. Was the impetus exposure to a wider audience?</strong></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Well, the more I researched, the more I found out that a lot of people don&#39;t know about it. So many people that I encountered were like, &quot;What are you talking about?&quot; So the main issue was just to bring awareness to it, and I felt a film would resonate more.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Nollywood [Nigeria&#39;s Hollywood] is the third-largest filmmaking industry in the world. So when people come for entertainment, I&#39;m actually passing this message to them. That&#39;s the way I could contribute.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><strong>Was it hard to secure funding for a movie about such an unappetizing topic?</strong></div><div>It was pretty difficult. I remember talking with some organizations that dealt with fistula. They all liked the&nbsp;<em>idea&nbsp;</em>of a film, but nobody wanted to fund it. I was very persistent. Then I got lucky, because I got in contact with the special adviser to the president of the Nigerian government [for the Millennium Development Goals]. I approached them, like, &quot;This falls under your portfolio.&quot;</div><div><p>And then I was able to meet some of these women. I&#39;d been able to observe some operations, and I decided to set up my own foundation called the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.extendedhands.org/">Extended Hands Foundation</a>&nbsp;[which supports surgical repairs and donates medical equipment]. And while I&#39;m raising money for the film, I&#39;m able to raise funds to actually repair the women who are going through it.</p><p><strong>I&#39;m curious about your intended audience.&nbsp;</strong></p><p>I was trying to get it to resonate with everybody &mdash; Westerners and Nigerians and people in Africa. We screened it in Wales, where 30 percent of the film was shot, and everyone was bawling.</p><p><strong>One of the things your film directly addresses: There is&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nyasatimes.com/2013/09/12/malawi-doctors-shun-treating-fistula-cases-its-a-disease-of-poverty/">zero money in fistula repair</a>. These highly skilled surgeons put themselves through years of school and training and then realize they&#39;ll be working for principle, not pay.</strong></p><p>When you&#39;re listening to some of the frustrations [the surgeons] have, most of them don&#39;t even want to get into [fistula repair] in the first place. Because most of the patients are poor, and most of the payments that they get are from NGOs. It&#39;s only recently that the government has started to make provisions for that kind of surgery. No doctor wants to get into that field knowing they won&#39;t get anything back. [They] need to feed their families.</p><p><strong>Did you meet any patients who influenced your creation of Halima?</strong></p><p>Yes, I met a very young girl, and the first time I heard her story it really blew my mind. But [elements of it are] almost the same story of so many of these women, what they&#39;ve gone through. In the movie, the women you see in the ward are actually real-life women with fistula.</p><p><strong>Toward the end, your character says, &quot;The African woman can be described as the most endangered species in our world.&quot;&nbsp;</strong></p><p>Yeah. If you see this movie, we&#39;re not just talking about fistula. My character, as a young girl, was raped and then she was forced into prostitution. There&#39;s so many things women are vulnerable to. The life of a woman should be valued. You should be able to put the necessary laws and health care in place to actually protect them.</p><p><strong>I&#39;m curious what you think about the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/06/africas-new-agents-of-progress-in-female-health-traditional-male-chiefs/276783/">role of men</a>&nbsp;in issues like fistula. Women tend to drive the conversation, sometimes talking only to each other, and I sometimes wonder if maybe we&#39;re excluding a potentially game-changing half of the population, given that fistula is prevalent in communities that tend to be extremely patriarchal.</strong></p><p>The funny thing is, most of the surgeons who do fistula work are men.</p><p><strong>Right!</strong></p><p>You can see, in the film, I also shed light on women being the cause of their own problems. They have so much power and don&#39;t use it. The mother of Halima&#39;s husband, who had all the power to influence his thinking, was the one who was most stigmatizing the girl. She didn&#39;t have any empathy. Women can be the cause of their own problems, too. When we talk about female circumcision, it&#39;s the women taking the lead. I think you have to bring both parties together. Culturally, sometimes you just need to show them, &quot;Look, sometimes when you do this, these are the consequences that come along with it.&quot;</p></div><p style="text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/_YRgRV7Z_G0?rel=0" width="560"></iframe></p><div><strong>I imagine the Nigeria you grew up in is very different than the one Halima experiences.&nbsp;</strong></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>The health care system needs to improve in Nigeria. I mean, massively. People say, &quot;Oh, you have good hospitals.&quot; Yes, we have good hospitals. I was the victim of an accident in 2005. My leg was broken and my face got burned, and I experienced quality care. I was living in the city, where you have access. But imagine living in the rural areas. I try to show that Halima doesn&#39;t have access to good medical care. And then maybe [even if she gets to a hospital] they&#39;re not equipped, or there&#39;s only one doctor attending to thousands of women. There&#39;s a whole lot of constraints, and that&#39;s where we need the government to come in.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><strong>Along the same lines, you portray a number of social realities that some might think are stereotypical views of Africa: child marriage, rape, extreme patriarchy, lack of education. Were you concerned about the image you were presenting for people who weren&#39;t educated about Nigeria?</strong></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>I thought about that, but I had to be real. Nigeria is a beautiful country, there&#39;s so many opportunities. But also there are some realities in the culture that people don&#39;t want to talk about. Nigerians, they&#39;re very well-educated people, they&#39;re smart, they&#39;re hardworking. We just need to put the basic things in place. We don&#39;t need much. Just give us the basics, and then we&#39;ll fly. So I decided to say it the way I saw it. It&#39;s not the whole Nigerian story, but this one just needed to be told.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><strong>It seemed like the need for education was also an underlying point of your film.</strong></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Education is huge. Those young girls, just give them the basic education. If we make sure she&#39;s well-informed, she can manage. But if she&#39;s ignorant, she doesn&#39;t know what to do. And for the parent who wants to marry off her daughter, they need to learn to pause and say, &quot;Maybe I should allow the girl to grow up a little bit.&quot; If we educate people, it will stop the backlog of [cases]. We already have so many with fistula. [We need to prevent] more people from falling victim.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><em>Glendora Meikle is a program manager at the International Reporting Project. She previously worked at Operation Fistula, a nonprofit group that supports surgeons across Africa. Her twitter handle is @gmeiks. Stephanie Linus&#39; handle is @StephanieLinus.</em></div><div><a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/12/30/459794176/a-nigerian-actress-had-an-unlikely-dream-make-a-movie-about-fistula?ft=nprml&amp;f=459794176"><em>&mdash; via NPR</em></a></div><div>&nbsp;</div></p> Tue, 12 Jan 2016 12:39:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/nigerian-actress-had-unlikely-dream-make-movie-about-fistula-114451 Iran accuses Saudis of attacking its Yemen embassy http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-08/iran-accuses-saudis-attacking-its-yemen-embassy-114420 <p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/010816%20IRAN-SAUDIS%20CMS_0.jpg" title="Iranian worshippers attend rally to protest execution of Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr, a prominent opposition Saudi Shiite cleric, after Friday prayers in Tehran, Iran, Jan. 8, 2016. Thousands of worshippers carried pictures of al-Nimr chanting ‘death to Al Saud’ referencing the kingdom's royal family. The poster reads: ’We all sacrifice for you Islam’. (AP Photo/Ebrahim Noroozi)" /><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/241011972&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p><strong><span style="font-size: 24px;">Iran accuses Saudis of targeting its Yemen embassy in airstrike</span></strong></p><p>The diplomatic crisis between Saudi Arabia and Iran took another downward turn when Iran accused Saudi Arabia of deliberately targeting its Yemen embassy in an airstrike. Recent hostilities began between the countries after Saudi Arabia executed noted Shi&rsquo;a cleric, Nimr al-Nimr. In response, Iranian protesters charged and damaged the Saudi embassy in Tehran. We&rsquo;ll get more on the brewing situation with Juan Cole, professor of history at the University of Michigan. His blog is Informed Comment and he&rsquo;s author most recently of the book, The New Arabs: How the Millennial Generation is Changing the Middle East.</p><p><strong>GUESTS:</strong> <a href="http://www.juancole.com/">Juan Cole</a> is Richard P. Mitchell Collegiate professor of history at the University of Michigan and author of the book, <em>The New Arabs: How the Millennial Generation is Changing the Middle East</em></p><p><span style="font-size:24px;"><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/241012414&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><strong>Weekend Passport: Peruvian opera, &ldquo;Bel Canto&rdquo;</strong></span></p><p>Each week, global citizen, Nari Safavi, helps listeners plan their international weekend. This week he&rsquo;ll tell us about an opera inspired by the Peruvian hostage crisis of 1996. Bel Canto is currently running at Lyric Opera in Chicago.</p><p><strong>GUESTS:</strong></p><p>Nari Safavi is co-founder of <a href="http://www.pasfarda.org/">Pasfarda Arts and Cultural Exchange</a></p><p><a href="http://www.jimmylopez.com/">Jimmy Lopez</a> is the composer of the opera, &#39;Bel Canto&#39;</p><p><a href="https://www.lyricopera.org/concertstickets/calendar/2015-2016/productions/lyricopera/bel-canto">&#39;Bel Canto&#39;</a> is playing at the Lyric Opera of Chicago through Sunday, Jnauary 17, 2016</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;"><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/241012735&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><strong>Milos Stehlik reviews films, &lsquo;The Revenant&rsquo; and &lsquo;Peggy Guggenheim: Art Addict&rsquo;</strong></span></p><p>WBEZ Film contributor, Milos Stehlik, joins us to talk about films showing this weekend, including &ldquo;The Revenant,&rdquo; starring Leonardo DiCaprio and a new film about Peggy Guggenheim, the art collector known for her modern art collection, called &ldquo;Peggy Guggenheim: Art Addict&rdquo;.</p><p><em>Peggy Guggenheim: Art Addict is playing at Music Box Theatre</em></p><p><strong>GUESTS:</strong> Milos Stehlik is WBEZ&rsquo;s film contributor and director of <a href="http://www.facets.org">Facets Multimedia</a>.</p></p> Fri, 08 Jan 2016 09:59:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-08/iran-accuses-saudis-attacking-its-yemen-embassy-114420 Did North Korea Detonate a Hydrogen Bomb? http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-07/did-north-korea-detonate-hydrogen-bomb-114413 <p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/North Korea small.jpg" title="People watch a TV news program showing North Korea's announcement, at the Seoul Railway Station in Seoul, South Korea, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2016. North Korea said Wednesday it had conducted a hydrogen bomb test. The letters read ‘Will not use nuclear weapon if autonomy secured’ (AP Photo/Ahn Young-joon)" /><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/240872500&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><strong style="font-size: 24px;">North Korea Hydrogen bomb controversy</strong></p><p>The Republic of North Korea claimed on Wednesday that it set off a hydrogen bomb. Initial reports varied as to whether it was a hydrogen or atomic bomb, but now, many doubt there was any detonation of that magnitude. &nbsp;The White House was skeptical, stating that according to its analysis, North Korea&rsquo;s activity &quot;is not consistent&quot; with the claim. We&rsquo;ll talk about the mystery of DPRK&rsquo;s hydrogen detonation with Bruce Cumings, professor of history at the University of Chicago. He&rsquo;s author of numerous books on the Korean Peninsula including, <em>Parallax Visions: Making Sense of American-East Asian Relations at the End of the Century</em> and <em>North Korea: Another Country</em>.</p><p><strong>GUEST</strong>: <a href="https://history.uchicago.edu/directory/bruce-cumings">Bruce Cumings</a> is&nbsp; professor of history at the University of Chicago and author of <em>Parallax Visions: Making Sense of American-East Asian Relations at the End of the Century</em>, <em>The Korean War: A History</em> and <em>North Korea: Another Country</em></p><p><span style="font-size:24px;"><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/240874742&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><strong>Film looks at how U.S. recruits drone operators</strong></span></p><p>The documentary film &ldquo;Drone,&rdquo; takes an inside look at the CIA&rsquo;s drone program- exploring in depth how the government recruits drone operators. &nbsp;One of the places they recruit- video game conventions. We&rsquo;ll talk with the film&rsquo;s director, Tonje Hessen Schei.</p><p><em><strong><a href="http://www.facets.org/cinematheque/films/jan2016/drone.php">&quot;Drone&quot; is showing at Facets Multimedia through January 14, 2016</a></strong></em></p><p><strong>GUEST</strong>: Tonje Hessen Schei is a filmmaker and director of the documentary, &ldquo;<a href="http://www.dronethedocumentary.com/#top">Drone</a>&rdquo;</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;"><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/240875260&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><strong>Global Activism: Every Child is My Child helps kids in Rwanda and Burundi</strong></span></p><p>For our <em>Global Activism</em> series, we first spoke in 2012 with former high school teacher, Elizabeth Powley. She believes that &ldquo;every child has the right to learn.&rdquo; She has a special love for the children of Africa&rsquo;s Great Lakes region (Rwanda and Burundi). Powley founded the NGO, Every Child is My Child, because she envisions a world in which &ldquo;every girl and boy in Africa has access to secondary school.&rdquo; She is also executive director of Heartland Alliance International - part of Heartland Alliance, the Chicago-based group that &ldquo;helps endangered populations &mdash; particularly the poor, the isolated, and the displaced.&rdquo; Powley is back to update us on her goal for &ldquo;communities [to] see an entire generation of students educated &ndash; for the first time &ndash; beyond the elementary school level.&rdquo;</p><p><strong>GUEST</strong>: Elizabeth Powley is founder of <a href="http://www.everychildismychild.org">Every Child is My Child</a> and executive director of Heartland Alliance International</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;"><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/240875472&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><strong>World History Minute: Founding of Liberia</strong></span></p><p>On January 7, 1822 the schooner <em>Elizabeth</em> arrived off Providence Island, Liberia with the first emigrants ready to colonize the country that would be named Liberia, meaning &ldquo;land of the free.&rdquo;&nbsp; Historian John Schmidt recalls how it all began.</p><p><strong>GUEST</strong>: <a href="https://chicagohistorytoday.wordpress.com/">John Schmidt</a>, historian and author of <em>On This Day in Chicago History</em></p></p> Thu, 07 Jan 2016 09:20:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-07/did-north-korea-detonate-hydrogen-bomb-114413