WBEZ | Culture http://www.wbez.org/news/culture Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Real estate and religion: The tale of Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/real-estate-and-religion-tale-seventeenth-church-christ-scientist-110980 <p><div>These days Wacker Drive rivals LaSalle as the epicenter of Chicago&rsquo;s financial district. The drive&rsquo;s high-rise office buildings tower over the Chicago River like walls of a canyon. But a break in the skyline at the intersection of Wabash and Wacker makes way for a building that is only five stories above street level.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>The structure looks nothing like any of its rectilinear neighbors, which favor steel and glass. Instead, it resembles a concrete space ship with a round, white, windowless facade from the second story up. And, the building has nothing to do with financial power. As spelled out in enormous letters spanning its curved wall, it&rsquo;s the home of the Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist.</div><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/cs church wide.jpg" title="Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist sits on a corner of prime real estate at the intersection of Wabash Ave. and Wacker Drive in downtown Chicago. Monica Schrager asked Curious City how the church has held on to the property for so long. (WBEZ/Shawn Allee)" /></div><p>This distinctive structure caught the eye of Monica Schrager, who works right across the street on the 10th floor of the old Jeweler Building. &ldquo;It has an interesting look,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;It&rsquo;s this small &lsquo;60s-style building that you never really see anyone coming in and out of in the middle of all these skyscrapers.&rdquo; Here&rsquo;s the question she asked us to look into:</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><div class="image-insert-image "><em>I&rsquo;m curious about the Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist that sits on the corner of Wabash and Wacker: how it came to have that prime real estate and how it&rsquo;s managed to hold on to that prime real estate for so long.</em></div></div><p>It turns out Monica has a nose for a great story. As we look into the church&rsquo;s history, we learn how the tenets of a distinctive faith were translated into concrete and steel by an idealistic, but non-believing architect. And, we follow a devoted congregation as it risked building in a once-abandoned portion of the city ... only to have that neighborhood bloom decades later.</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;">Which faith are we talking about?</span></p><p>Not to be confused with Scientology, Christian Science is a branch of protestant Christianity. It was founded in Massachusetts in the late 19th century by Mary Baker Eddy, who taught that the material world is a temporary illusion, while the only reality is spiritual. This belief informs all aspects of Christian Science practice, including its most famous: devout Christian Scientists don&rsquo;t seek medical treatment. Eddy taught a form of spiritual healing that is inspired by Jesus&rsquo; own healings in the New Testament.</p><p>Mrs. Eddy also taught that God does not communicate by way of a few chosen figures, like preachers or popes. God, she said, communicates directly and equally with all of his followers, so Christian Science is a non-hierarchical, democratic faith. Each church elects readers who serve a short term before passing responsibility to another church member. As the congregation&rsquo;s current First Reader, Lois Carlson, states: &nbsp;&ldquo;We don&rsquo;t have many big cheeses.&rdquo;</p><p>Like Quakers, Christian Scientists also emphasize the importance of individual testimonies; during Wednesday services, church-goers are encouraged to stand and share their personal experiences with Christian Science healing. &nbsp;</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;">&lsquo;To uplift a neighborhood&rsquo;</span></p><p>It&rsquo;s notable that the intersection of Wabash and Wacker has any church at all, since there are few standalone churches around downtown. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed many of them, and many more relocated to quieter residential areas. In 1907, an unknown author penned an op-ed piece for the <em>Chicago Daily Tribune </em>which reads: &ldquo;One of the changes most noticeable between old Chicago and new Chicago is the disappearance of the churches which used to surround the courthouse square or line Wabash or Michigan avenue.&rdquo; Later, the author notes &ldquo;Chicago has nothing downtown to express the spiritual life of it&rsquo;s people.&rdquo;</p><p>So, when the Seventeenth Church was established downtown in 1924, it was a bit of an anomaly.</p><p>For decades the congregation rented several downtown venues including, at one point, Orchestra Hall. By the late 1940s, though, the congregation wanted a church of its own. Members remained committed to being downtown. In this, they bucked a trend of building Christian Science churches in outer neighborhoods such as Beverly, Uptown and Hyde Park. Current members of the Seventeenth Church don&rsquo;t have records that indicate why the congregation prefered downtown, though member Dave Hohle has a hypothesis. &ldquo;I think a church will uplift a neighborhood,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;And I think that&rsquo;s what&rsquo;s happened here.&rdquo;</p><p>Today, it seems like the corner of Wabash and Wacker might be the perfect candidate. Not so, according to Hohle. &ldquo;It didn&rsquo;t really interest them because it wasn&rsquo;t very central,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;It was just sort of over here on the river.&rdquo; &nbsp;</p><p>Carlson points out that Wacker Drive was not always a major thoroughfare. &ldquo;It used to be that Michigan Avenue was it&rsquo;s own entity and the Loop was it&rsquo;s own entity, and there was no sense of connecting the two,&rdquo; she says.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Lot%202%20FOR%20WEB.png" title="" /></p><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/duo3.png" title="Site of the Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist before construction in the mid-1950s. (Photos courtesy Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist and Chuckman's Chicago Nostalgia) " /></div></div><p>Obviously the congregation <em>did </em>decide to buy that property, after almost a decade of searching. At the time, the corner contained nothing but a parking lot and a short, rundown building, which they later demolished to make way for their new church. When they finally made the purchase in 1955, Wacker Drive was just starting to develop.</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;">Kindred spirits: A radical faith and a non-believing architect</span></p><p>Say Hohle is right and the Seventeenth Church congregation wished to uplift their future neighborhood. Surely, then, the church would need uplifting architecture. Over two years, the congregation considered 34 architects, including celebrity designers such as Frank Lloyd Wright, as well as an architect with Christian Science roots. In 1963 they settled on a Harry Weese.</p><p>You may not know Weese by name, but there&rsquo;s a chance you&rsquo;ve seen his work in Chicago: the Time Life building, the towering Metropolitan Correctional Center on Van Buren street, and several others. His resume stretches as far as Washington, D.C., where he designed a cavernous metro, famous for it&rsquo;s waffled concrete ceilings. &nbsp;</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/tai%20flickr%20dc%20metro%20FOR%20WEB.jpg" style="margin: 5px;" title="Harry Weese, the architect who designed Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist building, also designed the Washington, D.C. metro stations. (Flickr/tai)" /></div><p>Weese had an impressive resume, but then again, so did his competitors and, interestingly, he was not a religious man. (In interviews the church asked each candidate about their religious affiliation. Weese responded, &ldquo;My father was Episcopalian, my mother Presbyterian, and I&rsquo;m an architect.&rdquo;)</p><p>According to Robert Bruegmann, the co-author of <em>The Architecture of Harry Weese</em>, the congregation was impressed by the architect&rsquo;s ambitious, post-war vision for American cities.</p><p>&ldquo;The suburbs had sapped a lot of the vitality of the city,&rdquo; Bruegmann says. &ldquo;A lot of the city architecture and infrastructure was old. The city was in a pretty bad state and Chicago was no exception.&rdquo; &nbsp;</p><p>Weese wanted to build a new, more humane city, so he sought contracts for large-scale urban works such as the DC Metro. But Weese also believed architects could revitalize cities by designing new, monumental public buildings. &ldquo;So for Harry, a chance to build a church in the center of the city where the churches had been fleeing for a hundred years was a real opportunity, and he really seized it with both hands,&rdquo; Bruegmann says.</p><p>It&rsquo;s simply conjecture (again, the congregation has no records of this), but we do know the Seventeenth Church congregation was impressed with the architect&rsquo;s plans, if not the architect himself. According to Dave Hohle, the church approved Weese&rsquo;s design on the first round, a rare occurrence in architecture circles. &ldquo;There were, like, no adjustments,&rdquo; Hohle says. &ldquo;It was presented and it was unanimously approved.&rdquo; &nbsp;</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;">Faith translated into design</span></p><p>The congregation&rsquo;s first reader, Lois Carlson, says that Weese&rsquo;s radical building, completed in 1968, matches Christian Science&rsquo;s radical theology. &ldquo;I think what&#39;s so beautiful about this building is that it&rsquo;s so clearly an idea that matches the metaphysical substance of the Christian Science faith,&rdquo; she says.</p><p>Specifically, Bruegmann says Weese knew that acoustics were critical to a democratic congregation that valued every voice. That led him to fashion the main auditorium of the church as a greek-style amphitheater, which is ideal for projecting sound. There are 800 seats, and each is within 54 feet of the room&rsquo;s center.</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/inside%20church%20flickr%20dpyle%20FOR%20WEB.jpg" title="The Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist can hold up to 800 people, but a typical Sunday service is attended by about 40 people. (Flickr/dpyle)" /></div><p>Quite unusual for the time, Weese also worked with an audio engineer who created a system of hidden microphones and speakers so that members&rsquo; testimonies could be amplified. This audio system was so advanced it received a write-up in the Journal for the <a href="http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=1500">Society of Audio Engineers</a> in 1970.</p><p>A year after the church opened, it received a Distinguished Building Award from the American Institute of Architects. The AIA recognized the structure not just for it&rsquo;s democratic design, but also for Weese&rsquo;s expert problem solving. To keep out the noises of a bustling city, the congregation did not want windows in the auditorium but, like most churches, they wanted space and light. So Weese built a tall, domed ceiling with an oculus-like skylight at the very top, which he called a lantern. To make sure the sunday school was equally well-lit, Weese created a moat-like sunken garden around the church so that there could be windows into the basement levels. &nbsp;</p><p>Then of course, there is the building&rsquo;s eye-catching exterior. Bruegmann points out that the facade is modern but still achieves the kind of monumentality that Harry Weese admired in classical buildings. &ldquo;That dome that rounds that corner is one of the grandest urban gestures of virtually any city I know of,&rdquo; Bruegmann says.</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;">If you build it they (might) come</span></p><p>When the Seventeenth Church triumphantly opened its doors in 1968, the congregation established something few other churches had attempted: a place of worship in Chicago&rsquo;s bustling downtown. The trouble is, membership didn&rsquo;t grow, at least not on the national level. &nbsp;According to sociologist Rodney Stark, the Christian Science movement&rsquo;s membership started to drop in the 1940s and, by the 1960s, was in serious decline.</p><p>So what happened? Stark suggests that early in the 20th century, Christian Science was the fastest-growing faith in the country, but there&rsquo;s a caveat. He believes Christian Science always <em>seemed </em>more successful than it actually was, mostly because members tended to be well off financially. &nbsp;Like the Seventeenth Church, other congregations had resources to establish and build new churches around the country, even after membership began to decline.</p><p>Another theory from Stark: Medical treatment was very crude at the time that Mary Baker Eddy founded Christian Science. &ldquo;We had no antibiotics,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;Part of the time they really didn&rsquo;t have any anesthetics. Doctors were pretty untrained and a lot of them were butchers.&rdquo; &nbsp;By comparison, spiritual healing seemed like a strong alternative. Stark argues that interest in Christian Science decreased in the mid-1900s after Western medicine improved.</p><p>Lastly, Stark argues that the first generation of Christian Scientists didn&rsquo;t produce a second generation. From the beginning, Christian Scientists didn&rsquo;t have a lot of children so they had to rely on new converts to expand. Converting new members is often difficult compared to raising children within a faith.</p><p>We can see how this affected the Chicago area by reading <em>The Christian Science Journal</em>, which lists every Christian Science church around the world. The religion was popular in Chicago; over the span of 61 years Christian Scientists opened 23 churches across the city. After the 1950s, Chicago churches began to close. By the new millenium, 13 of the original 23 churches were gone. Today there are only six.</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/10th%20Church%201%20FOR%20WEB.jpg" title="The former site of Tenth Church of Christ, Scientist. (Flickr/Jamie Bernstein)" /></div><p>The remains of these closed churches are dotted all around Chicago. Some have been sold to congregations of other faiths. Thirteenth Church in Beverly has been converted into 16 loft condominiums. The abandoned 10th Church in Hyde Park was sold to a developer, but it&rsquo;s now in foreclosure and falling to pieces.</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;">Holding onto your religion ... and property</span></p><p>So how did the Seventeenth Church hang on? This is the second part of Monica Schrager&rsquo;s question, and it&rsquo;s a good one, when you consider two things: The church now sits among prime real estate, and the congregation is modest in size.</p><p>In the 1980s Wacker Drive saw a major boom in office construction. Eventually Wacker replaced LaSalle as the center of Chicago&rsquo;s financial industry, with massive, glassy skyscrapers to show it. In 2013, <a href="http://s1156.photobucket.com/user/ksershon/media/2013USsMostExpensiveStreetsforOfficeSpace.jpg.html">Jones Lang and LaSalle listed Wacker Drive as the 20th-most expensive street for office space </a>in the country. Next door to the church, a hotel developer &nbsp;bought a narrow empty lot for 5 million dollars. (That&rsquo;s over one thousand dollars per square foot. The developer is now in the process of building a Hilton Garden Inn on that site.) Right next door to that, the historic motor club building was auctioned off in 2011 for 9.7 million. Word is, that building will soon be a hotel as well. &nbsp;</p><p>There may be a competitive real estate market raging outside the walls of Seventeenth Church but, believe it or not, the church says it&rsquo;s never gotten a serious offer from any kind of buyer. Still, Seventeenth Church is a big building, while the congregation is likely small.</p><p>Christian Science branch churches never publish their membership numbers because they don&rsquo;t want to be distracted by material measurements, so we can&rsquo;t know the exact size of the Seventeenth Church congregation. However, when I attend a recent church service, I count approximately 30 people in the 800-seat auditorium. Dave Hohle says that number is likely low, adding that perhaps forty or so attendees arrive for typical Sunday services.</p><p>If you think there&rsquo;s a mismatch between the building&rsquo;s stature and the size of the congregation, Lois Carlson notes the church was paid off in 1978, and members cover maintenance costs.</p><p>&ldquo;You know, even though we&rsquo;re a small congregation, we&rsquo;re an incredibly financially committed group,&rdquo; she says.</p><p>There&rsquo;s likely additional income. On occasion, the church receives a visit from a big movie studio. The Seventeenth Church amphitheater was the set for the &ldquo;choosing ceremony&rdquo; in the blockbuster film <em>Divergent</em>. The church&rsquo;s exterior played a cameo in <em>Transformers 3: Dark of the Moon.</em> (In the film, the church was spared, while robots laid waste to the rest of downtown Chicago.) The church did receive income from those films but does not disclose the amount.</p><p>The congregation, regardless of costs, seems to be just as committed to downtown as it was when it first sought property in the 1940s. First and foremost, Lois Carlson says, the church can be a resource for what she calls &ldquo;hungry hearts that are looking for a deeper understanding for God.&rdquo; The church operates a reading room in the lobby six days a week. Carlson says tourists and curious passersby come into the reading room regularly. A small handful of people have become members this way. &ldquo;We just feel like we belong here because the need is so great,&rdquo; she says.</p><p>In keeping with that, the congregation regularly shares Harry Weese&rsquo;s architectural gem. They lend their auditorium to interfaith groups, and the local alderman conducts community meetings there. A couple times each month the church welcomes tour groups from the Chicago Architecture Foundation. In October, more than 4,000 visitors arrived as part of the Open House Chicago event.</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;">Down the road?</span></p><p>For now, it seems like Seventeenth Church congregation wants to stay put, but what about over the next decade or two? Will it be able to sustain itself? Professor Bruegmann is concerned that the building might not survive if the congregation were to move or dissolve. In fact, many of Harry Weese&rsquo;s buildings have already met the wrecking ball. Bruegmann argues that buildings from the &lsquo;60s and &lsquo;70s are no longer new, but they are not yet considered historic.</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s exactly at that moment when they&rsquo;re middle-aged buildings that they&rsquo;re most vulnerable,&rdquo; he says.</p><p>Like Monica, he&rsquo;s very aware of the competitive real estate market on Wacker Drive. &ldquo;The economics of having such a small building on such a prominent, very expensive site are going to weigh so heavily in the balance,&rdquo; he worries. &ldquo;If the current congregation moved out, it would be extremely difficult to figure out what to do with a building like that and how you might save it.&rdquo;</p><p><span style="font-size:22px;">Now we have an answer. Who asked the question?</span></p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/mschrager.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: right;" title="Monica Schrager submitted our question about the Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist (Photo courtesy of Monica Schrager)" />Monica Schrager was thrilled that our investigation made a connection between her current home &mdash; Chicago&rsquo;s Humboldt Park neighborhood &mdash; and Washington, D.C., area, where she grew up. The relevant detail? Architect Harry Weese designed the Seventeenth Church as well as the DC Metro!</p><p>Monica is a web developer by trade but her interest in architecture is responsible for her question about Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist.</p><p>&ldquo;I love the variety of architecture we have in the city, from Mies Van Der Rohe to Frank Lloyd Wright,&rdquo; she says.</p><p>Monica works right across the street from Seventeenth Church in the old Jeweler Building. She sees the church every day outside her office window and she&rsquo;s definitely rooting for the church to survive, especially now that she has seen the inside. &nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;Just the whole combination of the lighting and the acoustics is kind of really neat,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;You almost don&rsquo;t feel like you&rsquo;re in the middle of the city. It&rsquo;s an oasis of sorts.&rdquo;</p><p>Her bottom line? She thinks Wacker Drive needs an oasis more than it needs another skyscraper.</p><p><em>Ellen Mayer is the Curious City intern. Follow her <a href="https://twitter.com/ellenrebeccam">@ellenrebeccam</a>.</em></p></p> Wed, 22 Oct 2014 18:03:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/real-estate-and-religion-tale-seventeenth-church-christ-scientist-110980 Kirk Swan unloaded and back where he belongs http://www.wbez.org/blogs/jim-derogatis/2014-10/kirk-swan-unloaded-and-back-where-he-belongs-110965 <p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Kirk%20Swan.jpg" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="Kirk Swan" /></div><p>Of all the bands in Boston&rsquo;s fertile indie-rock scene during the early to mid-&rsquo;80s&mdash;Volcano Suns, Salem 66, Big Dipper, Dinosaur Jr., and even the vaunted Pixies&mdash;my favorite by far was Dumptruck, the group co-founded by Kirk Swan and Seth Tiven. As guitarists, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PpX85Vp3XE">the duo&rsquo;s intertwining leads rivaled those of Tom Verlaine and Richard Lloyd in Television</a>, while as singers and songwriters, the pair <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_hdokYK-r0">confidently tread its own path down a road that started with Big Star and continued with the early, Mitch Easter-produced R.E.M.</a></p><p>The band debuted with the self-recorded <em>D is for Dumptruck </em>in 1983, and Easter was at the helm for the follow-up, <em>Positively Dumptruck</em>; both are brilliant, and the band was even better live. Alas, by &rsquo;86, things started to fall apart: Swan departed, and while Tiven pressed on, the sort of epic legal problems that make those of our generation cheer the long-awaited death of the major-label system caused him no end of migraines. <a href="http://www.jimdero.com/News2004/Mar22SXSWwrap.htm">The band&rsquo;s co-founders have reunited on occasion</a> since, often in Tiven&rsquo;s new hometown of Austin, and in between touring with Steve Wynn&rsquo;s band, Swan has released some low-key but always rewarding solo albums. The third and latest is this longtime fan&rsquo;s favorite.</p><p><em>Unloaded </em>began as a Dumptruck reunion record but ended up as a solo outing, Swan told me (though he didn&rsquo;t say why). Nevertheless, &ldquo;Seth is on a couple tunes, so there are hints of the &rsquo;truck.&rdquo; Indeed.</p><p>As a lyricist, Swan was emo almost before emo was emo. Some cynics can be put off by his earnest and unapologetic Romantic streak&mdash;he loves to muse about things like snowflakes (&ldquo;World Stops Spinning&rdquo;), slate-gray skies (&ldquo;Dark Cloud&rdquo;), and Autumn leaves (ah, those Northeastern roots!), and his earnestness is painful and palpable when he sings about things like the end of a relationship (&ldquo;Walk Alone&rdquo;) and the suicidal stupidity of youth (&ldquo;Walking a Thin Line&rdquo;). But the sporadic clumsiness of some of his words is elevated to a glorious poetry by the strength of his melodies and the alternating fragility and ferocity of those guitar lines, which remain as vital and thrilling as ever. (Go, Kirk, go!)</p><p>This record may not be easy to find: Never a master of self-promotion (he hasn&rsquo;t updated his Web site since 2007), Swan seems as if, to paraphrase Brian Wilson, he just wasn&rsquo;t made for these digital times. Bug him on Facebook <a href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/Kirk-Swan-music/250293009090?sk=photos_stream">here</a> or <a href="https://www.facebook.com/kirk.swan.33/about">here</a> to get these tunes out there for the audience they deserve. Meanwhile, enjoy this clip on YouTube.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" scrolling="no" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/tFe4CLPYo_k" width="620"></iframe></p><p><strong>Kirk Swan, <em>Unloaded </em>(D.I.Y.)</strong></p><p><strong>Rating on the four-star scale: 3.5 stars.</strong></p><p><em><strong>Follow me on Twitter </strong></em><a href="https://twitter.com/JimDeRogatis"><strong><em><strike>@</strike>JimDeRogatis</em></strong></a><em><strong>, join me on </strong></em><a href="http://www.facebook.com/pages/Jim-DeRo/254753087340"><strong><em>Facebook</em></strong></a><em><strong>, and podcast </strong></em><a href="http://www.soundopinions.org/"><strong>Sound Opinions</strong></a><em><strong> and </strong></em><a href="http://jimcarmeltvdinner.libsyn.com/"><strong>Jim + Carmel&rsquo;s TV + Dinner</strong></a><em><strong>.</strong></em></p></p> Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/blogs/jim-derogatis/2014-10/kirk-swan-unloaded-and-back-where-he-belongs-110965 Digging up the history of a Civil War camp on Chicago's South Side http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/digging-history-civil-war-camp-chicagos-south-side-110969 <p><p dir="ltr">For days now, students and volunteers have dug up parts of a Bronzeville school yard on South Giles Avenue. They worked inside a bright orange net on a grassy field next to Pershing East Magnet School. This was once the southwest corner of Camp Douglas... and they&rsquo;re looking for proof.</p><p dir="ltr">Chris Brink is one of about a dozen DePaul University students and alumni which worked with the Camp Douglas Restoration Foundation. So far, there&rsquo;s been four digs of the 60-acre site. It&rsquo;s believed over 30,000 union soldiers trained and lived here before heading East for battle.</p><p dir="ltr">Previous digs have turned up a few nails, glass, and what they believe to be the main building&rsquo;s foundation.</p><p dir="ltr"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/keller.jpg" style="height: 187px; width: 280px; float: left;" title="David Keller, the managing director of the Camp Douglas Restoration Foundation. (Andrew Gill/WBEZ) " />David Keller is with the Camp Douglas Restoration Foundation. He said the problem with a dig like this, in an urban area, is that things have been built and torn down, sewers have been put in, lights have been erected and a lot of the historical stuff has been disrupted.</p><p dir="ltr">The goal of the excavation is to uncover enough relics to fill the museum they plan to build. But it&rsquo;s also a lesson in how history is recorded. Most of the primary sources of the camp come from old letters and <em>Chicago Tribune</em> stories.</p><p dir="ltr">And Brink said relics could paint a better picture of daily life at the camp.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;It sheds light on to stuff that&rsquo;s not in the history books. So, basically we are rewriting history,&rdquo; Brink said. &ldquo;And to do that, you need to go out and find it.&rdquo; &nbsp;</p><p dir="ltr">And this includes the darker parts of the sites history; its reputation as a &ldquo;death camp.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">After the Union captured Tennessee&rsquo;s Fort Donelson, the federal government needed to find places to house thousands of confederate prisoners. A third of Camp Douglas&rsquo;s 200 buildings housed POWs.</p><p dir="ltr"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/turner.jpg" style="height: 187px; width: 280px; float: right;" title="Bernard Turner, a director of the Camp Douglas Restoration Foundation. (Andrew Gill/WBEZ)" />And many of these confederate soldiers were not used to Chicago&rsquo;s harsh winters. Thousands died of pneumonia, smallpox and malaria.</p><p dir="ltr">The Camp Douglas Restoration Foundation&rsquo;s Bernard Turner said many historians don&rsquo;t want to think about their archeological site.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;A lot of people see the sign &lsquo;Camp Douglas&rsquo;, and they have a negative feeling about it,&quot; Turner said. &ldquo;And so what we&rsquo;re trying to do is let everyone know, that is not the only part of the story.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Turner is focused on community outreach, which included a partnership with the surrounding public schools.</p><p dir="ltr">They had local third graders sift through the dirt, while seventh graders wrote stories on the findings.</p><p dir="ltr">Turner said one of the biggest problems they had in engaging the community was that young people, particularly of color, don&rsquo;t know the history of their own neighborhoods.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;In this particular case, they go to school here and they don&rsquo;t even know what&rsquo;s right under their own noses,&rdquo; he said.</p><p dir="ltr">And right under their noses, is another forgotten part of Camp Douglas&rsquo;s history.</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/embed4.jpg" title="(Andrew Gill/WBEZ)" /></div><p dir="ltr">This was one of the few Union camps that received and trained some of the around 180,000 African-American soldiers who fought in the war.</p><p dir="ltr">Turner and Keller highlighted this link because it gave students a sense of pride and connection to their past.</p><p dir="ltr">Keller said the goal is to have the community get a better sense of its own history.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;You really are digging a timeline of the community. So, it&rsquo;s just as important for us what we find from the Bronzeville area,&rdquo; Keller said.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><iframe frameborder="0" height="226" scrolling="no" src="http://gfycat.com/ifr/ShamelessBestBison" style="-webkit-backface-visibility: hidden;-webkit-transform: scale(1);" width="402"></iframe></p><p style="text-align: center;"><strong><span style="font-size:10px;">Above: Volunteers show the excavation process as they hunt for remains of the Camp Douglas prisoner of war camp.</span></strong></p><p dir="ltr">Southside Resident Sir Cedric Liggens helped with the dig.</p><p dir="ltr">He said people from the community would stop, ask questions, and seemed to take a general interest in what they were doing</p><p dir="ltr">Liggens enjoyed the process.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;It&rsquo;s human record. And It&rsquo;s going back and reviewing your own records,&rdquo; he said. &ldquo;What was here, what happened, who was here, who did what. And it&rsquo;s a really good way to learn something from what already happened.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Monday, for the first time in over 150 years, the community raises an official marker commemorating the site.</p><p dir="ltr"><em>Corrected Oct. 21: An earlier version of this article incorrectly stated the number of African American soldiers who fought for the Union in the Civil War. The correct number is around 180,000.</em></p><p dir="ltr"><em>Claudia Morell covers business as a WBEZ intern. You can follow her <a href="https://twitter.com/claudiamorell" target="_blank">@claudiamorell</a>.</em></p></p> Mon, 20 Oct 2014 16:09:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/digging-history-civil-war-camp-chicagos-south-side-110969 Nutrition programs ditch whole milk http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/nutrition-programs-ditch-whole-milk-110929 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/school lunch (1).jpeg" alt="" /><p><p>Last school year, lunchrooms across the nation got a dietary makeover. New rules banished 2 percent and whole milk from the National School Lunch Program. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p>This month, Illinois&rsquo; Women Infant and Children feeding program followed suit by now offering skim and 1 percent almost exclusively.</p><p>&ldquo;This was a decision by the United States&rsquo; Department of Agriculture, who funds our program,&rdquo; says Stephanie Bess program director for Illinois WIC. &ldquo;It&rsquo;s designed to align our food packages with the messages that we provide to our participants. Since 1995, the dietary guidelines for Americans have recommended low-fat milk.&rdquo;</p><p>But critics say, 1995 was a long time ago, and that these guidelines have almost no scientific evidence to back them up.</p><p>Dr. David Ludwig directs the New Balance Foundation Obesity Prevention Center at Boston Children&rsquo;s Hospital. He wants to see better science behind the program decisions.</p><p>&ldquo;It seems to make sense that if we just got rid of the saturated fat in milk there could be health benefits and there would be weight loss and lower cardiovascular disease risk factors,&rdquo; Ludwig says. &ldquo;Unfortunately, there is virtually no evidence that reducing fat in milk will have any health benefits at all.&rdquo;</p><p>Last year, <a href="http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1704826">Ludwig wrote an editorial</a> with Harvard&rsquo;s Public Health chief Walter Willett warning officials against low-fat school milk. They represent a growing group of scientists and doctors who say the low-fat dietary guidelines run counter to public health.</p><p>USDA representatives declined to be interviewed for this story, but offered a written statement saying the recommendations came from &ldquo;experts in health, nutrition, school food service, and economics.&rdquo;</p><p>Bess of Illinois WIC tried to explain the agency&rsquo;s rationale.</p><p>&ldquo;As a registered dietician, I am looking at the diet as a whole, which is what we do at WIC,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;Milk is one component of that and this is more than a calorie issue. This is about saturated fat.&rdquo;</p><p>Still, as many point out, <a href="http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/17/study-questions-fat-and-heart-disease-link/?_php=true&amp;_type=blogs&amp;_r=0">analyses</a> from Harvard and Cambridge University researchers now suggest that saturated fat is not to blame for heart disease. Instead, it&rsquo;s carbohydrates that appear to be the villain. In fact, new <a href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Low_Fat_090214-1.html">government</a> research suggests a high-fat, low-carb diet is much more effective for weight loss than a low-fat diet.</p><p>Last year, researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine looked at 10,700 children and<a href="http://news.virginia.edu/content/uva-study-children-drinking-low-fat-milk-gain-similar-amount-weight-those-drinking-whole"> found that those who drank skim and one percent milk </a>were much more likely to be overweight and obese than those who drank 2 percent or whole milk. In fact, children who started at normal weight and drank low-fat milks were 57 percent more likely to become overweight than those who drank higher fat milks.</p><p>Nina Tiecholz wrote <a href="http://www.thebigfatsurprise.com/">&ldquo;The Big Fat Surprise.&rdquo;</a> It charts the rise of obesity in the US as citizens followed government advice to cut fat, especially saturated fat, in their diet. She said she was heartbroken by the news on WIC.</p><p>&ldquo;To me it&rsquo;s devastating because without the fat in milk you cannot digest the fat soluble vitamins A and D,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;They are essential and without them you can&rsquo;t absorb the minerals in milk. So milk is much less nutritious when you take out the fat.&rdquo;</p><p>Ludwig notes that these low-fat milks lose flavor along with those calories.</p><p>&ldquo;And there&rsquo;s the tendency to replace those calories with sugar like chocolate milk and that trade off is not good for children&rsquo;s health,&rdquo; he says.</p><p>Indeed, today skim chocolate milk is the No. 1 beverage served in the federal lunch program. &nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;Milk that&rsquo;s high in sugar and low in fat is the worst possible kind of beverage you could be serving them,&rdquo; Teicholz says, noting the lower nutrition absorption and adding, &ldquo;Sugar triggers the release of insulin, which is the king of all hormones for making you fat.&rdquo;</p><p>USDA officials, however, disagree. They say the added sugar is worth it if it gets kids to drink the milk.</p><p>&ldquo;Studies have shown consistently over the country that if you take out that option [for chocolate milk] even though it&rsquo;s non-fat, the milk consumption goes down,&rdquo; says USDA undersecretary Concannon.</p><p>And while the American Heart Association doesn&rsquo;t support sugary school milk, it does support the the switch to low-fat white milk in WIC. Still, the heart association&rsquo;s Mark Peysakhovich says they&rsquo;re also open to considering any new data the move might bring. &nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;This is a once in a lifetime opportunity to study the effects of low fat milk on this population,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;And that&rsquo;s part of what&rsquo;s so exciting about this move.&rdquo;</p><p>To find out if the USDA will also considered the new data, you won&#39;t have to wait long. New dietary guidelines are due out in 2015.</p><p><em>Monica Eng is a WBEZ food and health reporter, and co-host of the Chewing The Fat podcast. Follow her at<a href="https://twitter.com/monicaeng"> @monicaeng</a> or write to her at meng@wbez.org</em></p></p> Mon, 13 Oct 2014 11:32:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/nutrition-programs-ditch-whole-milk-110929 Global Activism: Farther Foundation update http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism/global-activism-farther-foundation-update-110942 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/GA-Farther Foundation_0.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>It&rsquo;s time for our <em><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism">Global Activism</a></em> series. Each Thursday, we talk with someone who wants to make the world a better place. &nbsp;Last year, we met Chicagoan, David Weindling, who left a career in private business to dedicate himself full-time to socioeconomically deprived kids in the Chicago area. He founded the <a href="http://www.fartherfoundation.org">Farther Foundation</a> to provide scholarships so high schoolers can travel the world to do service projects and experience cultural interactions. David&rsquo;s back to update us on what his group is doing these days.<iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/171390244&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Dave tells us about his exciting developments:</p><p style="margin-left:1.0in;">&quot;This past spring, several of our scholarship winners from our first group of recipients in 2009 graduated college -- an outstanding achievement. The report also mentions Christine and Lizbeth, two of our alumni who built on their international experience with us to win coveted State Department Scholarships the following summer, They are just two of several of our alumni who have gone on to claim National Strategic Language Initiative scholarships through the State Department. <strong><a href="http://www.fartherfoundation.org/index.php?option=com_rsform&amp;Itemid=82">Our Annual Benefit</a></strong> is coming up on 10/16/14. It is the first time we are featuring a StorySlam at the event. The topic of the stories will be travel, and we have some talented presenters (some who you might have even heard of). One of our scholarship recipients will also be telling a story, and he was a prize winner in a student city-wide soapbox challenge. After our previous appearance on Worldview, we were contacted by Ben Kaehler of Kaehler Luggage/World Traveler, a purveyor of luggage and travel goods with stores in and around Chicago. This led to a growing partnership where Kaehler provided an opportunity for one of our students to have a summer internship in one of their stores, and also to a sponsorship role in our upcoming event.&quot;</p></p> Thu, 09 Oct 2014 08:32:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism/global-activism-farther-foundation-update-110942 The Real Deal: The best of WBEZ's Richard Steele, according to his colleagues http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/real-deal-best-wbezs-richard-steele-according-his-colleagues-110914 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/10377257_10152545879726000_8391299994939377138_n.jpg" alt="" /><p><div class="storify"><iframe allowtransparency="true" frameborder="no" height="750" src="//storify.com/WBEZ/the-real-deal/embed?border=false" width="100%"></iframe><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/the-real-deal.js?border=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/the-real-deal" target="_blank">View the story "The Real Deal: The best of WBEZ's Richard Steele, according to his colleagues " on Storify</a>]</noscript></div></p> Wed, 08 Oct 2014 16:19:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/real-deal-best-wbezs-richard-steele-according-his-colleagues-110914 Did the Supreme Court just legalize gay marriage? http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/did-supreme-court-just-legalize-gay-marriage-110903 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/ap13498193275_wide-2c372ebaccbafc28cf6f9e841ea4af7856422407-s40-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Technically, the Supreme Court today did <em>not</em> establish a constitutional right for same-sex couples to marry. It merely declined an opportunity to rule definitely one way or the other on the question.</p><p>But in the not-too-long run, the consequences may well be the same. Because the situation the court created &mdash; or acknowledged &ndash; will almost surely continue trending in favor of same-sex couples who want to marry.</p><p>Conversely, the legal ground is eroding for states that want to stop such marriages or deny them legal recognition.</p><p>As thousands more same-sex couples marry all over the country, this legal climate change becomes a kind of <em>fait accompli</em>.</p><p>For the moment, the court&#39;s denial of review means state-enacted bans on same-sex marriage in five states were wiped off the books. The denial meant lower court rulings that spiked those bans will now stand. Let&#39;s call them The Five.</p><p>So couples in The Five could begin marrying regardless of gender as of today &mdash; and some got licenses immediately.</p><p>In six other states that had banned the practice, further legal proceedings may be needed to apply the rulings of the relevant federal Circuit Courts of Appeal. But because these six are connected to The Five through the federal circuit system (jurisdictions for the purpose of appealing federal court decisions) the same judgment will apply. Effectuating that judgment in these six states is a short step &ndash; and one that is already in motion.</p><p>Then they will be just like The Five.</p><p>That will bring the number of states where gay marriage has been legalized, either by the state itself or through these federal cases, to 30. And these states are home to the vast majority of the national population.</p><p>There are still ways for the Supreme Court to re-assert itself in this debate. But the question is, do they want to?</p><p>Many legal experts have looked over the landscape and perceived both a trend in the federal system and a signal from the nine justices who sit at its zenith.</p><p>Amy Howe, the editor of the highly regarded <a href="http://www.scotusblog.com/" target="_blank">SCOTUSBlog</a> told NPR&#39;s Nina Totenberg that the justices &quot;are very smart people&quot; and added, &quot;I don&#39;t think they&#39;re going to be able to put the genie back in the bottle.&quot;</p><p>The genie got out back in June 2013, when the court decided Windsor v. United States, throwing out the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). By smacking down this pivotal federal statute, the court threw wide the gates for other challenges to state laws barring gay marriage or otherwise treating gays differently.</p><p>Now, as those challenges come in waves, the federal courts at all levels are applying the reasoning from Windsor with great consistency.</p><p>If the high court wanted to use that as an occasion to declare a constitutional right, it could have taken one or more of the cases it denied today. But opponents of gay marriage had hoped the court would take such a case for precisely the opposite reason &ndash; to uphold the states&#39; right to ban gay marriage.</p><p>Instead, Howe observes, the justices instructed their confreres at lower levels of the pyramid to &quot;keep on doing what you&#39;re doing.&quot;</p><p>In other words, there isn&#39;t a clear majority of the nine to settle the matter with a landmark ruling one way or the other.</p><p>They could choose to re-enter the fray at some later point, perhaps when another Circuit Court of Appeals weighs in with a ruling that supports the state&#39;s right to ban gay marriage. That would at least create a conflict for the Supreme Court to resolve.</p><p>Or it could revisit the issue later, perhaps when a clear majority has formed either to prohibit gay marriage or to permit it. That might require waiting until Justice Anthony Kennedy, a swing vote on such issues, declares himself. Or it could await the next retirement of a sitting justice and the confirmation of a successor.</p><p>But as the number of legal gay marriages skyrockets, and the practice becomes both legal and common across most of the states and most of the population, a future court is less and less likely to rescind it.</p><p>Or even take such a case.</p><p><em><em>&mdash; </em></em><a href="http://www.npr.org/2014/10/06/354140391/did-the-supreme-court-just-legalize-gay-marriage" target="_blank"><em>via NPR</em></a></p></p> Mon, 06 Oct 2014 17:59:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/did-supreme-court-just-legalize-gay-marriage-110903 Rabbit hops back onto the American table http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/rabbit-hops-back-american-table-110834 <p><p>As Americans become more discriminating about the provenance, treatment and sustainability of the animals they eat, the market has brought them pastured pork, heritage chicken and grass-fed beef.</p><p>But one of the most sustainable meats of all may still prove too cute for many consumers.</p><p>It&rsquo;s rabbit--and Kankakee County farmer Kim Snyder has recently joined the ranks of the more than 27,000 American farmers who raise them (up from just 4,300 in 2002).</p><p>But unlike most rabbit farmers, Snyder (who also raises pastured Berkshire hogs and Belted Galloway cows) is raising these lagomorphs on free range.</p><p>&ldquo;I&rsquo;ve been training them to range outdoors and it&rsquo;s been fairly successful,&rdquo; said Snyder who owns Faith&rsquo;s Farm. &ldquo;I have 32 acres and I&rsquo;ve seen them range off my acreage but they still tend to home in on my pond because I am their only continuous water source.&rdquo;</p><p>Snyder&rsquo;s target breed is the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.livestockconservancy.org/index.php/heritage/internal/silver-fox">heritage Silver Fox</a> a rabbit on the critically endangered list, which is why she chose them. &nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;If people taste this meat, which I think is superior to hybrid animals, then farmers will raise it,&rdquo; she explained. &ldquo;So it&rsquo;s truly conservation through consumption. You can see some breeds go from critically endangered ... to threatened ... to not being on the list at all.&quot;</p><p>So what does it taste like? Snyder invited a bunch of Midwest chefs out to her farm to help process them, cook them and taste for themselves.</p><p>&ldquo;I would say the meat is milder [than standard rabbit meat which tastes like slightly gamey chicken meat] because it&rsquo;s not been raised on pellets,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;These rabbits eat hay and grass.&rdquo;</p><p>Letting rabbits roam around 32 acres and then trapping them when it&rsquo;s time to go to the butcher is not the most efficient way to produce meat. Some rabbits will inevitably be picked off by coyotes, minks and other predators. And others may avoid the traps. But Snyder--whom I&rsquo;ve known for five years and (full disclosure) now consider a friend--says she&rsquo;s committed to letting the animals lead normal lives for as long as possible.</p><p>As she prepares to start offering them to Midwest chefs, the farmer says she plans to charge about $10 a pound for her rabbits. And they&rsquo;ll arrive on a restaurant scene that&rsquo;s already hopping with rabbit dishes.</p><p>At Chicago&rsquo;s six-month-old <a href="http://www.osterialanghe.com/">Osteria Langhe</a>, in Logan Square, braised rabbit or &ldquo;coniglio&rdquo; has emerged as one of chef Cameron Grant&rsquo;s signature dishes. He says customers order about 100 servings of it a week.</p><p>&ldquo;They love it,&rdquo; he said. &ldquo;We wrap it in pancetta and then slow cook it for about four hours and it just becomes incredibly moist. Then we sear it off to order and then cut it and put it on the plate with a sauce of sweet red and yellow peppers.&rdquo;</p><p>Grant lived and cooked in the Piedmont region of Italy, which is the inspiration for the menu at Langhe. There, he says &ldquo;they don&rsquo;t use chicken. So rabbit really is the chicken of Piemonte.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/rabbit-1.jpg" style="height: 250px; width: 250px; float: left;" title="Chefs learned how to process, skin and cook rabbits during a recent event at Faith’s Farm in Kankakee County. (WBEZ/Monica Eng)" />Rabbit has also leapt on to the menu at <a href="http://tabledonkeystick.com/">Table, Donkey and Stick</a> in Logan Square. There, chef Scott Manley offers rabbit liver mousseline with sweetbreads but also a popular whole deboned rabbit cooked sous vide and then quick roasted to order.</p><p>&ldquo;So it comes out and it&rsquo;s sort of like a rabbit steak almost,&rdquo; he says.</p><p>The meat shows up in three dishes at Mercat A La Planxa downtown and even barbecued at Frontier in West Town. And at Glasserie in Brooklyn, a $76 rabbit entree has become one of the hottest meals in New York.</p><p>As more consumers seek out sustainable meat this fast growing lagomorph--no, rabbits are not rodents--fills the bill quite nicely. In fact, according to the<a href="http://www.fao.org/docrep/t1690e/t1690e03.htm"> United Nation&rsquo;s food organization</a> you can produce more than four pounds of rabbit meat with the same amount of feed it takes to produce just one pound of beef. Additionally, rabbits can start reproducing at just 6 months old.</p><p>Chicago&rsquo;s<a href="http://publicanqualitymeats.com/"> Publican Quality Meats </a>already sells pastured Berkshire pork from Faith&rsquo;s Farm. But general manager Darin Latimer says he expects Snyder&rsquo;s pastured rabbit to join the selection soon.</p><p>&ldquo;I think our customers will be OK with it,&rdquo; says Latimer. &ldquo;But I think the mass market will be harder to crack--mostly because of the adorability problem.&rdquo;</p><p>Indeed, the adorability problem remains a hurdle--even for some who don&rsquo;t mind eating other animals. Whole Foods Market learned this last month when rabbit lovers protested the store&rsquo;s pilot program to introduce rabbit to its meat counters. They argued that rabbits are pets, not meat.</p><p>Ironically, before introducing rabbit to select stores, Whole Foods spent years developing better <a href="http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/department/article/rabbit">animal welfare standards </a>for farms that raised rabbits. But, for many in the US, the meat is still too closely connected with pets, the Easter Bunny and even Bugs Bunny whose cartoons--<a href="http://www.ebaumsworld.com/video/watch/82297211/">think the Hasenfeffer episode</a>-- didn&rsquo;t do much for the image of rabbit eaters.</p><p>Even if American rabbit consumption never reaches World War II levels (when rabbits were considered a patriotic meat animal to raise in homes) or even to European levels, Grant and others think acceptance will only continue to grow.</p><p>&ldquo;I think it will,&rdquo; he says, &ldquo;It&rsquo;s a great, versatile protein that offers intrigue and excitement.&rdquo;</p><p><em>Monica Eng is a WBEZ producer and co-host of the Chewing The Fat podcast. Follow her at</em><a href="https://twitter.com/monicaeng"> <em>@monicaeng</em></a> <em>or write to her at meng@wbez.org</em></p></p> Tue, 23 Sep 2014 09:48:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/rabbit-hops-back-american-table-110834 Meet Bishop Blase Cupich, Chicago's incoming archbishop http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/meet-bishop-blase-cupich-chicagos-incoming-archbishop-110828 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/greeting.JPG" alt="" /><p><p><em>Updated 5:30 p.m.</em></p><p>Bishop Blase Cupich will be installed as the next archbishop of the Archdiocese of Chicago on Nov. 18. He&rsquo;s currently the bishop of Spokane, Wash., and previously served as bishop of Rapid City, S.D.</p><p>He began a press conference Saturday by asking the people of Chicago to pray for him, as Pope Francis did right after he became pontiff.</p><p>Cupich&rsquo;s appointment came as something of a surprise to many who have been closely watching the succession process. The bishop comes from a smaller diocese, and hadn&rsquo;t been on most of the short lists. But he&rsquo;s known as a moderate who observers expect will follow the pastoral approach of Pope Francis.</p><blockquote><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/sections/religion/cupich-be-next-chicago-archbishop-110827">Observers, parishioners</a></strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/sections/religion/cupich-be-next-chicago-archbishop-110827"><strong>&nbsp;discuss Cardinal George&#39;s legacy</strong></a></blockquote><p>That viewpoint was evident at his first press conference here, where he was informal and used short parables to get his point across. In Spanish, he said he comes as a pastor, but he also comes here as a brother.</p><p><strong>Bishop Cupich&rsquo;s style of leadership</strong><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/168607075&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>This is the Pope&rsquo;s first major selection in the U.S., so the appointment has been closely watched as indicative of the direction in which the pontiff may hope to lead the U.S. Roman Catholic church.</p><p>&ldquo;I think the holy father is a pastoral man,&rdquo; Cupich said. &ldquo;...I think that I wouldn&rsquo;t want to in any way overly politicize or put this in a different context. I think he cares a lot about people, and he took his time, and he wanted to provide a pastor. And so I think he sent a pastor, not a message.&rdquo;</p><p>Bishop Cupich said he was humbled and encouraged by the appointment, calling it a &ldquo;blessed opportunity.&rdquo; He said surprise doesn&rsquo;t come close to describing his reaction.</p><p><strong>Bishop Cupich&rsquo;s reaction to his selection:</strong><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/168607361&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>Cardinal George said he was relieved and grateful the Pope had honored his request to retire. Each time that was mentioned at the press conference, he punched his arm in the air in apparent joy. All the previous bishops here had died in office.</p><p>George said he&rsquo;s relieved, too, to leave the Archdiocese with &ldquo;such an able and experienced man.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;I described him as well-prepared for his new responsibilities, bringing to them a deep faith, a quick intelligence, personal commitment and varied pastoral experience, and I hope you&rsquo;ve seen that in action in just a very few minutes, and you&rsquo;ll see it in action for many years to come,&rdquo; he said.</p><p><strong>Cardinal George on why he&rsquo;s grateful:</strong><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/168607598&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>The Cardinal is facing his third battle with cancer, and is undergoing experimental treatment. Yet he&rsquo;s largely maintained his bruising schedule.</p><p>George will stay in office for the next two months, while Cupich will continue serving as bishop of Spokane. They plan to stay in touch to plan a smooth transition. Once he&rsquo;s retired, George said he hopes to help the new archbishop in any way he can, and to perform confirmations and confessions.</p><p>If he&rsquo;s strong enough, Cardinal George plans to journey to see Pope Francis in Rome in November.</p><p>Bishop Cupich said his first priority will be getting to know people here and the area, talking about the position as an &ldquo;enormous upgrade&rdquo; in reference to the size of the Archdiocese of Chicago compared to his previous dioceses.</p><p>He said he&rsquo;s worked among diverse cultures, including Latinos and Native Americans, and said that it&rsquo;s important for groups to bring their cultures to their religious experience. He&rsquo;s also pushed for immigration reform.</p><p>The bishop -- who headed the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops&rsquo; Committee for the Protection of Children and Young People from 2008-2011 -- said the church must continue to &nbsp;work to protect children from priest sexual abuse and to help heal victims, adding he&rsquo;ll try hard to make that an important part of the ministry.</p><p dir="ltr"><span id="docs-internal-guid-b8538668-952b-9c4f-7503-0ff9223cf947">Reaction to the selection was mixed in greater Chicago.</span></p><p>Mary Anne Hackett, president of the conservative Catholic Citizens of Illinois, said she&rsquo;s taking a wait-and-see approach.</p><p>&quot;Personally I don&rsquo;t like the designation moderate for anybody,&quot; she said. &quot;I think it would be nice to take a stand one way or another. That might just be a nice way of saying his position. That will unfold as time goes on.&quot;</p><p dir="ltr">But the Chicago-based national liberal group Call to Action said it&rsquo;s quote &ldquo;relieved&rdquo; to learn Cupich is moderate. In a statement, they said the Pope&rsquo;s selection shows quote &ldquo;a desire for a humbler, more pastoral church.&rdquo;</p><div><p dir="ltr"><span id="docs-internal-guid-8140c6a7-952d-3d48-9bec-bb2f36214810">Local theologian Mike Murphy, who&nbsp;</span><span id="docs-internal-guid-8140c6a7-952d-3d48-9bec-bb2f36214810">h</span>eads Catholic Studies at Loyola University Chicago, called Cupich a good fit for the city. He said the bishop is in line with Pope Francis&rsquo; vision for leadership.</p><p dir="ltr">&quot;He is prepared to lead in a way that shepherds the people and not be anchored down to ideology,&quot; Murphy said. He added that he views Cupich as a moderate who&rsquo;s doctrinally very serious while seeing a need for conversation in a polarized society. Murphy also pointed to the bishop&#39;s work&nbsp;serving the poor.</p><p dir="ltr">Bishop Cupich is now archbishop designate. It&rsquo;s likely he&rsquo;ll someday be appointed cardinal, but that wouldn&rsquo;t happen until after Cardinal George -- who&rsquo;s 77 -- turns 80.</p></div><p>Cupich will be formally installed as the new archbishop of Chicago on Nov. 18 at Holy Name Cathedral.</p></p> Sat, 20 Sep 2014 13:15:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/meet-bishop-blase-cupich-chicagos-incoming-archbishop-110828 Cupich to be next Chicago archbishop http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/cupich-be-next-chicago-archbishop-110827 <p><p>The Vatican has picked a replacement for Chicago&rsquo;s <a href="http://www.archchicago.org/Cardinal/">Cardinal Francis George</a>.</p><p>Pope Francis has tapped Bishop Blase Cupich, who leads the diocese in Spokane, Washington. Before that, Cupich was bishop of Rapid City, South Dakota.</p><p>Pope Francis&#39; choice for Chicago has been closely watched. It is his first major U.S. appointment and the clearest sign yet of the direction he hopes to steer American church leaders. Cupich is a considered a moderate &nbsp;among the U.S. Roman Catholic bishops.&nbsp;</p><blockquote><p><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/meet-bishop-blase-cupich-chicagos-incoming-archbishop-110828">Meet Bishop Blase Cupich, Chicago&#39;s incoming archbishop</a></strong></p></blockquote><p dir="ltr">Cardinal George has been the spiritual leader for two million Roman Catholics in Lake and Cook County for 17 years now. He&rsquo;s 77, and he&rsquo;s battling cancer for the third time.</p><p dir="ltr"><strong>George first Chicago native as archbishop</strong></p><p>The Cardinal -- the first Chicago native to become archbishop here -- has been a polarizing and at times even controversial leader. But there are contradictions between the Cardinal&rsquo;s public and private life that could shape how we remember him.</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/168598059&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>As former head of the <a href="http://www.usccb.org/">U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops</a>, the Cardinal led a high-profile fight against Obamacare and the birth control mandate. He&rsquo;s become one of the most prominent voices in the church, nationally and internationally, about what he sees as the dangers of secularism, same-sex marriage and most of all, restrictions on <a href="http://www.mormonnewsroom.org/article/cardinal-george-addresses-religious-freedom-in-speech-at-byu">freedom of religion</a>.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/RS5291_CardinalGeorge_Healing_Garden-scr.JPG" style="height: 240px; width: 320px; float: left;" title="Cardinal Francis George (File)" />The Cardinal&rsquo;s often portrayed as unfeeling, aloof, even imperious. But colleagues &ndash; and even some critics &ndash; said there&rsquo;s more to him than that.</p><p>Despite being a powerhouse in the Roman Catholic church, Graziano Marcheschi &ndash; who worked with him for a dozen years at the Archdiocese &ndash; said George is not overly impressed with himself, or the trappings of his office.</p><p>&ldquo;He&rsquo;ll stand in line, he&rsquo;ll grab the paper plate, he&rsquo;ll get the plastic spoon and fork, and he&rsquo;ll put the food on his own plate, and he&rsquo;ll just go sit where there&rsquo;s a place at any table,&rdquo; Marcheschi said. &ldquo;He&rsquo;s not looking for the &lsquo;quote&rsquo; head table, he&rsquo;s not looking for the other power players in the room. He just goes and sits and he talks to whoever&rsquo;s there.&rdquo;</p><p>That doesn&rsquo;t mean the Cardinal&rsquo;s the touchy-feely type. But people who have gotten to know him say he&rsquo;s kinder and has more compassion than people generally give him credit for.</p><p>Marcheschi, who now heads mission and ministry at St. Xavier University, likes to tell a story to illustrate this.</p><p>George was speaking at a retreat for young volunteer ministers several years ago when a young woman asked him about the issue of female priests. The Cardinal told her the church believes it&rsquo;s God&rsquo;s will for men to be priests, not women.</p><p>&ldquo;And the young woman became very distraught, and began to cry, and ran out of the room,&rdquo; Marcheschi said. &ldquo;Well, Cardinal George was just speechless. And then afterward, he turned to my wife and he said, &lsquo;Nancy, what happened?&rsquo;&rdquo;</p><p>Marcheschi said his wife explained the woman may have felt the church was closing the door on her dreams. Then later some other women at the event asked the Cardinal if they could further discuss the subject of women&rsquo;s ordination later.</p><p>&ldquo;So he said, absolutely, make sure that young woman is part of the group, and I&rsquo;ll be happy to sit down with you,&rdquo; according to Marcheschi.</p><p>The women spent part of a day talking with the Cardinal, but he didn&rsquo;t budge from his view on church teachings prohibiting female priests. (That&rsquo;s a stance he&rsquo;s remained firm on &ndash; in fact, he has asked some priests who openly supported women&rsquo;s ordination to publicly apologize.)</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;Obviously the young woman clearly would have liked to have heard something different and didn&rsquo;t,&rdquo; Marcheschi said. &ldquo;But what did happen is she felt heard, she did not feel dismissed. Here she was with the Cardinal Archbishop of Chicago, a man with a global reach, a man who meets with popes and presidents, and he took an afternoon to meet with this young woman because he had seen how distressed she had been.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr"><strong>Two views of George legacy</strong></p><p dir="ltr">&nbsp;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/cardinal%20george%202014%20by%20LK%202.JPG" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="Cardinal Francis George speaks earlier this year. (WBEZ/Lynette Kalsnes)" /></div><p>Georgetown University Theology Professor Chester Gillis sees two differing views of George&rsquo;s legacy emerging.</p><p>&ldquo;Those who see him as defending the church against what might be kind of an anti-Christian sentiment in culture and society will raise him as a hero and say he stood against gay marriage, he stood against abortion, he stood against a lot of cultural patterns, and they think that&rsquo;s exactly what he should have done,&rdquo; Gillis said. &ldquo;Others will say that&rsquo;s all he did. That&rsquo;s not true that&rsquo;s all he did, but they&rsquo;ll say he was irrelevant.&rdquo;</p><p>On the progressive side, many see the Cardinal as rigid &ndash; even doctrinaire &ndash; in his view of church teachings.</p><p>&ldquo;He has been a constant complainer about the inroads of secularism and individualism, that those things have crept into the church, and that people aren&rsquo;t like they used to be, and not talking about how the church should be reacting today,&rdquo; said author Robert McClory. McClory is a charter member of the national Catholic group based in Chicago, <a href="http://cta-usa.org/">Call to Action</a>, and writes for the <a href="http://ncronline.org/authors/robert-mcclory">National Catholic Reporter</a>.</p><p>McClory credited the Cardinal with being a hardworking, conscientious overseer of the Archdiocese, but not an innovator.</p><p>&ldquo;He has followed kind of the directives of Pope John Paul II. Keep the church from moving forward, in fact, to keep the church moving backward,&rdquo; McClory said.</p><p>Cardinal George views church teachings in strict terms. He&rsquo;s a noted conservative intellectual, who has earned master&rsquo;s degrees and doctorates in both philosophy and theology. He personally rejects the terms liberal or conservative as being in the realm of politics, not religion. He describes things as being Gospel truth, or not.</p><p>&ldquo;Jesus didn&rsquo;t die on the cross so you could believe anything you want to,&rdquo; he told WBEZ. &ldquo;There is a faith, and the teachers of the faith are the bishops, with a lot of instruction by others. You can say I&rsquo;m Catholic but I don&rsquo;t believe this, I don&rsquo;t believe that. Well, you&rsquo;ve created your own church.&rdquo;</p><p>Perhaps the sharpest criticism is reserved for Cardinal George&rsquo;s handling of the priest sex abuse scandal. He was instrumental in pushing for reforms in the early 2000s that changed how the church handles abuse across the U.S.</p><p>But <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/survivors-lawyers-say-documents-prove-priest-sex-abuse-cover-109557">church records show</a> he let some <a href="http://www.andersonadvocates.com/Archdiocese-of-Chicago-Documents.aspx">priests stay in their positions despite abuse allegations</a>, and sometimes<a href="http://www.andersonadvocates.com/documents/Key_Chicago_Documents/McCormack%20Ex%20126.pdf"> even after the church review board recommended their removal</a>. Advocates point out the Cardinal also didn&rsquo;t discipline those priests&rsquo; superiors.</p><p>The most notorious case on the Cardinal&rsquo;s watch was that of Daniel McCormack, who was convicted of molesting several boys and named in numerous lawsuits over additional abuse allegations.</p><p>In 2012, the Cardinal told WBEZ: &ldquo;Oh, by far, the most difficult challenge has been the terrible fallout from the sexual abuse of children by some priests. I pray for victims. That&rsquo;s been the overwhelming weight in a sense that has stayed with me.&rdquo;</p><p>The Cardinal&rsquo;s also faced protests from the LGBT community as an outspoken lobbyist against gay marriage.</p><p>He has compared the tactics of some gay rights activists to fascism, and he ignited controversy a few years ago by <a href="http://www.foxnews.com/us/2012/01/07/chicago-cardinal-apologizes-for-linking-gay-pride-parade-to-ku-klux-klan/">likening organizers of Chicago&rsquo;s gay Pride Parade</a> to &ldquo;something like the Ku Klux Klan&rdquo; when he worried that the parade route would disrupt mass at a local church. He later backtracked and apologized for using an &ldquo;inflammatory&rdquo; analogy.</p><p>&ldquo;I wish he was leaving a legacy as someone who was in the trenches with the poor, as someone who was against gun violence that permeates this city,&rdquo; said Martin Grochala, a board member with <a href="http://www.dignityusa.org/">Dignity Chicago</a>, which advocates for LGBT people in the church. &ldquo;I think unfortunately for LGBT people, his legacy is going to be about advocating against gay marriage.&rdquo;</p><p><strong>&quot;A person of vision&quot;</strong></p><p>But supporter Robert Gilligan, who heads the Catholic Conference of Illinois, called Cardinal George a &ldquo;person of vision.&rdquo;</p><p>Gilligan said the Cardinal clearly and eloquently articulated Catholic church teachings on many issues, including the sacredness of life from conception to death, and that will be what George is remembered for.</p><p>Mary Anne Hackett, who heads the conservative <a href="http://catholiccitizens.org/">Catholic Citizens of Illinois</a>, said she thinks the Cardinal was doing just what he ought to, fighting against abortion and for what she calls &lsquo;true marriage,&rsquo; between a man and a woman.</p><p>&ldquo;What he tried to do was to restore the church in Chicago to what the church teaches,&rdquo; Hackett said. &ldquo;You could call that conservative, I would call that Catholic.&rdquo;</p><p>She acknowledged the Cardinal can sometimes be overly blunt. But she doesn&rsquo;t think those moments will be his lasting legacy:</p><p>&ldquo;He&rsquo;ll be remembered as a person that is open to talk things over, to meet with people of all different persuasions and different opinions, to meet with them, and try to resolve difficulties and differences, on a personal one-to-one basis actually,&rdquo; Hackett said.</p><p>Dignity Chicago&rsquo;s Martin Grochala experienced this firsthand when he and his group met with George several times.</p><p>&ldquo;While we did not see eye to eye on church teaching about sexuality, our conversations were warm and respectful,&rdquo; Grochala said. &ldquo;He was very intelligent and quite, quite quick-witted. Very funny.&rdquo;</p><p>The Cardinal has called this kind of contact with parishioners his greatest joy. And he has packed as much of it as he could into his final days in office. Although he&rsquo;s facing cancer for the third time, George has resembled the Energizer bunny of late.</p><p>His battles with cancer aren&rsquo;t the first time he&rsquo;s faced serious illness. As a teen, George fought polio and overcame it, though the disease left him with a limp. Quigley Preparatory Academy turned him away, saying he was disabled and couldn&rsquo;t be a priest. So George found another religious school, before going on to hold high posts in Rome and being appointed a bishop, archbishop and finally cardinal.</p><p>The Cardinal doesn&rsquo;t plan to entirely slow down. He has said repeatedly that he&rsquo;ll help his successor any way he can. He hopes to spend much of his time doing confirmations and hearing confessions.</p><p>&ldquo;The skill of living is to live as if you&rsquo;re going to die tomorrow and still do your job,&rdquo; the Cardinal said. &ldquo;In a sense prayer does that. You live for a while in a moment where you&rsquo;re not in charge, you&rsquo;re just at God&rsquo;s disposition. And as long as that&rsquo;s the case, then, well, I don&rsquo;t want to die tomorrow, but if I did, I&rsquo;m sure the Lord would still be providential in his care of the Earth. It doesn&rsquo;t depend on me.&rdquo;</p><p><em>WBEZ&rsquo;s Lynette Kalsnes covers religion and culture. Follow her <a href="https://twitter.com/LynetteKalsnes">@Lynette Kalsnes</a></em></p></p> Fri, 19 Sep 2014 20:08:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/cupich-be-next-chicago-archbishop-110827