WBEZ | Pakistan http://www.wbez.org/tags/pakistan Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Global Activism: Sonia Shah Foundation Update http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism/global-activism-sonia-shah-foundation-update-110807 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Sonia Shah_0.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Accomplished, multilingual Winnetka teenager, Sonia Shah, traveled and studied around the world. She started the <a href="http://www.kulsoomfoundation.org/" target="_blank">Kulsoom Foundation for Girls</a> (now named the <a href="http://www.soniashahfoundation.com/#">Sonia Shah Foundation</a>) to build a school for girls in Pakistan. But before the school was completed, Sonia was tragically taken from us in a 2012 auto accident at age 18. Since then, Sonia&#39;s mother, Iram Shah, has taken the baton to continue her daughter&#39;s work. We <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism/global-activism-kulsoom-foundation-build-girls-school-pakistan-honor-late">first spoke with Iram</a> in 2013. For today&#39;s <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism"><em>Global Activism</em></a>, she&#39;s back for an update.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><em><strong>The Sonia Shah Foundation&#39;s <a href="http://www.soniashahfoundation.com/join-us-september-20th/">annual gala</a> will be Saturday, September 23rd, 2014 at 5:30pm at the Oak Brook Hills Resort, 3500 Midwest Road, Oak Brook IL, 60523.</strong></em></p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/168326357&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false" width="100%"></iframe>In 2011, Sonia was the youngest intern at Capital Hill and in 2012, she was one of the youngest intern at Obama campaign headquarters. In his condolence letter, President Obama says &lsquo;although Sonia was one of the youngest interns at the campaign headquarters, she was one of the most determined&rsquo;</p><p><em>Iram reflected on Sonia and her mission ahead of a 2013 Foundation event:</em></p><p style="margin-left:1.0in;">As we prepare for the big day, I want to thank everyone who has been part of this journey&hellip;people who donated, people who contributed through their service, words of sympathy&hellip;you are all awesome!!...You are all part of this journey of helping to change lives of girls, who will change their communities and eventually our world!</p><p style="margin-left:1.0in;"><br />&hellip;For me personally it has been a very emotional but fulfilling journey. Sonia&rsquo;s legacy and mission continues. Although my dream for Sonia to grow up into a mature woman, get married and have children will never be fulfilled but I guess her dream of helping poor girls is more meaningful than my dream for her! I still long for Sonia but slowly beginning to feel that instead of mourning her death, I should celebrate her life more.</p><p style="margin-left:1.0in;"><br />&ldquo;What moves through me is a silence, a quiet sadness, a longing for one more day, one more word, one more touch, we may not understand why you left this earth so soon, or why you left before we were ready to say good-bye, but little by little, we begin to remember not just that you died, but that you lived. And that your life gave us memories too beautiful to forget&rdquo;.</p></p> Thu, 18 Sep 2014 09:14:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism/global-activism-sonia-shah-foundation-update-110807 Political unrest in Pakistan http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2014-09-05/political-unrest-pakistan-110758 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP91454790294.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>A political crisis in Pakistan is deepening as protesters call for the resignation of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. We&#39;ll find out what is behind the unrest from political scientist Aqil Shah.</p><div class="storify"><iframe allowtransparency="true" frameborder="no" height="750" src="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-unrest-in-pakistan/embed?header=false&amp;border=false" width="100%"></iframe><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-unrest-in-pakistan.js?header=false&border=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-unrest-in-pakistan" target="_blank">View the story "Worldview: Political unrest in Pakistan" on Storify</a>]</noscript></div></p> Fri, 05 Sep 2014 11:35:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2014-09-05/political-unrest-pakistan-110758 Pedophilia and the Catholic Church http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2014-08-15/pedophilia-and-catholic-church-110664 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP607723356423.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Pope Francis said in July that about two percent of Catholic clergymen are pedophiles. But how exactly does one research and arrive at such numbesr? We&#39;ll find out from the BBC.&nbsp;</p><div class="storify"><iframe allowtransparency="true" frameborder="no" height="750" src="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-pedophilia-and-the-catholic-church/embed?header=false&amp;border=false" width="100%"></iframe><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-pedophilia-and-the-catholic-church.js?header=false&border=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-pedophilia-and-the-catholic-church" target="_blank">View the story "Worldview: Pedophilia and the Catholic Church" on Storify</a>]</noscript></div></p> Fri, 15 Aug 2014 12:10:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2014-08-15/pedophilia-and-catholic-church-110664 Military action in Pakistan http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2014-08-14/military-action-pakistan-110658 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP737825746234 (1).jpg" alt="" /><p><p>The Pakistani military is conducting a military offensive in the North of the country in efforts to dismantle the Taliban. We&#39;ll talk about the use of domestic military action in Pakistan with author and professor Aqil Shah.</p><div class="storify"><iframe allowtransparency="true" frameborder="no" height="750" src="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-military-action-in-pakistan/embed?header=false&amp;border=false" width="100%"></iframe><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-military-action-in-pakistan.js?header=false&border=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-military-action-in-pakistan" target="_blank">View the story "Worldview: Military action in Pakistan" on Storify</a>]</noscript></div></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 14:23:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2014-08-14/military-action-pakistan-110658 For one Pakistani man, love and sadness in post 9/11 America http://www.wbez.org/series/storycorps/one-pakistani-man-love-and-sadness-post-911-america-108618 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/RS7379_usman and malena-scr.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>In the year 2000, When Usman Ally left Pakistan to attend college in Portland, Oregon, it was still relatively easy for people coming from there to get a visa.&nbsp;</p><p>But then his life, like so many others, was forever changed by Sept. 11, 2001.&nbsp;</p><p>Ally joined his wife, Malena, at the Chicago StoryCorps booth to talk about identity and love in post-9/11 America.</p><p><strong>Malena</strong>: Talk a little bit about your experiences in Portland, what you were studying.</p><p><strong>Usman</strong>: Portland was fine. It was just very, very homogenous, and that was very difficult for me. Especially once 9/11 happened. I hate to say it, but sometimes I feel like my identity in this country is sort of defined by that event.&nbsp;</p><p>After 9/11, Arab and Muslim men from certain countries were required to go into the immigration office and sign up for &ldquo;Special Registration.&rdquo;</p><p><strong>Usman</strong>: They would take all of your information, and then they would just ask these questions about who you are and where you&rsquo;re from and what your parents do. I had nothing to hide, but I just remember being terrified each time.</p><p><strong>Malena</strong>: And then we met in Chicago &hellip; What do you remember about me when we first met?</p><p><strong>Usman</strong>: ... I had a sort of nervous energy and an excitement to see you, and I was trying to figure you out a little bit. Trying to see if we were compatible at all, you know? Because we were from such different worlds.</p><p><strong>Malena</strong> &hellip; Obviously I made a good impression though, because you asked me to marry you.&nbsp;</p><p>After an arduous visa application process, Malena and Usman were married. But their wedding wasn&rsquo;t a completely happy occasion. Click on the audio above to find out why.</p><p><em>Correction: A previous version of this story incorrectly described Pakistan as an Arab nation, and has been corrected. </em></p><p><em>Katie Mingle is a producer for WBEZ and the Third Coast Festival</em>.<br />&nbsp;</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="450" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fapi.soundcloud.com%2Fplaylists%2F6250422" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>&nbsp;</p><hr /><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 06 Sep 2013 05:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/storycorps/one-pakistani-man-love-and-sadness-post-911-america-108618 Egyptian politics, Iraq Veterans Against the War and a Pakistani jail break http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2013-08-01/egyptian-politics-iraq-veterans-against-war-and-pakistani-jail-break <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP090504016818.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Cherif Bassiouni weighs in on conflict in Egypt. Former Iraq veterans are gathering in Chicago this week to discuss the future of U.S. militarism. The Pakistani legislature has elected a new president. Renata Sago fills us in on new investment happening in Haiti.</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fapi.soundcloud.com%2Ftracks%2F103599005&amp;color=ff6600&amp;auto_play=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-iraq-veterans-against-the-war.js?header=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/worldview-iraq-veterans-against-the-war" target="_blank">View the story "Worldview: Egyptian politics, Iraq Veterans Against the War and a Pakistani jail break" on Storify</a>]</noscript></p></p> Thu, 01 Aug 2013 12:03:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2013-08-01/egyptian-politics-iraq-veterans-against-war-and-pakistani-jail-break Panetta: Drone attacks will continue in Pakistan http://www.wbez.org/worldview/2012-06-06/panetta-drone-attacks-will-continue-pakistan-99855 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/AP120604030821.jpg" title="Pakistani protesters burn representations of US and NATO flags during a demonstration to condemn U.S. drone strikes in the tribal areas, in Multan, Pakistan on June 4, 2012. (AP/Khalid Tanveer) " /></div>Just two days after a drone&nbsp;strike killed al-Qaida&#39;s second-in-command, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta made it clear Wednesday that such attacks will continue as long as the U.S. needs to defend itself against terrorists that threaten America.</div><p>Speaking in India &mdash; on Pakistan&#39;s doorstep &mdash; Panetta unapologetically dismissed suggestions that the strikes could violate Pakistan&#39;s sovereignty.</p><p>&quot;This is about our sovereignty as well,&quot; he said when answering questions from the audience after a speech at an Indian think tank.</p><p>And he was blunt about the difficulties in the U.S. relationship with Pakistan, as insurgents continue to find safe haven there, despite repeated protests from American leaders.</p><p>&quot;It&#39;s a complicated relationship, often times frustrating, often times difficult,&quot; Panetta said. &quot;They have provided some cooperation. There are other times when frankly that cooperation is not there. But the United States cannot just walk away from that relationship. We have to continue to do what we can to try to improve (the) areas where we can find some mutual cooperation.&quot;</p><p>Panetta&#39;s message is likely to reverberate in Pakistan, particularly since it was delivered in India &mdash; Pakistan&#39;s long-standing archrival.</p><p>But he also publically urged India to work toward a better relationship with Pakistan, its fellow nuclear-armed neighbor.</p><p>Both the U.S. and India must overcome deep differences with Pakistan to bolster peace and security in South Asia, he said in a speech to the Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses here.</p><p>&quot;Pakistan is a complicated relationship, complicated for both of our countries but it is one that we must continue to work to improve,&quot; Panetta said. &quot;India and the United States will need to continue to engage Pakistan, overcoming our respective &mdash; and often deep &mdash; differences with Pakistan to make all of South Asia peaceful and prosperous.&quot;</p><p>He said he welcomed steps that India and Pakistan have taken to normalize trade relations as key to resolving their differences and a way to help Pakistan counter extremism within its borders.</p><p>But Panetta&#39;s speech comes as U.S. tensions with Pakistan continue to fray, strained by the persistent CIA drone attacks that target insurgents inside Pakistan as well as a deadlock in negotiation over U.S. shipments of supplies across the Afghanistan border.</p><p>Adding to that potential discord, Panetta also urged Indian leaders in meetings Tuesday and Wednesday to consider providing additional support to Afghanistan, including trade, reconstruction and assistance for the Afghan security forces.</p><p>Any increase in India&#39;s support for Afghanistan is likely to worry Pakistan, fueling fears that Islamabad&#39;s influence on the Afghans&#39; future could diminish.</p><p>The U.S. is hoping that India can play a more robust role in the war effort, particularly in the training of Afghan forces, as the number of American and NATO troops in Afghanistan continues to decline over the next year.</p><p>In the past, India has cautiously helped the Afghan army, partly to avoid offending Pakistan or being drawn into Afghan security affairs.</p><p>India assisted Kabul mostly with economic and development aid and has helped build up the Afghan security forces by training Afghan police officers.</p><p>Training for Afghan soldiers extended to individual army officers who attended a multination course at the National Defense College in Delhi. There was no organized training of Afghan national army soldiers at Indian defense schools, but Afghan army soldiers have been attending courses at Indian military academies over the past few years.</p><p>Wrapping up a week of travel across Asia, Panetta said military cooperation with India is the linchpin to America&#39;s defense plan to focus more on the region. And he said that the two nations must move beyond individual arms sales and increase both the quality and quantity of their defense trade.</p><p>&quot;For this relationship to truly provide security for this region and for the world, we need to deepen our defense and security cooperation,&quot; he said.</p><p>Panetta made only a passing reference to Iran in his speech and did not mention ongoing U.S. concerns that India continues to import large amounts of oil from Iran.</p><p>Earlier in the day Panetta met with Indian Defense Minister A.K. Antony and discussed increased defense trade and plans to conduct military exercises together. America&#39;s defense ties with India have grown steadily since about 2000, including a substantial increase in arms sales that now total more than $8.5 billion over the last 11 years.</p><p><em>Wednesday, </em>Worldview<em> talks with Fauzia Kasuri, the Women&rsquo;s Wing president of the Pakistan Movement for Justice. The Pakistan Movement for Justice is Pakistan&rsquo;s centrist, progressive political party, founded by former Pakistani cricket captain and philanthropist Imran Khan. It&rsquo;s one of Pakistan&rsquo;s fastest growing political parties.</em></p></p> Wed, 06 Jun 2012 10:02:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/worldview/2012-06-06/panetta-drone-attacks-will-continue-pakistan-99855 Siachen Glacier: Ground war at 22,000 feet http://www.wbez.org/worldview/2012-04-16/segment/siachen-glacier-ground-war-22000-feet-98279 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP110719167055_0.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Earlier this month search teams, including sniffer dogs, were deployed to find signs of life beneath an avalanche that buried 138 Pakistani soldiers on the Himalayan Siachen Glacier. At 22,000 feet, the heavily militarized border between Pakistan and India is known as the “world’s highest battlefield.”</p><p><a href="http://www.harishkapadia.com/" target="_blank">Harish Kapadia </a>is one of the few civilians that's been allowed on the army-controlled landscape. He’s visited Siachen Glacier three times.&nbsp; Kapadia wrote about his experiences on the mountain in the book<em> Siachen Glacier: The Battle of Roses</em>.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; He shares some of his most memorable moments on the glacier with <em>Worldview</em>.</p></p> Mon, 16 Apr 2012 12:11:12 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/worldview/2012-04-16/segment/siachen-glacier-ground-war-22000-feet-98279 Worldview 4.5.12 http://www.wbez.org/worldview/2012-04-05/worldview-4512-97948 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP110308038998.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Advocates for Guantanamo Bay detainees thought President Obama’s election would resolve the issue of indefinite detention. But after nearly four years in office, the opposite has occurred. <a href="http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/directory/index.html?id=559" onclick="window.open(this.href, '', 'resizable=no,status=no,location=no,toolbar=no,menubar=no,fullscreen=no,scrollbars=no,dependent=no'); return false;">Jack Goldsmith</a>, author of <em>Power and Constraint: The Accountable Presidency After 9/11</em> discusses the shifts in the judicial system amidst changing social pressures, civil liberties and presidents. Also, WBEZ's Odette Yousef reports from Pakistan about one man’s experiment to see if high standards can bring broad social change to his country. And, nearly 60 percent of Colombia's millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) are women. In a mountainside settlement of IDPs above the city of Medellin, the group Creative Women of Hope live up to their name. Astrid Suarez and Ruth Goring tell <em>Worldview</em> about how their own group, <a href="http://www.facebook.com/ColombiaViveChicago" onclick="window.open(this.href, '', 'resizable=no,status=no,location=no,toolbar=no,menubar=no,fullscreen=no,scrollbars=no,dependent=no'); return false;">Colombia Vive Chicago</a>, supports the organization and women in Colombia.</p></p> Thu, 05 Apr 2012 09:15:17 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/worldview/2012-04-05/worldview-4512-97948 For Pakistani attorney, social revolution should sound sweet http://www.wbez.org/culture/segment/pakistani-attorney-social-revolution-should-sound-sweet-97913 <p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Raza%20Kazim.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: left; width: 280px; height: 195px;" title="Raza Kazim at his home in Lahore, Pakistan. (WBEZ/Odette Yousef) ">Raza Kazim enjoys the privileges of an elite sliver of Pakistani society, living in a sprawling, gated, white house in Lahore. He is perched at the top of his profession, as well; the attorney is one of the most respected legal minds in the country, and even at more than 80 years old he continues to argue cases before Pakistan’s Supreme Court. But to a visiting delegation of American journalists, he argues most passionately about something quite separate from the law.</p><p>“There is a reality of a certain backward mindset which we have inherited, and which we have not yet changed,” says Kazim, “and which we have to change.”</p><p>Despite his professional and financial success as a lawyer, Kazim’s lifestyle appears to the visitor to be utilitarian. At home, Kazim wears a simple brown, cotton tunic and pants, with a light scarf thrown over his shoulders for warmth. The house itself is a sprawling, villa-like manse that has been repurposed from a lavish home into a buzzing hive of activity. Off the green courtyard in the center, there’s a room where goggle-wearing men crouch over whirring machines, creating electronic components. In another room, craftsmen cut wood, join together pieces of dried gourds, and polish new musical instruments. There’s a darkroom that Kazim and some students use for their photography. And then there’s the room where Kazim joins us: a fully-padded space on the upper level. Here, one of Kazim’s daughters and some other workers demonstrate for us the sonic power of a stereo system developed in the walls of this house. Rich, resonating tones from both Eastern and Western tunes suffuse the space.</p><p>The music turns off as Kazim comes into the room and settles on the floor with us. He explains why, when he could so easily have enjoyed his success in luxury, he’s instead turned his home into a hub of work, sound, activity and, in his own way, social activism.</p><p><strong>Early political ideals</strong></p><p>Kazim explains that he spent his adult life pursuing what he calls a renaissance for Pakistan. “I felt that we should take a second look at man,” he says, “and see if it is possible for human nature to be more dynamic than it has been, to be more productive and creative than it has been, using that knowledge.” Kazim’s hopes were high in 1947, when Pakistan split from India to become a new, post-colonial nation. He was 18 at the time and wanted Pakistan to become a modern country, one where people could soon use education, justice and technology to achieve their potential.</p><p>“So I joined the Communist Party,” says Kazim, “and bought the Marxist theory and analysis as the best toolkit for changing society, and I gave everything that I had to it.”</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/RS5211_245-scr.JPG" style="margin: 5px; float: left; width: 300px; height: 169px;" title="Kazim hopes that an outside investor will produce and sell the Bhulley Audio System on a large scale. (WBEZ/Odette Yousef)">Kazim was jailed five times for his political activities, but over the next two decades, his views began to change. He says a key lesson came from observing what happened in Vietnam after that country’s revolution. As Vietnam's new Communist regime took power, Kazim grew disillusioned. In his view, Vietnam’s political system had changed, but its people had not. “I realized that no, sorry, these revolutionary models are imperfect in theory and seriously defective in practice,” he says.</p><p>Kazim says he realized that ordinary people need to challenge themselves to learn new things and achieve new goals if they are to break out of old living habits. He dropped the crusade to change Pakistan’s political system, and adopted a new philosophy. “My position was that unless our people change substantially, you are not going to have changes in government, or policy, or things like that,” he says.</p><p><strong>Social change through sound</strong></p><p>It took Kazim decades to formulate a new approach to social change and cultural advancement. He eventually settled on the founding of the <a href="http://sanjannagar.org/">Sanjan Nagar Institute of Philosophy &amp; Arts</a> in his own home in 1995. Funded by his earnings as a lawyer, Kazim has been using the Institute to explore discrete personal interests: photography, musicology, audio equipment engineering and a new field of study he termed “<a href="http://sanjannagar.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/overview-of-evolutionary-mentology.pdf">mentology</a>.” To Kazim, each of these fields presents an opportunity to propel innovative thinking in the arts and humanities, and he hopes ordinary Pakistanis will play a role in those advancements.</p><p>From looking at the impressive array of mixers, amplifiers and speakers in the room where he speaks to us, it’s clear that Kazim’s work in the field of audio engineering is the Institute’s most successful effort yet. Remarkably, Kazim entered the field with no related training or education.</p><p>“I was looking at the world outside Pakistan,” Kazim says. “Now there, I felt that there was a problem, a genuine problem, in the audio area. After the Second World War it had taken a very strong tendency toward Hi-Fi, toward a mechanical view of sound.”</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/RS5210_219_cropped-scr.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: left; width: 300px; height: 208px;" title="Nearly all parts for the audio system are manufactured in Raza Kazim’s house. (WBEZ/Odette Yousef)">Kazim’s challenge was to develop a stereo system that could compete with luxury lines on the market — and to do it with a team of novices. Sitting on the floor of the audio demonstration room, Kazim recounts how he began that effort seventeen years ago: “I picked up people from the urban lower-middle class, with their level of education, their level of experience (to) see if we multiplied them with the times that we are living in, and the resources we have, with the help of computers, and ‘net, and the access to knowledge and information, what could we do if we had a will, an urge?”</p><p>Kazim hired a math tutor for his team and equipped the Institute with computers and internet access. “So they’re connected, and this is a gift of the times we’re in,” says Kazim. “It’s a question of putting that gift to use, a practical application. So this is a model of how people who’ve been stagnating for a long time, if they connect to the times they’re living in, and its specifics and potentials, perhaps something can be done.”</p><p>The team worked in Kazim’s house, developing nearly every aspect of the system from scratch, from the capacitors that moderate electrical current, to the polished wood shells that encase the stereos and amplifiers. Kazim concedes, “We had to have a tough learning curve because none of us were engineers, none of us had experience. That was a rather deliberate decision, because the people we are going to depend upon for some time to come will be our lower-middle class.”</p><p>The team created 21 prototypes of the Bhulley Audio System and has earned more than 500 patents. One key innovation: the inclusion of water tubes inside the speakers to mitigate excess reverberations, keeping the sound from getting muddy.</p><p>British sound experts audited the Bhulley system and gave it top marks, but Kazim says that’s not the point. “It’s not about music," Kazim says emphatically. "It’s about these men, they manifestly have had to change themselves in the process, in their hearts, and in their heads,” he says.</p><p>Kazim now speaks of the line of audio equipment as a parent might speak of a grown child who must leave home. “My intention is now, as this matures, to separate this from the Institute," sayd Kazim. "It’s a finished product, and it’s a line of products. It includes the mixers, it includes mic amplifiers, it includes AD/DA converters. So we’d like to make it a commercial corporation apart from the Institute.”</p><p>He says he hopes to interest foreign investors invest in large-scale production of the Bhulley system, and that they would employ the men who helped to create it. The more important point for Kazim is whether this experiment, of challenging and supporting ordinary Pakistani laborers to achieve world-class standards, might be replicated elsewhere. “This was really a prototype, which could release their potential, their capabilities, change their motivations,” says Kazim. “They changed themselves, of course, by challenging them(selves).”</p><p><strong>Improving an ancient instrument</strong></p><p>Kazim’s institute has also won recognition for its work in reviving traditional South Asian classical music through the invention of new musical instruments. In a workshop on the lower level of the house, Kazim introduces us to craftsmen who make the shruti bahar, a relative to the well-known South Asian stringed instrument called the sitar. While the conventional sitar uses a single dried gourd as its resonating chamber, Kazim’s craftsmen piece together sections of several gourds to create chambers with fewer distortions and better resonance. The bridge that the strings sit on is also made from pure silver, which, Kazim believes, conducts string vibrations more effectively than conventional materials.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/RS5209_215-scr.JPG" style="margin: 5px; float: left; width: 200px; height: 356px;" title="The Sagar Veena, a new instrument developed at the Sanjan Nagar Institute, has two resonating chambers. (WBEZ/Odette Yousef)">More groundbreaking is the sagar veena, a larger stringed instrument that was developed at the Institute, and which only one person, Kazim’s daughter Noor Zehra, knows how to play. The sagar veena has two resonating chambers, one on each end of the instrument, and sits flat on the floor when played. Both instruments were constructed with attention to enhancing microtones, the miniscule differences between notes. Kazim says the configuration allows sagar veena players additional flexibility to convey emotions through their music.</p><div class="mediaelement-audio"><audio class="mediaelement-formatter-identified-1333582409-1" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/sagarveena_0.mp3">&nbsp;</audio></div><p>&nbsp;</p><p><em>(Noor Zehra performs on the Sagar Veena.)</em></p><p>Kazim says he’d like to see &nbsp;the Institute’s innovative spirit spread far and wide, and he thinks there could be payoffs for people who’ve never been inside the Institute’s walls. Specifically, he wants the Bhulley Audio System and musical instruments to draw people to Pakistani music and traditional culture, all the while challenging ordinary citizens and providing them with a practical necessity — jobs. &nbsp;</p><p>“The point was that if we learn to do productive work, and can earn our living, an honest living in today’s times, then other things will follow,” Kazim says, “then a different approach to society, a more positive approach to the problems of having a society. And that alone would impact upon our politics.”</p></p> Wed, 04 Apr 2012 11:25:07 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/culture/segment/pakistani-attorney-social-revolution-should-sound-sweet-97913