WBEZ | History http://www.wbez.org/tags/history Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Discovery from 3,500 years ago challenges gender roles http://www.wbez.org/news/discovery-3500-years-ago-challenges-gender-roles-113758 <p><div style="text-align: justify;"><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/pylos_embed2.jpg" style="height: 349px; width: 620px;" title="One of more than 45 seal stones found within the tomb, each bearing intricate designs. Long-horned bulls and, sometimes, human bull jumpers leaping over their horns are a common relief from the Minoan period. (Credit: Jennifer Stevens)" /></div><div><article about="/stories/2015-11-12/discovery-3500-years-ago-challenges-gender-roles" typeof="sioc:Item foaf:Document"><div><p style="text-align: justify;">Husband-and-wife archaeologist team Jack Davis and Sharon Stocker have just made the biggest archaeological discovery of its kind in at least half a century.</p></div><p style="text-align: justify;">&ldquo;It was kind of a combination of expertise and dumb luck,&rdquo; says Jack Davis, &ldquo;We were not planning to excavate in this area.&rdquo;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Davis and his wife Stocker, both archaeologists from the University of Cincinnati, had been trying to purchase a plot of land near the ancient city of Pylos in southwestern Greece.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" draggable="true" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/gallery_image/public/pylos_embed1.jpg?itok=s77Nihmr" style="height: 539px; width: 400px;" title="University of Cincinnati's Sharon Stocker, left, and Jack Davis led a team of 45 archaeologists and experts in various specialties, as well as students, during this summer's excavations in Pylos, Greece. (University of Cincinnati, Pylos Excavations)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></p><div style="text-align: justify;">When plans for that purchase fell through, they turned instead to an adjacent property - a plot located near where the Palace of Nestor, long since destroyed, was built.&nbsp;</div><p style="text-align: justify;">Stocker and Davis first cleared brush away from the plot of land. Then, they and their team noticed five stones above the surface of the earth. At first they thought it was the corner of a Bronze Age house. Then, after some digging, Davis got a phone call: &ldquo;We hit bronze,&rdquo; the area supervisor said.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><img alt="" draggable="true" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/gallery_image/public/pylos_embed3.jpg?itok=MKbKnbio" style="height: 349px; width: 620px;" title="An elaborate necklace decorated with ivy leaves and measuring more than thirty inches long was found near the neck of the warrior’s skeleton. (Jennifer Stephens)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></p><p style="text-align: justify;">Davis and Stocker rushed back to the site.</p><img alt="" draggable="true" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/gallery_image/public/pylos_embed5.jpg?itok=_rmqLk5o" style="text-align: center; height: 509px; width: 300px; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="An illustration of the contents and arrangement of the excavated tomb. (Denitsa Nenova)" typeof="foaf:Image" /><p style="text-align: justify;">What&nbsp;had been discovered was the ancient tomb of a warrior who was buried with a sword and a trove of jewelry some 35 centuries ago.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">He likely died &ldquo;several centuries before the time that Homer was writing about, which I think makes it all the more spectacular,&rdquo; Stocker says, &ldquo;This could have been perhaps even the founder of the dynasty Later Nestor who ruled at Pylos.&quot;&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">In the warrior&rsquo;s grave the archaeologists&nbsp;found a sword, a gold-hilted dagger, and more than 45 seal stones, each bearing intricate designs like long-horned bulls and human bull jumpers.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" draggable="true" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/gallery_image/public/Picture35.jpg?itok=NF0tV1Ss" style="text-align: center; height: 372px; width: 620px;" title="One of six ivory combs discovered in the tomb by Sharon Stocker and Jack Davis (University of Cincinnati, Pylos Excavations)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></p><p style="text-align: justify;">There were also several combs, a mirror, and an elaborate necklace decorated with ivy leaves near&nbsp;the skeleton&rsquo;s neck.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The discovery is changing the way archaeologists are interpreting ancient graves, and ancient civilization.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&ldquo;Up until now people have speculated that certain artifacts can be ascribed to a particular gender,&rdquo; Stocker says, &ldquo;But now we have one man buried with objects that&nbsp;until now&nbsp;have been thought of as female artifacts. He had six combs, he had a bronze mirror, he had beads, he had necklaces. He had all of these things, and so we&#39;ve learned from this burial that the grave goods now cannot necessarily be attributed along gender lines. That&#39;s one thing that I find really exciting.&rdquo;&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><img alt="" draggable="true" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/gallery_image/public/pylos_embed4.jpg?itok=MFE_-iwg" style="text-align: center; height: 477px; width: 620px;" title="Sharon Stocker with the 3,500 year-old skull found in the warrior's tomb. (University of Cincinnati, Pylos Excavations)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></p><p style="text-align: justify;">Stocker and Davis say they have a lot of work ahead of them to continue studying their discovery.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="text-align: center;">&ldquo;Probably for the rest of our lives will be working on this amazing find. It&#39;s something to look forward to,&rdquo;&nbsp;</span><span style="text-align: center;">Stocker says.&nbsp;</span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><em>This&nbsp;<a href="http://www.studio360.org/story/the-things-they-carried-in-1500-bc/" target="_blank">story</a>&nbsp;first aired on PRI&#39;s&nbsp;<a href="http://www.studio360.org/" target="_blank">Studio 360</a>&nbsp;with Kurt Andersen.</em></p></article></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Thu, 12 Nov 2015 13:34:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/discovery-3500-years-ago-challenges-gender-roles-113758 How Suffragists used cookbooks as a recipe for subversion http://www.wbez.org/news/how-suffragists-used-cookbooks-recipe-subversion-113690 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/suff.JPG" alt="" /><p><div id="res454332896" previewtitle="Members of the women's suffrage movement prepare to march on New York's Wall Street in 1913, armed with leaflets and slogans demanding the vote for women."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Members of the women's suffrage movement prepare to march on New York's Wall Street in 1913, armed with leaflets and slogans demanding the vote for women." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/03/gettyimages-2667800-0419d9d916a3f0bcfb40103d684acb437c368c36-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 464px; width: 620px;" title="Members of the women's suffrage movement prepare to march on New York's Wall Street in 1913, armed with leaflets and slogans demanding the vote for women. (Paul Thompson/Getty Images)" /></div><div><div><p>In the new Meryl Streep period movie&nbsp;<em>Suffragette</em>, Englishwomen march on the streets, smash shop windows and stage sit-ins to demand the vote. Less well-known is that across the pond, a less cinematic resistance was being staged via that most humble vehicle: the cookbook.</p></div></div></div><p>Between 1886, when the first American suffragist cookbook was published, and 1920, when the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted women the right to vote, there were at least a half-dozen cookbooks published by suffragette associations in the country.</p><p>These books were the descendants of the post-Civil War charity cookbooks, published to raise funds for war victims and church-related issues.</p><p>The suffrage cookbooks came garnished with propaganda for the Great Cause: the fight for getting women the right to vote. Recipes ranged from basic guidelines on brewing tea and boiling rice, to epicurean ones for Almond Parfait and the ever-popular&nbsp;<a href="http://www.saveur.com/article/Recipes/Lady-Baltimore-Cake-">Lady Baltimore Cake</a>, a layered Southern confection draped in boiled meringue frosting. Occasionally, there was a startling entry, such as that for Emergency Salad: one-tenth onion and nine-tenths apple with any salad dressing. But the bulk comprised a soothing flow of soups, gravies, breads, roasts, pies, omelets, salads, pickles and puddings.</p><div id="res454333920" previewtitle="Cover of The Woman Suffrage Cook Book, published in 1886. Hattie Burr, the editor, noted proudly that &quot;among the contributors are many who are eminent in their professions as teachers, lecturers, physicians, ministers, and authors — whose names are household words in the land.&quot;"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Cover of The Woman Suffrage Cook Book, published in 1886. Hattie Burr, the editor, noted proudly that &quot;among the contributors are many who are eminent in their professions as teachers, lecturers, physicians, ministers, and authors — whose names are household words in the land.&quot;" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/03/book43_cover_custom-b9ce0dc3eac54f9c7c18ffe409a2667cfc654be4-s400-c85.jpg" style="height: 826px; width: 540px;" title="Cover of The Woman Suffrage Cook Book, published in 1886. Hattie Burr, the editor, noted proudly that &quot;among the contributors are many who are eminent in their professions as teachers, lecturers, physicians, ministers, and authors — whose names are household words in the land.&quot; (Special Collections/Michigan State University Libraries)" /></div><div><div><p>Today, some might ask: What were feminists doing printing cookbooks? Wasn&#39;t their whole movement aimed at empowering women beyond home and hearth?</p></div></div></div><p>&quot;Women used what they knew, what they could to champion their causes,&quot; eminent culinary archivist Jan Longone explained during a 2008<a href="http://lecb.physics.lsa.umich.edu/wl/carma/2008/20080921-clements/20080921-umwlcd0011-150544/flash.html">&nbsp;lecture&nbsp;</a>at the University of Michigan, where she is adjunct curator of the&nbsp;<a href="http://clements.umich.edu/longone-archive.php">Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive</a>. &quot;If that meant baking a cake or cooking a dinner or writing a cookbook, they did that. I need not remind the audience that for most of the 19th century, a woman had no control over her own money, her own children, her own destiny.&quot;</p><p>But, as Longone points out, these cookbooks were also a strategic rebuttal to the snide jokes and hurtful innuendo directed against suffragists, who were painted as neglectful mothers and kitchen-hating harridans, busy politicking while their children starved. The assertion these books sought to buttress was that &quot;good cooking and sure voting went hand in hand,&quot; to quote the 1909<em> Washington Women&#39;s Cook Book</em>, which opened with the couplet:</p><blockquote><div><p><em>Give us the vote and we will cook<br />The Better for a wide outlook</em></p></div></blockquote><p>On Dec. 13, 1886, America&#39;s first suffragist cookbook,&nbsp;<em>The Woman&#39;s Suffrage Cook Book</em>, was launched on a drizzly but sold-out evening at a fundraiser at the Boston music hall. The hall was decorated with a white banner bearing the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association motto, &quot;Male and female created He them, and gave them dominion.&quot;</p><p>Members included the novelist Louisa May Alcott, who would become the first woman registered to vote in Concord. Though she hadn&#39;t contributed a recipe, Alcott had just published&nbsp;<em>Jo&#39;s Boys</em>, the final book of her&nbsp;<em>Little Women</em>&nbsp;series, into which she had slipped in a droll description of a statue of Minerva, the goddess of wisdom, sporting a &quot;Women&#39;s Rights&quot; slogan on her shield and a helmet ornamented with &quot;a tiny pestle and mortar&quot; &mdash; a divine nod to the compatibility between cooking and voting.</p><p>Recipes were contributed by regular housewives who carried a &quot;Mrs.&quot; before their name, as well as a parade of prominent suffragists who didn&#39;t.</p><p>Irish Stew, for instance, came courtesy of Cora Scott Pond, a militant prohibitionist (she declined fermented communion wine) and real-estate investor who had refused to wear a corset starting at the age of 16.</p><p>Chicago obstetrician and gynecologist Alice Bunker Stockham, the fifth woman to become a licensed doctor in the U.S., sent in an elaborate recipe for Coraline Cake, which called for the cake to be split and infused with strawberry or raspberry juice, then filled with boiled custard to make a sort of &quot;French pie.&quot;</p><p>Dr. Stockham was anti-alcohol and anti-corset but &mdash; extraordinarily for her time &ndash; pro-masturbation. She publicly endorsed it as healthy for both men and women. Her unorthodox stand positioned her as the antithesis to Sylvester Graham, the Presbyterian reformer who believed&nbsp;<a href="http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/01/looking-to-quell-sexual-urges-consider-the-graham-cracker/282769/">rich food inflamed sexual appetite</a>, and who invented the Graham cracker (made with unrefined flour) to help Americans tame their sexual desires. By the Rev. Graham&#39;s standards, the Coraline Cake was positively orgiastic.</p><div id="res454333389" previewtitle="Among those contributing to the first suffragist cookbook, published in 1886, was Alice Bunker Stockham, a Chicago obstetrician and gynecologist who sent in an elaborate recipe for Coraline Cake. Stockham was anti-alcohol and anti-corset but — extraordinarily for her time — pro-masturbation."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Among those contributing to the first suffragist cookbook, published in 1886, was Alice Bunker Stockham, a Chicago obstetrician and gynecologist who sent in an elaborate recipe for Coraline Cake. Stockham was anti-alcohol and anti-corset but — extraordinarily for her time — pro-masturbation." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/03/alice_stockham_custom-2589fd7eff1c32458ac3c1bdfca9d65a5699672f-s400-c85.jpg" style="height: 510px; width: 340px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: right;" title="Among those contributing to the first suffragist cookbook, published in 1886, was Alice Bunker Stockham, a Chicago obstetrician and gynecologist who sent in an elaborate recipe for Coraline Cake. Stockham was anti-alcohol and anti-corset but — extraordinarily for her time — pro-masturbation. (Wikimedia Commons)" /></div><div><div><p>Julia A. Kellogg, star student of novelist Henry James&#39; father, contributed a veal sausage recipe. Though Henry James Sr. was in favor of universal suffrage, he forecast that &quot;women wouldn&#39;t avail themselves of it when it was granted.&quot; When Kellogg disagreed, they quarreled, according to Alfred Habegger&#39;s&nbsp;<em>Henry James</em>&nbsp;and the <em>&#39;Woman Business.&#39;</em></p></div></div></div><p>Anna Ella Carroll,&nbsp;a political writer&nbsp;from Maryland&nbsp;who freed her slaves when Abraham Lincoln was elected president, and who advised him during the Civil War, sent in gruesomely explicit advice for Terrapin Soup. (<a href="http://www.saveur.com/history-of-turtle-soup-hunting" target="_blank">Turtle soup&nbsp;</a>was once an American delicacy.)</p><p>&quot;Decidedly, the terrapin has to be killed before cooking, and the killing is no easy matter,&quot; she wrote. &quot;The head must be cut off, and, as the sight is peculiarly acute, the cook must exercise great ingenuity in concealing the weapon.&quot; The decapitated terrapin was then to be &quot;boiled until the feet can be easily pulled off.&quot;</p><p>Sold at fairs, bazaars and women&#39;s exchanges, these cookbooks not only raised funds for the suffrage movement, says Longone, but also&nbsp;helped women network, and gain new skills in the fields of publishing, advertising and sales.</p><p>In 1891, the Equal Suffrage Association of Rockford, Ill., published&nbsp;<em>The Holiday Gift Cook Book</em>. At the time, the state&#39;s constitutional law stated: &quot;Idiots, lunatics, paupers, felons and women shall not be entitled to vote.&quot;</p><div id="res454333079" previewtitle="Martha Gruening, a suffragist leader, distributes literature on the movement to passersby in New York City, circa 1912. She later earned a law degree from New York University and was active in the civil rights movement."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Martha Gruening, a suffragist leader, distributes literature on the movement to passersby in New York City, circa 1912. She later earned a law degree from New York University and was active in the civil rights movement." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/03/gettyimages-3087723-6ab5c755bc28e45d96b6bda2d442a4a53d4be0db-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="Martha Gruening, a suffragist leader, distributes literature on the movement to passersby in New York City, circa 1912. She later earned a law degree from New York University and was active in the civil rights movement. (Paul Thompson/Getty Images)" /></div><div><div><p>Recipes were interspersed with pro-suffrage quotes by famous people such as British politician William Gladstone and abolitionist author Harriet Beecher Stowe. &quot;Of these, the most poignant plea is that of Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross,&quot; says Longone.</p></div></div></div><p>Barton, a legendary Civil War nurse known as the &quot;Angel of the Battlefield,&quot; wrote, &quot;When you were sick and wounded I toiled for you on the battlefield. Because of my work for you, I ask your aid. I ask the ballot for myself and my sex. As I stood by you, I pray you stand by me and mine.&quot;</p><p>Perhaps the most fascinating of these cookbooks came from Pittsburgh in 1915.&nbsp;The <em>Suffrage Cook Book&nbsp;</em>was a sumptuous cake layered with recipes, celebrity endorsements, photographs and saucy jokes.</p><div id="res454334817" previewtitle="Recipes from the Woman Suffrage Cook Book, including one for &quot;Graham Bread&quot; attributed to Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Beecher Stowe's sister Isabella Beecher Hooker was a founder of the National Woman Suffrage Association."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Recipes from the Woman Suffrage Cook Book, including one for &quot;Graham Bread&quot; attributed to Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Beecher Stowe's sister Isabella Beecher Hooker was a founder of the National Woman Suffrage Association." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/03/10311203585_bd98a36878_o_custom-7b67d9dfb965a79c6c1047d34c008765a4ea9ec4-s400-c85.jpg" style="height: 504px; width: 540px;" title="Recipes from the Woman Suffrage Cook Book, including one for &quot;Graham Bread&quot; attributed to Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Beecher Stowe's sister Isabella Beecher Hooker was a founder of the National Woman Suffrage Association. (Schlesinger Library/Flickr)" /></div><div><div><p>The blue cover featured a silhouette of Uncle Sam piloting the ship of state with a wheel that has only 12.5 spokes. &quot;The 12 spokes were for those states where women could vote before the 19th Amendment &mdash; all Western states,&quot; explained Longone. &quot;The half-spoke was for Illinois, which, at the time, allowed women to vote only in school board elections.&quot;</p></div></div></div><p>Its pages were sprinkled with recipes carrying playful titles like &quot;Hymen Cake,&quot; &quot;Mother&#39;s Election Cake,&quot; &quot;Suffrage Salad Dressing,&quot; &quot;Suffrage Angel Cake&quot; and &quot;Parliament Gingerbread (With apologies to the English Suffragists).&quot; There were satirical recipes, too, such as &quot;Pie for a Suffragist&#39;s Doubting Husband,&quot; whose ingredients made for a doleful litany:</p><blockquote><div><ul><li>1 qt. milk human kindness</li><li>8 reasons:</li><li>War</li><li>White Slavery</li><li>Child Labor</li><li>8,000,000 Working Women</li><li>Bad Roads</li><li>Poisonous Water</li><li>Impure Food</li><li>Mix the crust with tact and velvet gloves, using no sarcasm, especially with the upper crust. Upper crusts must be handled with extreme care, for they quickly sour if manipulated roughly.</li></ul></div></blockquote><p>Another recipe, for &quot;Anti&#39;s Favorite Hash&quot; &mdash; &quot;anti&quot; being shorthand for those against the Great Cause &mdash; called for a generous handful of injustice, a pound of truth thoroughly mangled, a little vitriol for tang, and a string of nonsense to be stirred with a sharp knife.</p><p>The contributors were all women, apart from a few celebrity male feminists like writer Jack London, who sent in two recipes: roast duck (&quot;the plucked bird should be stuffed with a tight handful of plain raw celery&quot;), and a version of stuffed celery, which called for Roquefort cheese, softened with butter and sherry, to be &quot;squeezed into the troughs&quot; of the celery sticks.</p><p>Exhibiting political savvy,&nbsp;The <em>Suffrage Cook Book&#39;s</em>&nbsp;editor, Mrs. L.O. Kleber, had invited endorsements from governors of eight states that had passed female suffrage laws (Wyoming, Arizona, California, Kansas, Idaho, Illinois, Washington and Oregon). These eminences were fulsome in their praise of women as intelligent, diligent and patriotic voters &mdash; but only up to a point.</p><p>As Idaho Gov. Moses Alexander wrote: &quot;The impression that Woman Suffrage inspires an ambition in women to seek and hold public office is altogether wrong. The contrary is true.&quot;</p><p>Hillary Clinton, Nancy Pelosi, Jan Brewer, Nikki Haley and a host of other women would surely chuckle at that.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/11/05/454246666/how-suffragists-used-cookbooks-as-a-recipe-for-subversion?ft=nprml&amp;f=454246666" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Fri, 06 Nov 2015 16:41:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/how-suffragists-used-cookbooks-recipe-subversion-113690 The Tale of the Onion King http://www.wbez.org/tale-onion-king-113355 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Lots%20of%20onions..jpg" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="Lots of onions. (Jess Jiang/NPR)" /></div><div><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Vince Kosuga was an onion farmer back in the 1930s. A pretty successful one. But farming wasn&#39;t enough for him. He also liked to make bets on wheat and other crops.</p><p>Then he had an idea: Why not try his luck with the crop he knew best?</p><p>Today on the show, how Kosuga made millions on the greatest onion trade the world had ever seen. We tell you about a scheme to corner the market that got so out of hand that it eventually caused the <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/what%E2%80%99s-bottom-chicago-river-102651" target="_blank">Chicago River </a>to flow not just with water but with America&#39;s onions.</p><p>Onion farming hasn&#39;t been the same since.</p></div><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2015/10/14/448718171/episode-657-the-tale-of-the-onion-king?ft=nprml&amp;f=448718171" target="_blank"><em>via NPR&#39;s Planet Money</em></a></p></p> Thu, 15 Oct 2015 12:59:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/tale-onion-king-113355 The history of our love-hate-love relationship with leftovers http://www.wbez.org/news/economy/history-our-love-hate-love-relationship-leftovers-113368 <p><div><img 1908.="" a="" alt="" asparagus="" book="" collections="" creation="" from="" in="" leftover="" michigan="" published="" s="" special="" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Asparagus%20Shortcake%2C%20a%20leftover%20creation%20from%20The%20Cook%27s%20Book%20published%20in%201908..jpg" state="" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" the="" title="&quot;Asparagus Shortcake,&quot; a leftover creation from The Cook's Book published in 1908. (Special Collections/Michigan State University Libraries)" university="" /></div><div><p>From floating old food in Jell-O molds to casseroles to cold pizza, the way we reuse and eat leftovers in America is special.</p><p>And it turns out that if you track our relationship with leftovers over time, you will understand a lot about our economy and how we live.</p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/cover%20of%20leftovers.jpg" style="height: 347px; width: 260px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: left;" title="The cover of Left Overs, or Economy in the Kitchen, published in 1918. (Special Collections/Michigan State University Libraries)" /><p>Historian Helen Zoe Veit&nbsp;<a href="http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/10/an-economic-history-of-leftovers/409255/">wrote about this</a>&nbsp;for&nbsp;<em>The Atlantic.</em> As she tells&nbsp;<em>All Things Considered</em><em>&#39;s</em>&nbsp;Kelly McEvers, it all started when she spotted a book called<em>&nbsp;What To Do With The Cold Mutton.</em></p></div><p>&quot;It acknowledged that leftovers were something that people were dealing with, and, in fact, what that made me think was how rare it was to be acknowledged, precisely because it was so normal,&quot; says Veit.</p><p>As Veit writes, Americans&#39; enthusiasm for leftovers really started during World War I, with people hearing about starving kids in Europe. Then, in the Great Depression, reusing food because a necessity.</p><p>&quot;That was really a time when leftovers were held up as a special culinary category for the first time,&quot; says Veit. &quot;For one thing, it&#39;s something you had to do to stay within the family budget, but also as something that could be a realm for art and creativity &mdash; that clever housewives could use to show off their skills, in a sense.&quot;</p><p>The &quot;Golden Age of Leftovers,&quot; according to Veit, were the 1940s and &#39;50s. Some highlights: ham banana rolls with cheese sauce, leftover carrots pureed and then shaped back into carrots, which were an &quot;amazing example of leftovers elevated to art,&quot; Veit says.</p><p>But by the 1960s, Veit says, &quot;Americans were less desperate for calories than they had ever been. And for a lot of Americans, waste became a prerogative of financial security.&quot;</p><p>Eventually, she says, leftovers receded from the &quot;avant-garde of culinary trendiness and became this very second-rate culinary category &mdash; something that you might reheat for lunch, but that would never, for example, be served to guests.&quot;</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/A%20leftover%20recipe%20from%20the%20early%2020th%20century..jpeg" style="height: 466px; width: 350px;" title="A leftover recipe from the early 20th century. (Special Collections/Michigan State University)" /></div><p>But now, Veit argues, we&#39;re in a bit of a leftovers renaissance. &quot;Although Americans spend even less on food than they used to (just over 10 percent of our incomes on average), Americans are newly aware of other costs that go into food production.&quot; And, she adds, that means we are increasingly unwilling to toss edible food.</p><p>As for Veit&#39;s own leftovers, she perceives that pot of soup she made over the weekend and finds on Tuesday is &quot;awesome.&quot;</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/10/14/448427811/how-americas-leftovers-went-from-culinary-art-to-joke-to-renaissance?ft=nprml&amp;f=448427811" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Wed, 14 Oct 2015 16:09:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/economy/history-our-love-hate-love-relationship-leftovers-113368 Shadow city: How Chicago became the country's alley capital http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/shadow-city-how-chicago-became-countrys-alley-capital-113279 <p><p>When&rsquo;s the last time you paid attention to alleys?</p><p dir="ltr">Chances are, unless you&rsquo;re taking out garbage or trying to squeeze a U-Haul back there, you rarely think about the narrow lane that can cut through a block.</p><p>Here&rsquo;s at least one reason to take note: Chicago is the alley capital of the country, with more than 1,900 miles of them within its borders. (If you left Chicago by plane and flew southwest for that distance, you&rsquo;d end up just shy of Mexico City.)</p><p dir="ltr">Chicago architect Dan Weese would never take <em>his</em> alley for granted. To him, the alley is a many-splendored thing. Dan grew up in Lincoln Park, a North Side neighborhood with plenty of alleys, and he spent a lot of time playing in the alley behind his family&rsquo;s rowhouse. As he puts it, the alley was the &ldquo;rec room of the block.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;I remember on Saturday mornings, all the garage doors would open up, and people would be working on cars, or working on a woodworking project, or taking the garbage out, and you could have a relationship with them,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;It was very different than the people you would meet on your street.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">For Dan, alleys aren&rsquo;t just utilitarian service lanes. They&rsquo;re an important social gathering place &mdash; an informal parallel to the street out front. He&rsquo;s been thinking about them so much, that he sent us this question:</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align: center;"><em>How was it decided that Chicago should have alleys?</em></p><p dir="ltr" id="docs-internal-guid-81fba680-53c1-436f-eefe-33254711a1b9">Well, the answer to Dan&rsquo;s question got us more than we bargained for. It involves a story that spans centuries, and that same story not only explains Chicago&rsquo;s enormous network of alleys but also why some parts of the region are conspicuously alley-free.<a name="map"></a></p><div class="image-insert-image "><a href="http://interactive.wbez.org/curiouscity/alleys/" target="_blank"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/MAPEMBED1.png" style="height: 497px; width: 620px;" title="" /></a></div><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Hip to be square</span></p><p>What gives? Why all the alleys &mdash; and why the divide between Chicago communities with and without them?</p><p dir="ltr">According to Michael Martin, alley expert and professor of landscape architecture at Iowa State University, the &ldquo;why alleys&rdquo; question is easy to answer. You just have to go back to the late 1700s, decades before Chicago was founded. America was young, and had hardly touched any of its newest territories to the west.</p><p>&ldquo;There&#39;s one thing you can do without having to explore all of it,&rdquo; says Martin. &ldquo;Lay a grid over that giant swath of land, and divide it up in ways that you can then take that land and you can sell it, you can deed it over to people.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">The federal government&rsquo;s National Land Ordinance of 1785 imposed a massive grid over everything west of the Ohio River, dividing uncharted territory into square townships, each 36 square miles in size. Those townships were then sliced into progressively smaller sections, all the way down to the city block.&nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;As you think about finer and finer scales of design, what&#39;s happening is those squares are being infilled and infilled,&rdquo; says Martin. &ldquo;The big grid was always the framework within which people developed things, and that leads to towns having square blocks, and ultimately the alley inside of that block.&rdquo; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p dir="ltr">This expanding grid eventually hit the Chicago area.</p><div class="image-insert-image ">According to cartographer and Chicago history buff Dennis McClendon, alleys had become so commonplace in the American West that the Illinois General Assembly &ldquo;simply expected it to happen in Chicago.&rdquo;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/yjGmPNP.png" style="height: 443px; width: 620px;" title="Thompson's plat map of Chicago in 1830, showing alleys. (Source: Alfred Theodore Andreas, 1884. History of Chicago.)" /></div></div><p dir="ltr">The particulars came into play with the Illinois &amp; Michigan Canal. In the 1820s, the U.S. Congress had granted the state of Illinois enough land to dig a canal to connect Lake Michigan and the Illinois River. The state planned to finance the construction by establishing towns along the canal and selling the land to developers.</p><p>The I&amp;M Canal Commission hired surveyor James Thompson to lay out Chicago at the eastern end of the canal in 1830. To attract prospective land buyers, the General Assembly ordered that the new town of Chicago be &ldquo;subdivided into town lots, streets, and alleys, as in their best judgment will best promote the interest of the said canal fund.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Thompson was apparently a law-abiding man: His town plan for Chicago had 58 blocks, and every single one had an alley.</p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">The practical side </span></p><p>As it turns out, it&rsquo;s a good thing that Thompson planned Chicago with alleys. The city was a filthy, stinky, disease-ridden place in those days. Rear service lanes were essential for collecting trash, delivering coal, and stowing human waste &mdash; basically, keeping anything unpleasant away from living quarters.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;This was one of the reason why alleys have this dark and nasty reputation,&rdquo; says Martin. &ldquo;They were very much the grimy service part of daily life. It wasn&#39;t expected that this would be a well-maintained landscape; it was kind of a landscape of raw utility.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">In that same vein, McClendon theorizes that widespread horse ownership in the West translated into a lot of horse dung in the city, which would&rsquo;ve encouraged city planners to include alleys. &ldquo;The horse has the inflow and outflow problems,&rdquo; McClendon says. &ldquo;You have to bring in a lot of hay, you have to muck out a lot of manure. ... That&#39;s one of the reasons that you want to have a service lane that&rsquo;s segregated from where the womenfolk of the town are walking, or other places that you want to be more tidy and well-kept.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Riverside and the beginning of the end of Chicago-area alleys</span></p><p>For its boom years in the 1800s, Chicago was an alley monster; it planned new blocks with alleys, annexed towns with alleys, and added territory to its alley-riddled gridiron. But all grid things must come to an end, and soon communities started popping up <em>without</em> alleys.</p><p dir="ltr">The first of those communities arrived in 1869. That year, Frederick Law Olmsted &mdash; the father of landscape architecture (and who <a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/chicago/filmmore/ps_olmsted.html" target="_blank">later played a huge role in Chicago&rsquo;s landscape</a>) &mdash; planned the community of Riverside, which was situated on what was considered to be the far western outskirts of the Chicago region. It was the first planned suburb in America, and the earliest sign of divergence from Chicago&rsquo;s alley trend.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/riverside3.png" style="width: 620px;" title="Olmsted's Riverside community was intentionally designed without alleys. " /></div></div><p>Constance Guardi, from the Riverside Historical Commission, takes me on a walking tour of the town. As we stroll down winding, tree-lined streets, she points to old, beautiful houses set back behind lush, rolling lawns. Guardi explains that <a href="http://www.snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/pubs/riverside.htm" target="_blank">Olmsted wanted to create the town of the future</a>: a community that combined the peacefulness of the country with the luxury of the city.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;The plan was so that it would meander, rather than that hustle and bustle,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;This was to be relaxed. ... So that you would be able to really just have a quiet and lovely life.&rdquo;</p><p>She says Olmsted&rsquo;s master plan for Riverside didn&rsquo;t include alleys, because they just weren&rsquo;t necessary in the wide open spaces of the Illinois countryside. It so happens that Guardi is exactly the kind of person Olmsted had in mind when he planned Riverside. She grew up in a Chicago neighborhood with alleys, and she never cared for them.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;I&#39;ll tell you why I didn&#39;t like alleys,&rdquo; she says. &quot;They were dirty! ... Everybody&#39;s garbage was out there all the time.&rdquo;</p><p>For years after it was established, Riverside was an outlier. Other suburbs that popped up around it in the years to come &mdash; like Berwyn and Cicero &mdash; followed Chicago&rsquo;s lead with alleys and a grid. Look at a map of the area today, and <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/@41.8274292,-87.8140036,4839m/data=!3m1!1e3" target="_blank">Riverside is a squiggly green island in a sea of squares</a>.</p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Where the alley ends</span></p><p>By the turn of the century, though, more city planners jumped on Olmsted&rsquo;s bandwagon and began designing communities to be beautiful and clean &mdash; counterpoints to the density and industry they wanted to avoid.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;Instead of the old boring grid of the national survey and of the old town,&rdquo; Martin says, &ldquo;we&#39;re now going to do curving streets because they&#39;re modern and they&rsquo;re different.&rdquo;</p><p>As a sign of the times, a 1913 development competition in the suburbs of Chicago yielded almost no designs with alleys; instead, the proposals featured curvilinear streets, and blocks with interior courtyards. (The <a href="http://labs.libhub.org/dallaspl/portal/Being-a-disquisition-upon-the-origins-natural/r0AULVUK/" target="_blank">account is contained in a book</a> authored by alleys scholar Grady Clay.) In one proposal for the contest, <a href="https://chipublib.bibliocommons.com/item/show/310167081" target="_blank">Frank Lloyd Wright advocated for the abolition of alleys</a>.</p><p dir="ltr">Martin says the death of the alley came about from this shift in urban planning principles, but other factors contributed, too, including improvements in sanitation technology.</p><p>&ldquo;Once you have systems like sanitary sewers or garbage collection that can be done in an efficient way, you don&#39;t really have to have an alley,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;So we decided that the street was capable of handling all that stuff.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Then, the automobile came along. In 1920 there were about 8 million car owners in the country; by the end of the decade that number jumped to 23 million. Widespread auto ownership meant there were fewer stables and less horse poop in the city. More importantly, the automobile increased the mobility of working Americans, allowing people to live way out in the sparse suburbs, where the house lots were spacious and streets didn&rsquo;t have to conform to a dense city grid.</p><p>&ldquo;Now it becomes possible to build cities at lower densities, [with] bigger lawns, and bigger landholdings for each house,&rdquo; says McClendon. &ldquo;And that allows you to have a side garage or a side driveway. You no longer have to have the vehicle access through this service lane in the rear.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/4suburballeys.png" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="As you move further away from the city, alleys start falling away. " /></div><p dir="ltr">The move away from alleys in the early 20th century &mdash; combined with <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/gulp-how-chicago-gobbled-its-neighbors-109583" target="_blank">the end of Chicago&rsquo;s growth via annexation</a> &mdash; solidified the divide between alley places and non-alley places in the Chicago region. While new suburban towns and outlying communities forged bravely into an alley-free world, Chicago&rsquo;s historic core and the older suburbs were stuck with their alleys.</p><p>You can see the effects today. Within the Chicago city limits, 90 percent of residential blocks have alleys. But as you move from the city center, alleys begin to fall away. Not immediately, mind you. Suburbs like <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Oak+Park,+IL/@41.883979,-87.7844989,468m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880e34ba3f1db787:0xdf588d7dd5d4aea8!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Oak Park</a>, <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Evanston,+IL/@42.0309362,-87.6892455,409m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880fcffd34e80a77:0x6f21a10d05c0671a!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Evanston</a>, and <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Blue+Island,+IL/@41.6589961,-87.6852451,348m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880e235fa95f5f05:0xff39e83b04f67cb4!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Blue Island</a> are chock-full of alleys, but in suburban communities like <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Naperville,+IL/@41.7539285,-88.1657724,1137m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880e5761e216cd07:0x87df9c2c7f203052!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Naperville</a> and <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/Tinley+Park,+IL/@41.5707306,-87.7919136,728m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x880e158c05a8f865:0xeeefdc310816d898!6m1!1e1" target="_blank">Tinley Park</a>, alleys are much harder to find.</p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:24px;">Repurposing a relic</span></p><p>The role of Chicago&rsquo;s alleys has obviously changed; even though the city doesn&rsquo;t need alleys for the same reasons it did back in the 1800s, they&rsquo;re still essential parts of the city environment. Today, residents put recycling back there instead of piles of horse dung. And, utilities deliver phone service and electrical power through alleys rather than coal.</p><p dir="ltr">Plus, after centuries of building up around them, alleys are pretty hard to get rid of. A few American cities have instituted &ldquo;alley vacation&rdquo; programs. They&rsquo;re not so fun as they sound: The programs basically involve vacating the alley as a public service lane. For the program to work, however, every alley-abutting homeowner has to agree to extend their property line into the middle of the alley. Not many cities have followed through with the administrative nightmare.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/green%20alley.jpg" style="height: 414px; width: 620px;" title="A Chicago alley retrofitted with permeable pavers that prevent flooding and allow water to seep into the soil. (Flickr/Center for Neighborhood Technology)" /></div><p>Instead of eliminating them, Chicago is reimagining its alleys. In 2006, Chicago became one of the first cities in the country to conduct a <a href="http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/cdot/provdrs/street/svcs/green_alleys.html" target="_blank">&ldquo;green alley&rdquo; program</a>, resurfacing alleys to prevent runoff and decrease solar heat absorption. In the last several years, the Chicago Loop Association has been experimenting with alleys as social spaces, <a href="http://loopchicago.com/ACTIVATE" target="_blank">using them to host pop-up art events</a>.</p><p dir="ltr">Martin says Chicago&rsquo;s current approach holds promise for the future, and many contemporary urban planners and architects agree. The <a href="https://www.cnu.org/" target="_blank">New Urbanist school of thought</a> considers them to be both useful infrastructure and an important part of the cultural landscape.</p><p>&ldquo;Now you see people designing and building things where the alley is actually a functioning social space, a gathering space, where the neighbors can actually connect with each other in their own somewhat intimate urban narrow space instead of on the street,&rdquo; says Martin. &ldquo;So you have a two-sided situation in these neighborhoods, and I think that&#39;s a very positive development.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/dan%20weese%20%2801%29.jpg" style="float: left; height: 240px; width: 320px;" title="Questioner Dan Weese" /><span style="font-size:24px;">More about our questioner </span></p><p>&ldquo;My curiosity about the alleys came about because it&#39;s part of the landscape and it&#39;s one of these things that you don&#39;t really think about,&rdquo; says Dan Weese. &ldquo;It&#39;s in the background, but it actually forms a really important part [of the city].&quot;</p><p dir="ltr">As for any takeaways from our reporting? He says it&rsquo;s especially interesting that the alley hasn&rsquo;t become entirely irrelevant.</p><p>&ldquo;There was this structure that apparently came about because the folks in the canal commission thought it was a good idea to put in alleys, and then human behavior adapts to that and morphs it,&rdquo; he says.</p><p dir="ltr">Architecture happens to run in Dan&rsquo;s veins. His uncle is none other than renowned architect Harry Weese. (Curious City profiled one of Harry Weese&rsquo;s buildings, the <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/real-estate-and-religion-tale-seventeenth-church-christ-scientist-110980" target="_blank">Seventeenth Church of Christ, Scientist.</a>) Most of Dan&rsquo;s cousins are architects or designers and his parents founded an award-winning architecture firm &mdash; <a href="http://www.wlwltd.com/" target="_blank">a firm that he now works for</a>.</p><p>When he was a kid, Dan played kick-the-can and raced go-carts in the alley behind his house. He also broke a lot of stuff back there.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;You could do more destructive, less socially acceptable things in the alley,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;It was just a little more rough and ready, and you could kind of let your hair down a little bit.&rdquo;</p><p>Now 50 years old, Dan lives with his wife and three children, just three blocks from the rowhouse he grew up in. Unfortunately the couple lives in a highrise, and the alley isn&rsquo;t nearly as good for playing as the one he remembers.</p><p>That is, Dan&rsquo;s all grown up, and he prefers nerding out about alleys and their history, rather than destroying things in them.</p><p><span style="font-size:20px;"><a name="data"></a>Download our data</span></p><p>Want to make your own alley map? <a href="https://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-assets/maps/downloads/chicago_alleys.zip" target="_blank">Click here to download the data</a>.</p><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><em>Steven Jackson is an independent producer living in Chicago. Follow him on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/_sbjackson" target="_blank">@_sbjackson</a>.&nbsp; </em></p><h2 class="ProfileHeaderCard-screenname u-inlineBlock u-dir" dir="ltr">&nbsp;</h2><p dir="ltr">&nbsp;</p></p> Sat, 10 Oct 2015 16:55:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/shadow-city-how-chicago-became-countrys-alley-capital-113279 Restored instruments from concentration camps give rise to 'Violins of Hope' http://www.wbez.org/programs/here-and-now/2015-10-02/restored-instruments-concentration-camps-give-rise-violins-hope <p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Amnon Weinstein in his Tel Aviv shop (Debra Yasinow via WCPN).jpg" style="float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; height: 213px; width: 320px;" title="Amnon Weinstein in his Tel Aviv shop. (Debra Yasinow via WCPN)" /></div></div><p style="text-align: justify;">A collection of stringed instruments, largely silent for seven decades, is giving voice to the horrors of the Holocaust.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The &ldquo;Violins of Hope&rdquo; were once owned by the inmates of Nazi concentration camps and are now part of a three-month&nbsp;<a href="http://www.violinsofhopecle.org/" target="_blank">exhibit</a>&nbsp;that opens today in Cleveland.&nbsp;David C. Barnett&nbsp;from&nbsp;<em>Here &amp;&nbsp;Now</em>&nbsp;contributor WCPN has the story behind the violins.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="340" scrolling="no" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/tH7tm_opFks?rel=0" width="540"></iframe></p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://hereandnow.wbur.org/2015/10/02/violins-concentrations-camps" target="_blank"><em>via Here &amp; Now</em></a></p></p> Fri, 02 Oct 2015 15:36:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/here-and-now/2015-10-02/restored-instruments-concentration-camps-give-rise-violins-hope Rare film is glimpse of a distant America http://www.wbez.org/news/rare-film-glimpse-distant-america-113163 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/daughterofdawn.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res442318236" previewtitle="From The Daughter of Dawn"><div><p style="text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/BIedxxNrLC4?rel=0" width="420"></iframe></p><p>For decades,&nbsp;<em>The Daughter of Dawn</em>&nbsp;was a &quot;lost film&quot; &ndash; a buried American treasure. The 1920 multi-reel, silent movie was rediscovered and restored a few years ago.</p></div></div><p>Only recently has the movie become more widely available. You can watch it on Netflix. You can also see some representative clips and a&nbsp;<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Hhb9QXxcCM" target="_blank">travelogue piece</a>&nbsp;on YouTube. And in December the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.okhistory.org/research/daughterofdawn" target="_blank">Oklahoma Historical Society</a>&nbsp;plans to issue DVD and Blu-ray versions.</p><p><em>The Daughter of Dawn</em>&nbsp;is more than just another Friday night flick. It is a cinematic wormhole into America&#39;s past.</p><p>&quot;The rediscovery of&nbsp;<em>The Daughter of Dawn</em>&nbsp;is a great historical find,&quot; Jeffrey M. Moore of the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.okpop.org/" target="_blank">Oklahoma Museum of Popular Culture</a>&nbsp;tells NPR. &quot;Not only is it significant because so few independent films from the silent era survived but it captures a time period often romanticized in a very real and authentic way. The imagery from American-Indian culture on the southern plains is for the most part presented unfiltered by the non-Indian filmmakers.&quot;</p><p>In the movie, Moore says, &quot;The viewer gets to see Kiowas and Comanches wearing their traditional clothing without the help of Hollywood wardrobe departments. Besides the scenes on horseback and hunting buffalo, there are scenes of traditional dances being performed that would have been forbidden by the federal government if not for the fact that they were part of the film.&quot;</p><p style="text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/emSPu6VoJjE?rel=0" width="420"></iframe></p><p>And the background landscape of the Wichita Mountains, he adds, &quot;gives an environmental purity lost when later films portraying Plains tribes would be filmed in locations like Monument Valley.&quot;</p><p>The Oklahoma Historical Society commissioned Comanche composer David A. Yeagley to write a musical score for the film.</p><p><strong>Past Meets Future</strong></p><p><img alt="From The Daughter of Dawn" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/21/image_sq-a9c1da1676db0391b356eebdb26746b26fac6ece-s800-c85.jpg" style="text-align: center; height: 320px; width: 320px; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="From The Daughter of Dawn (Courtesy of Oklahoma Historical Society)" /></p><p>The 80-minute movie is a melodramatic tale of love among Native Americans, featuring some 300 Kiowas and Comanches in all sorts of acting roles.</p><p>You can find a few old newspaper ads for showings of the movie, such as a three-night engagement in Joplin, Mo. in the spring of 1921 that included a half-dozen Native American actors appearing in real life.</p><p>The film&#39;s setting &mdash; a lovely and hauntingly unspoiled stretch of landscape &mdash; represents a national geographic crossroads. &quot;Four types of habitat could be found in the Wichita Mountains: rocklands, aquatic, mixed grass prairie, and cross-timbers,&quot; writes Douglas Brinkley in&nbsp;<em>The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America.</em>&nbsp;&quot;It was said by western frontiersmen that the ancestral Wichitas &ndash; this series of rock prominences &ndash; was where the East met the West at the vertex of the Great Plains.&quot;</p><p>And&nbsp;<em>The Daughter of Dawn</em>&nbsp;represents a crossroads of perception. Seeing the film, you do get the feeling that the black-and-white, silent movie &ndash; replete with bison herds, village scenes, ritualistic dancing and derring-do &ndash; takes us back to the early 20th century and then catapults us back even farther than that. A time when Hollywoodish sensibilities were just beginning to reshape historical America &mdash; a time when real met reel.</p><p><em>The Library of Congress lists&nbsp;The Daughter of Dawn&nbsp;in the&nbsp;<a href="https://www.loc.gov/programs/national-film-preservation-board/film-registry/" target="_blank">National Film Registry</a>, a collection of culturally valuable movies.</em></p><p><em>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/npr-history-dept/2015/10/02/442317667/rare-film-is-glimpse-of-a-distant-america?ft=nprml&amp;f=442317667" target="_blank"> via NPR&#39;s History Dept.</a></em></p></p> Fri, 02 Oct 2015 14:01:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/rare-film-glimpse-distant-america-113163 Henry Dumas wrote about black people killed by cops. Then he was killed by a cop. http://www.wbez.org/news/henry-dumas-wrote-about-black-people-killed-cops-then-he-was-killed-cop-113143 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/HenryDumas.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>&quot;A young black man, Henry Dumas, went through a turnstile at a New York City subway station,&quot; reads an invitation by Toni Morrison for a posthumous book-launch party she threw for Dumas in 1974, six years after he died. &quot;A transit cop&quot; &mdash; who was white &mdash; &quot;shot him in the chest and killed him. Circumstances surrounding his death remain unclear. Before that happened, however, he had written some of the most beautiful, moving and profound poetry and fiction that I have ever in my life read.&quot;</p><p>In the nearly 50 years since Henry Dumas was killed, not much more has come to light about what happened on the night of his death. No witnesses came forward to testify. Police records were lost in a bureaucratic shuffle. Harlem, where Dumas moved as a young man after growing up in rural Arkansas, had&nbsp;<a href="https://www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/disasters/riots-harlem_1964.html">erupted</a>&nbsp;in large-scale protests over the police killings of black and brown men several times before the writer was killed. But Dumas&#39; death hardly made the news. With so little information to draw from, it&#39;s as if the last pages of his life were torn out.</p><p>Dumas&#39; final scene echoed a theme he turned to again and again in his writing: violent confrontations between white men and black men. The work he left behind &mdash; short stories that range from hard realism to science fiction, an almost finished novel, volumes of poetry, and even a few accompaniments to the work of the mystical jazz legend Sun Ra &mdash; contains bitingly sharp depictions of racial tension in America that, in an almost unbelievably eerie way, speak to his own fate.</p><p>It is, of course, a fate that many black men and women had and would suffer under dubious circumstances &mdash; from&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/harlem-riots-1943-echo-today-article-1.2216788">Robert Bandy</a>&nbsp;in 1935,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.vice.com/read/race-riots-then-and-now-501">James Powell</a>&nbsp;in 1964, 10-year-old&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/17/nyregion/fired-at-queens-boy-fatal-1973-police-shot-still-reverberates.html">Clifford Glover</a>&nbsp;in 1973, and&nbsp;<a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1999-09-12/news/9909120226_1_officers-lawyer-chicago-police-supt-joseph-roddy">LaTanya Haggerty</a>&nbsp;in 1999 to the more recent deaths of Michael Brown,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/crime/article15728675.html">Janisha Fonville</a>, Eric Garner,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2015/01/tanisha_anderson_was_restraine.html">Tanisha Anderson</a>&nbsp;and Freddie Gray, to name only a few.</p><p>&quot;His work and, in fact, his death, investigated and illustrated the ways in which black lives were at best peripheral to most white people &mdash; especially those running and policing the country,&quot; says James Smethurst, a University of Massachusetts, Amherst professor who has written extensively about 1960s and &#39;70s black writers.</p><p>Much of Dumas&#39; writing is considered to be a part of the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/blackarts/historical.htm">Black Arts Movement</a>&nbsp;&mdash; the artistic manifestation of the Black Power struggle of the 1960s &mdash; an effort that Smethurst believes has a lot of resonance with the Black Lives Matter movement. While interest in Dumas has increased somewhat in recent years, he says, &quot;We still have a long way to go before he gets the sort of attention he deserves.&quot;</p><p><strong>&#39;The People Get Tired Of Dying&#39;</strong></p><p>One of the only known accounts of the night Dumas was killed comes from an obituary in&nbsp;<em>The Amsterdam News</em>,&nbsp;a black-owned newspaper in New York City that was founded in 1909. &quot;Police said Dumas and an unidentified man were scuffling in the subway when the officer walked up to them and attempted to stop the fracas,&quot; the obit reads. &quot;Police said Dumas, resentful at the interference, slashed the officer who shot and killed him.&quot;</p><p>Without the benefit of photographic evidence or firsthand witnesses to accompany the official police report, it is impossible to know the full story of what happened that night. It&#39;s also impossible to take in Dumas&#39; story without acknowledging that the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/07/samuel-dubose-cops-corroberating-unarmed-black-death">track record of believability</a>, when it comes to official accounts of black deaths at the hands of law enforcement,&nbsp;<a href="http://kxan.com/2014/08/22/family-of-woman-shot-killed-by-bastrop-county-sheriffs-deputy-seeks-damages/">isn&#39;t a clean one</a>.</p><p>Dumas wrote stories that echo cases like that of Tamir Rice, a 12-year-old boy in Cleveland who was killed&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-30220700">seconds after</a>&nbsp;a police vehicle pulled up to where he was playing. &quot;When a Negro boy is shot and killed by policemen who do not check the situation before pulling their guns, the people get angry. It is a simple law of nature. ... The people get tired of dying,&quot; says one of Dumas&#39; characters in a short story called &quot;Riot or Revolt.&quot;</p><p>Published most recently in a 2003 collection of Dumas&#39; work called&nbsp;<a href="http://www.amazon.com/Echo-Tree-Collected-Fiction-Movement/dp/1566891493">Echo Tree</a>, that story follows a young black man named Harold through the aftermath of violent public protest across Harlem:</p><blockquote><div><p><em>&quot;The police barricades squatted on the sidewalk surrounding each place where mobs had struck.</em></p><p><em>&quot;Harold stood on the ramp in the middle of Seventh Avenue and 125th Street and surveyed the area which the night before had swarmed with police and angry Harlemites. A youth had been slain by the police in Brooklyn.&quot;</em></p></div></blockquote><div id="res437321514"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="A view of the National Memorial African Bookstore in Harlem circa 1970." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/03/national-bookstore-getty_custom-263741acaf9cdad5decfc88cff572694dce03c46-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 397px; width: 600px;" title="A view of the National Memorial African Bookstore in Harlem circa 1970. (Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images)" /></div></div><p>Those who have studied Dumas&#39; life and work believe the fictional LeMoor Brothers&#39; Bookstore in that story was modeled on the real National Memorial African Bookstore, which stood a short walk from the 135th Street subway station where Dumas was killed. Owned by Lewis Michaux, a bookseller and black civil rights leader who encouraged his neighbors to read the books he stocked on African history, culture and philosophy even if they couldn&#39;t afford to buy them, the store&nbsp;<a href="https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/vaunda-micheaux-nelson/no-crystal-stair/">attracted</a>&nbsp;figures like Malcolm X, Langston Hughes and Muhammad Ali.</p><p>Not unlike Dumas&#39; LeMoor, Michaux had a lot to say about black Americans&#39; struggle for power. &quot;We&#39;ve been neglected for three hundred years,&quot; <a href="http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1966/09/03/the-professor-4">he</a><a href="http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1966/09/03/the-professor-4">&nbsp;told</a><a href="http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1966/09/03/the-professor-4">&nbsp;a<em> New Yorker</em>&nbsp;reporter in 1966</a>. &quot;As much as I hate to see what&#39;s going to happen, I believe that when the Negro knocks this time and nobody open the door, he&#39;s just going to knock it right down.&quot;</p><p>In &quot;Riot or Revolt,&quot; city officials stop in to speak to the owners of LeMoor Brothers&#39; Bookstore, which had been left untouched by the looters who ravaged nearly every other store on the street. The officers want to know what made his shop so exceptional, but its owner, Micheval LeMoor, takes issue with the fact that city officials seemed to visit Harlem only when its frustrated residents reached a breaking point:</p><blockquote><div><p><em>&quot;You want to come visit here and get the notions about things being better, while right now some disrespectful guardian of the citizens beats a black man&#39;s head in. It doesn&#39;t matter if he&#39;s guilty or not anymore. Your honor, what you are facing is the full anger of a man who has been under attack for years. Unless you call off the attackers, be they merchants, disrespectful policemen, or the American majority, then the black minority is going to tear your house down.&quot;</em></p></div></blockquote><p>While &quot;Riot or Revolt&quot; may have been closely inspired by actual people if not actual events, other Dumas stories are imaginative forays into allegorical fables and otherworldly realms. Dumas&#39; vast range captivated many of his fellow writers, before and after his death. The poet and civil rights activist&nbsp;<a href="http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/haki-madhubuti">Haki R. Madhubati</a>&nbsp;called him &quot;a poet of complex melodies,&quot; and Amiri Baraka called him an &quot;Afro-surreal expressionist&quot; who delivered &quot;a new blackness.&quot;</p><div id="res444198122"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Three of the published works of Dumas." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/28/dumas-books_custom-a24dcbd804e2efd2e6d60adc2472052f719f56b9-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 289px; width: 600px;" title="Three of the published works of Dumas. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" /></div><div><div><p>&quot;I was impressed with his boldness of language and his boldness of breadth,&quot; Maya Angelou said in a 1988 interview published in an issue of the&nbsp;<em>Black American Literature Forum</em>&nbsp;dedicated entirely to Dumas&#39; work. &quot;Dumas continued to set us up for the loneliness, aloneness, and desperation, sometimes even desolation. But he never leaves us there. With him as our guide, we&#39;re always brought through to a better place.&quot;</p></div></div></div><p><strong>&#39;Part Invitation, Part Consolation&#39;</strong></p><p>By the time Dumas died, just a few of his poems and short stories had been published in small literary journals, geared toward a black audience. Writers and critics who knew him say he would have followed the uphill trajectory of his friends &mdash; including Robert Pinsky and Baraka &mdash; had he lived.</p><p>&quot;I think he would&#39;ve been a lot more famous in some respects if he had been able to live and write for 50 more years,&quot; says Smethurst, the University of Massachusetts professor. &quot;What if Toni Morrison had died after she wrote&nbsp;<em>The Bluest Eye&nbsp;</em>and only had a few stories?&quot;</p><p>In fact, Morrison played a role in inspiring what Smethurst calls the &quot;cult&quot; of Dumas. She first encountered Dumas in the form of a slim collection published posthumously by Southern Illinois University, where he taught an experimental program during the last year of his life. Then an editor at Random House and the author of&nbsp;<em>The Bluest Eye</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Sula</em>,&nbsp;Morrison was struck by the circumstances of Dumas&#39; death and wanted to publish more of his writing.</p><p><img alt="Dumas, when he was a high school student in New York." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/03/dumas-teen_custom-90683d6bd20dbed852889b91760df7de33f10263-s200-c85.jpg" style="margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; height: 374px; width: 300px; float: right;" title="Dumas, when he was a high school student in New York. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" /></p><p>Random House had recently committed itself to publishing more minority writers. Through her position there, Morrison would shepherd through the work of several of the era&#39;s most notable black writers and activists, from Toni Cade Bambara and Gayle Jones to Angela Davis and Huey P. Newton.</p><div id="res437323230"><div><div><p>But she knew that generating attention for Dumas, a writer who was not only practically unknown but also deceased, would not be easy. To create hype for the collections she wanted to release &mdash; a book of poetry titled&nbsp;<em>Play Ebony Play Ivory</em>&nbsp;and a short story collection called&nbsp;Ark of Bones&nbsp;&mdash; Morrison organized a release event with a glamorous guest list comprising the most renowned black writers of the time.</p></div></div></div><p>&quot;He was thirty-three years old when he was killed,&quot; Morrison wrote in the announcement for the party, a note that was&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/12/magazine/the-radical-vision-of-toni-morrison.html&amp;assetType=nyt_now?&amp;assetType=nyt_now">described</a>&nbsp;as &quot;part invitation, part consolation&quot; in a recent&nbsp;<em>New York Times</em>&nbsp;profile of Morrison. &quot;But in those thirty-three years he had completed work the quality and quantity of which are almost never achieved in several lifetimes.&quot;</p><p><strong>&#39;Creative Writing Slave&#39;</strong></p><p>In 1934, Dumas was born to Appliance Porter, a 19-year-old housekeeper in Sweet Home, Ark., a small town just outside Little Rock. His father, Henry Dumas Sr., or &quot;Big Henry&quot; as he was called, was largely absent from the life of his son, and his mother worked long hours. With his parents often away, Dumas spent much of his time in the fields where his aunts and uncles picked cotton, milked cows and shared stories.</p><p>While his cousins were busy playing sports, Dumas&#39; family recalled to Dumas biographer Jeffrey B. Leak, he preferred to spend his time examining insects or developing skits in which he played all the roles. When Dumas was 10, he and his family followed the course taken by thousands of other black families during the first part of the 20th century by&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/05/books/review/Oshinsky-t.html?pagewanted=all&amp;_r=0">moving north</a>. Dumas brought with him to Harlem an intellectual curiosity that impressed his teachers at his integrated Manhattan high school.</p><div id="res437333283"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Dumas and his wife, Loretta Dumas (Ponton), on their wedding day." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/03/dumas-wedding_custom-4f5433a2c1f2996ce38b97100e8f654f52d11178-s200-c85.jpg" style="margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: left; height: 366px; width: 300px;" title="Dumas and his wife, Loretta Dumas Ponton, on their wedding day. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" /></div><div><div><p>It may have been there that Dumas&#39; individual struggles became part of a more complex struggle: one in which black people searched for belonging in spaces where they were neither warmly welcomed nor explicitly barred. It&#39;s unclear when he began to take up writing seriously, but his move to a more racially diverse environment may have had something to do with it. Beneath his senior photo in the 1953 High School of Commerce yearbook someone &mdash; perhaps even Dumas himself &mdash; chose to inscribe this description of him: &quot;Creative writing slave.&quot;</p></div></div></div><p>After a brief stint at the City University of New York that ended with what Leak notes might have been &quot;a crisis of confidence,&quot; Dumas joined the U.S. Air Force within a year of his high school graduation. Tours of Saudi Arabia and Mexico deepened his interest in sketching worlds that blurred black-and-white interpretations of race.</p><p>At the age of 21, Dumas returned to the U.S., in 1955, and married Loretta Ponton, a beautiful young secretary he had met by chance on a snowy evening on the street in New York just before enlisting. The daughter of a Baptist deacon, Loretta held strong Christian values and a traditional sense of familial responsibility. While Dumas shared her beliefs during the early years of their marriage, he would veer from them in coming years.</p><p>One of just a few black students at Rutgers University, where Dumas studied from 1958 to 1965 and where the couple&#39;s two sons were born, Dumas&#39; commitment to his writing, curiosities about the Nation of Islam, engagement with the civil rights movement, plus alcohol and drug use began to drive a wedge between him and Loretta.</p><p>He also had several affairs with white women. Lois Wright (nee Silber), with whom he had an affair that lasted three years, recalled in a letter to Dumas&#39; friend and fellow poet Jay Wright (whom she would later marry) that the two could only venture out to select spots in New York; the jazz clubs Dumas frequented weren&#39;t welcoming to Wright, and she resented Dumas&#39; friends for referring to her as &quot;the white chick.&quot;</p><p>&quot;For Dumas, crossing racial divides represented possibility and opportunity for both himself as a black man, but also from an imaginative standpoint,&quot; Leak, whose biography of Dumas,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.amazon.com/Visible-Man-Life-Henry-Dumas/dp/0820328707">Visible Man</a>, came out last year, said in an interview. &quot;I think he thought that if you can cross boundaries in the social realm, then you can cross other boundaries in the literary realm. In both spaces, he found it to be even more complicated than he had anticipated.&quot;</p><p>Dumas explores those complexities in &quot;Will The Circle Be Unbroken?,&quot; a short story in which three white musicians and critics want to enter a black jazz club, arguing they should be let in because they know a lot about the genre. The black patrons finally agree to let them in, but warn that use of an ancient, rare horn may be too intense for their &quot;uninitiated&quot; ears. The music &quot;vibrated the freedom of freedom&quot; for its black listeners, but when the set ends, consternation rises when the three white people are found dead. They had been slain by music that wasn&#39;t meant for them.</p><div id="res443129714"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="From left: Henry Dumas, William G. Davis and Eugene B. Redmond in 1967, during their tenure as teacher-counselors at the Experiment in Higher Education at Southern Illinois University. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/24/dumas-orange_custom-0e395d04cd38d945d99b93cdc8a25b20aeaee5b9-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 448px; width: 600px;" title="From left: Henry Dumas, William G. Davis and Eugene B. Redmond in 1967, during their tenure as teacher-counselors at the Experiment in Higher Education at Southern Illinois University. (Courtesy of Eugene B. Redmond)" /></div><div><p>For many, the story offers a look at some of the central questions of the civil rights movement: What did it mean to be black? How could black identity adapt to an integrated world? What racial boundaries should remain unbroken?</p></div></div><p>In an essay on the story for a 1988 issue of the&nbsp;<em>Black American Literary Forum</em>&nbsp;dedicated to Dumas&#39; work, an acquaintance of Dumas&#39; put it this way: &quot;Black people had a feeling of always being on stage for white folks.&quot; Dumas&#39; story on the jazz club held that the work of black artists should be guarded and protected, a notion that still resonates in a world where it&#39;s been said many times that&nbsp;<a href="http://www.buzzfeed.com/emaoconnor/rue-just-perfectly-defined-cultural-appropriation">black cultural products are valued while black lives are not</a>.</p><p>www.newyorker.com/magazine/1966/09/03/the-professor-4On no one, perhaps, has Dumas made a greater impression than Eugene Redmond. An&nbsp;<a href="http://eugenebredmond.com/home/">accomplished poet</a>&nbsp;in his own right, Redmond has spent the past four decades editing and promoting the work of Dumas, even though the two men knew one another for only just under a year. Redmond met Dumas when the older writer came to teach English at an experimental college at the University of Southern Illinois in Redmond&#39;s hometown of East St. Louis in 1967. &quot;We bonded quickly,&quot; Redmond told me in a phone interview from the house of Loretta, Dumas&#39; widow.</p><p>The 77-year-old has served for decades as the literary executor of Dumas&#39; estate and was staying with Loretta for an annual commemoration of Dumas&#39; life and work that he helps organize every year on the anniversary of the shooting. Bringing together Dumas&#39; friends and family over poetry readings and jazz performances, Redmond, a Pushcart Prize recipient and the author of 25 books of poetry, has carried the torch for Dumas alongside his own teaching and writing career.</p><p>&quot;Every time I stepped into a classroom after I met him, I had a turntable,&quot; said Redmond, who said he picked up on Dumas&#39; tradition of playing music 15 minutes before each of his classes began. &quot;Every class that I taught, I published the students in a spiral-bound or saddle-stitched booklet. I got that from him.&quot; Redmond fondly recalls eating raw honey and listening to jazz with Dumas, to whom he attributes his love of some of the era&#39;s greatest musicians, from Miles Davis to John Coltrane. &quot;At the time,&quot; Redmond said, &quot;he seemed to be at the farthest most forward point of what black expression, black culture, and black people were all about.&quot;</p><p>In his day-to-day life, Dumas insisted on making space for himself &mdash; and forcing others to acknowledge his right to exist. &quot;He would even walk around East St. Louis and other places, and ask, &#39;Do you see me? Feel my arm. I&#39;m here, ain&#39;t I?&#39;&quot; said Leak, who conducted many interviews with those close to Dumas for his book. &quot;His point was: We&#39;re not invisible. The idea is a direct corollary to Black Lives Matter, the idea that flesh and blood do matter, and we&#39;re going to insist on being seen and being heard.&quot;</p><p>Redmond hopes the Black Lives Matter movement will help introduce Dumas to a whole new audience and help bolster the foundation that the movement rests upon. &quot;You gotta have someplace to come from before you know where you&#39;re going,&quot; he says.</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/10/01/433229181/henry-dumas-wrote-about-black-people-killed-by-cops-then-he-was-killed-by-a-cop"><em>via NPR&#39;s Code Switch</em></a></p></p> Thu, 01 Oct 2015 13:18:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/henry-dumas-wrote-about-black-people-killed-cops-then-he-was-killed-cop-113143 Pope Francis inspires black Catholics, despite complicated church history on race http://www.wbez.org/news/pope-francis-inspires-black-catholics-despite-complicated-church-history-race-113040 <p><div id="res442518676"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Pope Francis talks with a group of children in the sanctuary of the Virgin of Charity of Cobre, in El Cobre, Cuba, Monday, Sept. 21, 2015." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/22/ap_900392557123-fca892f9ced92ed3068ee67f6db824e9a4c0ecfc-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 450px; width: 600px;" title="Pope Francis talks with a group of children in the sanctuary of the Virgin of Charity of Cobre, in El Cobre, Cuba, Monday, Sept. 21, 2015. (Tony Gentile/AP)" /></div><div><p>Every time Pope Francis washes the feet of prisoners, embraces an orphan, speaks of social justice and &quot;the least of these,&quot; it reflects the Catholic Church as I would like it to be, the church of the Scriptures. Pope Francis has not altered doctrine or dogma; yet words and deeds have their own kind of power. His U.S. itinerary includes stops at a Harlem school and a Philadelphia correctional facility. It&#39;s a visit that may bring me closer to a faith that has not always been so welcoming to black Catholics like me.</p></div></div><p>&quot;I think Pope Francis&#39; message is a challenging one for the kinds of Catholics we have here in America, who have bought into a kind of Evangelicalism which isn&#39;t Catholicism,&quot; says&nbsp;<a href="https://www.sas.upenn.edu/religious_studies/faculty/butler">Anthea Butler,</a>&nbsp;Associate Professor of Religion and Africana studies at the University of Pennsylvania. &quot;I think it rings true for black Catholics because of his focus on justice, poverty, and liberation.&quot;</p><p>It certainly rings true for someone like me who sees being Catholic as an essential part of being myself. When you are baptized with the name your late grandmother carried, Mary Cecelia, Catholic is with you before you learn the rosary or make your first Communion. But being&nbsp;black&nbsp;and Catholic &mdash; something I never thought much about in my early years &mdash; means inheriting a complicated legacy.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/8675971548_7872e01a16_z.jpg" style="height: 445px; width: 300px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: right;" title="Exterior of the Holy Angel Catholic Church on Chicago's South Side. It is the city's largest black Catholic church. There are more than 2,000 church members. The Church also had the largest black Catholic school in the nation, with over 1,300 students. (U.S. National Archives/John H.White)" /></p><p>In my home state of Maryland, which was colonized as a refuge for persecuted Catholics, the faith was locked in for many enslaved African-Americans, beginning in the 17th&nbsp;century, a custom that extended to other parts of the young country. &quot;Many enslaved Africans became Catholic if imported through New Orleans under French rule &#39;code noir,&#39;&quot; Butler explains, &quot;which required slaves purchased to be baptized in the Catholic Church within seven days of purchase.&quot;</p><p>For centuries, not only did the Catholic Church bless slaveholders, in some cases, it joined their ranks.&nbsp;<a href="https://www.udayton.edu/directory/artssciences/religiousstudies/moore_cecilia.php">Cecilia Moore</a>&nbsp;is an Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Dayton, a Catholic research university in Ohio. Moore, herself an African-American Catholic, has researched black Catholic history and has taught at Xavier University of Louisiana&#39;s Institute for Black Catholic Studies. She notes that religious orders like the Jesuits ignored church law on slavery, and held slaves themselves, who worked as servants and on the community&#39;s farms.</p><div id="res442554435"><div data-crop-type="">Despite&nbsp;<a href="http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/publications/in-supremo-apostolatus-apostolic-letter-condemning-the-slave-trade">Pope Gregory&#39;s 1839 condemnation of the slave trade,</a>&nbsp;Catholic loyalties in the Civil War often split along regional lines, with the archbishop of New York John Hughes supporting the Union and consulting with President Abraham Lincoln, while the Charleston, S.C., bishop Patrick Neeson Lynch, was sent by Jefferson Davis to meet with Pope Pius IX in a failed attempt to get him to recognize the Confederacy.</div><div data-crop-type="">&nbsp;</div><div data-crop-type="">To be sure, the church could also be a force for equality in America, from the work of Mother Katharine Drexel (now a saint) in funding and founding black Catholic schools and parishes in the late 19th&nbsp;and early 20th&nbsp;centuries, to the actions of North Carolina Bishop Vincent Waters to integrate schools and churches in 1953, a year before the Supreme Court&#39;s Brown v. Board of Education decision.</div><div data-crop-type="">&nbsp;</div><div data-crop-type="">That spirit of inclusion was not something the larger church always embraced, even on Sunday mornings. &quot;Segregation in the Catholic church was prevalent, especially during the Jim Crow era,&quot; says Butler. African-Americans were often forced to sit in separate sections of churches and barred from altar service or taking communion. &quot;We still have people who have living memory of the ways in which they were segregated in worship,&quot; says Moore. Still, many black religious and lay leaders never lost their faith or activism, with black church organizations offering support throughout the church&#39;s history in America.</div></div><p>Religion and politics, while never separate, became as tangled as they could be in Baltimore in the 1960s and 1970s &ndash; a time of turmoil and tension to spare. This is when the Church&#39;s complicated history with race became part of my own story. I remember the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/1984/08/27/obituaries/lawrence-cardinal-shehan-dies-retired-archbishop-of-baltimore.html">heroism of Lawrence Cardinal Shehan</a>, Archbishop of Baltimore &ndash; soft spoken and small in stature &ndash; who demonstrated at the March on Washington, ordered desegregation of schools in the archdiocese in the 1960s, and was jeered when he testified in favor of open housing legislation.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/AP_6409180103.jpg" style="float: left; height: 252px; width: 340px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="In his photo released by the Vatican, Pope Paul VI poses at the Vatican with American civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., during a private audience, Sept. 18, 1964. With the pontiff and King are Msgr. Paolo Marcinkus of Chicago, who acted as interpreter, and with King is his aide, Dr. Ralph Abernathy, right. (AP Photo/Vatican Photo)" /></p><p>But I also remember how segregation marred Catholic schools, and what that meant to my family in the 1950s and 1960s. My oldest brother passed rigorous entrance exams for Catholic high schools in Baltimore with flying colors. But he never got to attend; priests and school administrators explained that had my brother been white and non-Catholic, he would&#39;ve been accepted. With the persistence of my devout and active Catholic mother, who persevered through her hurt, he was accepted to a Catholic high school in Wilmington, Del., which was integrating. That meant a daily early train commute from Baltimore to Wilmington, about an hour one way; he never missed a day and graduated with high honors, second in the class.</p><div id="res442550096"><aside><blockquote><div><p><strong><em>&quot;We still have people who have living memory of the ways in which they were segregated in worship.&quot; -Cecilia Moore, Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Dayton</em></strong></p></div></blockquote></aside></div><p>Just a few years later, things had changed...somewhat. When I graduated from an all-black grade school, taught by the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.oblatesisters.com/history.html">Oblate Sisters of Providence</a>, a black order of nuns founded in Baltimore in 1829 to teach children who looked like me, I passed those tests, just as my brother had, and was allowed to enter an all-girls Catholic high school where I was in a definite minority.</p><p>I developed&nbsp;<a href="http://www.womensmediacenter.com/feature/entry/we-are-the-girls-from-seton-high">lasting friendships&nbsp;</a>and survived occasional clashes with white girls from other parts of the city as we worked through petty kid stuff as well as more serious racial resentments that threatened to trump carefully learned lessons of Catholic charity. I found refuge with the other newspaper geeks and Sister Mary Augustine who welcomed anyone willing to write or edit a story. In my senior year, I shared editor duties with a white classmate who is still a friend.</p><p><img alt="Writer Mary C. Curtis in her fourth grade school picture from St. Pius V school in Baltimore, Md." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/22/catholicschoolgirlpix_vert-142a1b95059a03d9c2bffd204ae226bc972319b0-s400-c85.jpg" style="float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; height: 300px; width: 225px;" title="Writer Mary C. Curtis in her fourth-grade school picture from St. Pius V school in Baltimore, Md. (Courtesy of Mary Curtis)" /></p><p>The teachers were often the bigger problem. The day I registered for classes, the nun in charge looked at my face, and pulled my mom and me aside halfway through the process. It never occurred to her that the Mary Cecelia whose test scores put her in honors courses could look like me. She explained that while I qualified for gifted classes, I might want to start in a lower group until I could handle more advanced work. After exchanging looks, my mother and I assured her I would be fine. That nun, who later would become my honors algebra teacher, remained bewildered by my success. &quot;Are other people in your family smart?&quot; she&#39;d ask me.</p><p>The Church has come a long way since my childhood, even before Pope Francis. In 2010, when the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.politicsdaily.com/2010/08/17/for-black-catholic-women-gathering-is-like-cpr-for-the-spirit/">National Gathering for Black Catholic Women</a>&nbsp;met in Charlotte, N.C, where I now live, hundreds of women traveled from across the country for fellowship dedicated to &quot;remaining Catholic while remaining authentically black,&quot; as one attendee put it. My sister &ndash; following my mother&#39;s example &mdash; was one of them. She worships at a predominantly black parish in Baltimore that was all-white in my childhood and changed with the neighborhood. Now, with a black pastor, the vibrant services incorporate soulful music and praise dance.</p><p>Worldwide, the black Catholic Church is changing, too. According to the&nbsp;<a href="http://nbccongress.org/black-catholics/worldwide-count-black-catholics-01.asp">National Black Catholic Congress</a>, Catholics of African descent represent almost 25 percent of the one billion Roman Catholics throughout the world in more than 59 countries.</p><p>At Cecilia Moore&#39;s predominantly black parish in Dayton, many of the younger parishioners are from Ghana, with others from Nigeria and Rwanda. &quot;We&#39;re getting older, and the young people of African descent tend to be immigrants and the children of immigrants,&quot; she says, noting that the number of white American Catholics has long been in decline. &quot;When we take a picture of the U.S. Catholic Church, it&#39;s going to be very black and brown,&quot; Moore explains, adding that the U.S. church is increasingly dependent on foreign-born priests &mdash; maybe from Africa, India, the Philippines or Ireland. &quot;America is kind of a mission again.&quot;</p><p>So, you could say Pope Francis is doing missionary work, recognizing that the church needs to embrace members of color to survive. Or maybe he&#39;s just getting back to basics. &quot;He has the common touch, that is the ability to relate to people, to be with people to enjoy their company, to listen to them,&quot; says Moore. &quot;It feels so relatable and relational; every time he does that he reminds all of us that the church is so much wider than what we think we know it is. ... He surprises us.&quot;</p><p>Pope Francis&#39; message has surprised me. He looks to the future of the church by sharing a message that harkens back to the small and inclusive world that once made me feel very much at home in church. Even from a distance, I will be listening.</p><p><em>Mary C. Curtis is a journalist in Charlotte, N.C. She has worked at the New York Times, the Baltimore Sun, the Charlotte Observer, as a national correspondent for Politics Daily and was a contributor to The Washington Post. Follow her on&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/mcurtisnc3">Twitter</a>.</em></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/09/22/442509427/pope-francis-inspires-black-catholics-despite-complicated-church-history-on-race?ft=nprml&amp;f=442509427"><em> via NPR&#39;s Code Switch</em></a></p></p> Wed, 23 Sep 2015 10:53:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/pope-francis-inspires-black-catholics-despite-complicated-church-history-race-113040 A new book recounts the forgotten history of autism http://www.wbez.org/news/science/new-book-recounts-forgotten-history-autism-113006 <p><p>In&nbsp;<u><a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/23/books/review/neurotribes-by-steve-silberman.html?_r=0">NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity</a>,</u> Silberman takes us back to Vienna before World War II, where he introduces us to a young doctor named&nbsp;Hans Asperger.</p><p>In the 1930s, Asperger was already studying what he believed to be a widespread condition among the children of his day &mdash; a mostly heritable condition composed of a whole spectrum of symptoms.</p><p>&ldquo;Asperger was an extremely visionary and humane clinician,&rdquo; Silberman says. &ldquo;His clinic was not just the sort of place where parents would bring their children for evaluation and a diagnosis, but it was also like a residential school.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Hans%20Asperger%20with%20patient.jpg" style="height: 338px; width: 600px; margin-top: 5px; margin-bottom: 5px;" title="Hans Asperger and children at the University of Vienna, 1930s. (Courtesy of Dr. Maria Asperger Felder)" /></div><p>Asperger and his colleagues lived with the children they treated. They held classes each day, like geometry or history. They had PE classes with music in the mornings. They designed an environment, Silberman says, that would &ldquo;both allow the clinicians to observe the children very closely, but also allow the children to become more comfortable with themselves and with each other. ...&nbsp;It was a very, very humane environment and way ahead of its time in that way.&rdquo;</p><p>More importantly, Asperger&rsquo;s ideas about autism were decades ahead of their time, Silberman says. Asperger and his colleagues conceived of autism as a lifelong condition, lasting from birth to death, requiring special forms of support from family, teachers and the community.</p><p>What Asperger described &quot;was mapped pretty closely to what we now call the &#39;autism spectrum,&#39;&quot; Silberman says.&nbsp;Some children, he observed, were unable to speak and might require individual support for the rest of their lives, while others would thrive in advanced classes in math and science.</p><p>The rise of Nazi Germany disrupted&nbsp;Asperger&rsquo;s work and changed the course of autism diagnosis and treatment for much of the rest of the 20th century.</p><p>By the late 1930s, when the Nazis annexed Austria to Germany, they had also started passing&nbsp;<a href="http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/feb/06/race.usa">eugenic laws</a>, which compelled doctors, nurses and clinicians to report disabled children to Berlin.</p><p>&ldquo;In fact, the Nazis eventually undertook a secret extermination program of disabled children and adults as part of their effort to purge the gene pool of hereditary forms of illness,&rdquo; Silberman explains. &ldquo;This program became the dry run for the Holocaust. [It]&nbsp;was where the Nazis developed methods of mass murder that they would eventually use on the Jews.&rdquo;</p><p>In addition, Jewish clinicians were forced to flee the country. One of them&nbsp;was George Frankl, Asperger&#39;s chief diagnostician. Frankl was rescued from the Holocaust by an American child psychiatrist named Leo Kanner. Frankl started working for Kanner in 1938.</p><p>Donald Triplett also arrived in Leo Kanner&#39;s world in 1938. Triplett is considered Leo Kanner&#39;s first autistic patient. But initially, Kanner didn&#39;t know what to do with him. &ldquo;He had seen some of these symptoms before in children &mdash; that he called pre-psychotic &mdash; but he basically wasn&#39;t able to make a diagnosis. So, he sent Donald Triplett to George Frankl for evaluation,&rdquo; Silberman says.</p><p>Having just spent 11 years working in Asperger&#39;s clinic, seeing scores of autistic children at all levels of ability, Frankl understood Triplett. In fact, Frankl evaluated Kanner&#39;s first three autistic patients.</p><p>Then, in 1943, a year before Asperger published the results of his own work, Kanner wrote the paper that made him the world&#39;s leading authority on autism.</p><p>&ldquo;The problem for autistic people and their families was that Kanner defined autism much more narrowly than Asperger had done,&rdquo; Silberman explains. &ldquo;For one thing, he called it &lsquo;early infantile autism,&rsquo; so it was definitely a condition of early infancy, not a lifelong condition.&rdquo;</p><p>What&rsquo;s more, Kanner eventually blamed parents for triggering autism in their children. &ldquo;The image of the &lsquo;refrigerator mother&rsquo; came from Kanner&#39;s work,&rdquo; Silberman says. &ldquo;Bruno Bettelheim sort of made a career out of it later, but it was really Kanner who thought up that horrible idea.&rdquo;&nbsp;<a href="http://www.pbs.org/pov/refrigeratormothers/fridge.php">&lsquo;Refrigerator mother&rsquo;</a>&nbsp;refers to the mothering of autistic children by cold, emotionally distant mothers, resulting in a dysfunctional mother-child relationship.</p><p>Because Kanner and his colleagues&nbsp;viewed the disorder largely in emotional and psychological terms, the recommended course of treatment for autism became institutionalization. By contrast, Asperger believed the disorder was genetic and therefore had to be adapted to, not cured.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/NeuroTribes-cover-300.jpg" style="margin-left: 5px; margin-right: 5px; float: right; height: 453px; width: 300px;" title="NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and The Future of Neurodiversity, cover (Penguin Publishing)" /></p><p>In addition, Asperger understood &lsquo;autistic intelligence,&rsquo; Silberman says &mdash; that is, the &ldquo;bold suggestion that autistic people have played an unappreciated role in the evolution of culture.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;Asperger always appreciated that autism was a condition that conveyed both profound disabilities and very special gifts,&rdquo; Silberman says. &ldquo;Kanner, on the other hand, interpreted even the gifts of his patients through the lens of psychopathology. He thought, for instance, that one of the kids in his clinic who could instantly identify 18 symphonies before he turned two, was just trying to impress his parents in a kind of desperate plea for their affection.&rdquo;</p><p>Silberman believes the world can and should adapt to meet the needs of autistic people, in the way we have done for people with physical disabilities.</p><p>&ldquo;We can make a cognitively accessible world by, say, presenting lessons and curricula in different formats for visual or audio learners,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;We can provide quiet spaces in schools so that kids who are facing a meltdown from sensory overloaded can go chill out. We can do autism-friendly performances on Broadway, which have already been a fantastic success &mdash; with less pyrotechnics and social stories beforehand so the kids don&rsquo;t get surprised.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;We know how to deal with disability,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;We just have to rise to the challenge, instead of thinking that we can make autism go away if we throw enough money at it.&rdquo;</p><p><em>This article is based on an&nbsp;<a href="http://sciencefriday.com/segment/09/04/2015/the-forgotten-history-of-autism.html">interview</a>&nbsp;that aired on PRI&#39;s&nbsp;<a href="http://sciencefriday.com/">Science Friday</a>&nbsp;with Ira Flatow.</em></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><em>&mdash; <a href="http://www.pri.org/stories/2015-09-20/new-book-recounts-forgotten-history-autism">via ScienceFriday</a></em></p></p> Mon, 21 Sep 2015 11:18:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/science/new-book-recounts-forgotten-history-autism-113006