WBEZ | Science http://www.wbez.org/news/science Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en With petcoke out in Chicago, Indiana groups worry it's heading their way http://www.wbez.org/news/petcoke-out-chicago-indiana-groups-worry-its-heading-their-way-111595 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/BP Petcoke.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Tom Shepherd was celebrating on Chicago&rsquo;s South Side Thursday but it had nothing to do with President Barack Obama&rsquo;s arrival to declare the historic Pullman area a National Monument.</p><p>Shepherd, president of the Southeast Environmental Council, was cautiously optimistic about the news that the area&rsquo;s ongoing petcoke problem is one step closer to being resolved.</p><p>&ldquo;Well, at this point, it&rsquo;s still kind of early in the game,&rdquo; Shepherd told WBEZ. &ldquo;We&rsquo;ve just been getting this information. It&rsquo;s been coming in pretty feverishly over the last couple of days. We&rsquo;ve heard from the city, we&rsquo;ve heard from the company.&rdquo;</p><p>On Thursday, the Koch Brothers-owned KCBX Terminals Inc. announced that it was shuttering its North Terminal on the Southeast side within the next five months.</p><p>That means it will no longer accept petcoke on that site but has no immediate plans for the property.</p><p>The company also announced that it will take steps to eliminate petcoke piles at its nearby South Terminal on Burley Avenue by June 2016, a deadline imposed by the City of Chicago.</p><p>Shepherd says the company will continue accepting petcoke from other nearby refineries so the issue is not dead.</p><p>&ldquo;The BP announcement is going to put a dent in their operations but it will still take product from two other refineries in the area. So, that operation is going to continue,&rdquo; Shepherd said. &ldquo;But it&rsquo;s still a big win.&rdquo;</p><p>But that win could eventually be Northwest Indiana&rsquo;s loss.</p><p>Kim Ferraro, lead attorney for the Hoosier Environmental Council, says she&rsquo;s worried all that petcoke could end up dumped in struggling cities such as Gary, Hammond and East Chicago.</p><p>&ldquo;We may see some effort to put petcoke on those sites. And certainly it&rsquo;s a concern for communities here who are already dealing with so much exposure to harmful pollution,&rdquo; Ferraro said.</p><p>All this comes a day after BP announced that it will stop shipping petcoke from its massive Whiting, Indiana, refinery to KCBX by this summer.</p><p>&ldquo;Based on a number of considerations, BP has made the business decision to store the majority of its petroleum coke produced by the Whiting Refinery at a facility outside of Illinois beginning in the second half of 2015. A final decision has not yet been made on where this material will be stored in the future,&rdquo; BP spokesman Scott Dean said in a statement. &ldquo;If necessary for business reasons, BP may consider using limited Illinois-based storage options on a short-term basis if those options are compliant with state and local regulations.&rdquo;</p><p>Earlier this week, the City of Chicago&rsquo;s Department of Public Health announced it would not give KCBX more time to comply with a two-year requirement to enclose coal and petroleum coke piles. &nbsp;KCBX wanted another 14 months.</p><p>But KCBX President Dave Severson says the company wants to stay in Chicago.</p><p>&ldquo;We remain committed to Chicago and we are going to work within the city&rsquo;s new rules to try to stay in business,&rdquo; Severson said in a written statement. &ldquo;We expect we&rsquo;ll have to make some adjustments to the services we provide our customers but we hope operating this way will allow us to remain in business and give us the time we need to determine whether we can proceed with the enclosure project.&rdquo;</p><p>It&rsquo;s been a long struggle for residents on the Southeast side who live in the shadow of the petcoke storage sites. In late August 2013, a huge dust-storm covered nearby homes and businesses with the ash-like substance, a byproduct in the refining of crude oil.</p><p>Residents have been concerned about the long-term health effects of breathing in petcoke dust.</p><p>Activists say even if KCBX covers its piles, petcoke can still become airborne and fall into the lake as it&rsquo;s transported via train or truck from Whiting, Indiana. &nbsp;</p><p>Meanwhile, the Illinois Manufacturers&rsquo; Association continues to defend the handling of petcoke.</p><p>&ldquo;Petcoke is a valuable commodity used in a wide range of manufacturing applications including cement, paint, steel and glass,&rdquo; Mark Denzler, vice president of the IMA, stated to WBEZ. &ldquo;It&rsquo;s extremely important to keep in mind that the United States Environmental Protection Agency does not classify petcoke as a hazardous substance and an August 2014 analysis found no traces of the material in local furnace filters. Elected officials need to focus on creating good jobs and economic development.&rdquo;</p></p> Fri, 20 Feb 2015 08:26:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/petcoke-out-chicago-indiana-groups-worry-its-heading-their-way-111595 Illinois lawmakers work to close vaccination loopholes http://www.wbez.org/news/illinois-lawmakers-work-close-vaccination-loopholes-111577 <p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/kirilpipo_5.jpg" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="(Flickr/kirilpipo)" /></p><p>Illinois pediatricians and health officials think it&rsquo;s too easy to avoid vaccinations in the state. According to federal figures, Illinois has the 5th highest level of non-medical vaccination exemptions in the nation.</p><p>In response, four state representatives have introduced a resolution urging the Illinois Department of Public Health to tighten the exemption process. Parents previously could obtain a religious exemption by simply submitting a signed statement about their personal objections. But a new proposal would require those parents to first consult with a primary care provider about the importance of vaccines.</p><p>The resolution (HR0144) was introduced by State Representatives Michael Zalewski (D-21), Michael McAuliffe (R-20), Robyn Gabel (D-18) and Greg Harris (D-13) and endorsed by the Illinois Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics (ICAAP) and EverThrive Illinois, formerly known as the Illinois Maternal and Child Health Coalition. The two groups are part of the Illinois Immunization Advisory Committee and have been working for more than a year on a proposal to address the exemption process.</p><p>The move to bolster vaccinations in the state came as more than a dozen measles case were confirmed by Illinois officials. All but one are associated with a Kindercare Center in Palatine.</p><p>According to state figures, Illinois&rsquo; non-medical vaccine exemptions doubled in four years, from 5,629 in 2009 to 13,527 in 2013. This has led pediatricians to worry about the loss of what&rsquo;s called herd immunity&mdash;an environment that prevents a disease from spreading.</p><p>&ldquo;In order for a community to have herd immunity, you really need to maintain vaccination rates around 95 percent,&rdquo; said Dr. Tina Tan, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Lurie Children&rsquo;s Hospital in Chicago. &ldquo;Otherwise, what happens is, that when the rates drop below 95 percent, you can have the reemergence or reappearance of these preventable diseases occurring in individuals that are either not vaccinated or are too young to be vaccinated.&rdquo;</p><p><em><a href="http://twitter.com/monicaeng" target="_blank">Monica Eng</a> is a WBEZ producer and co-host of the <a href="http://wbez.org/podcasts">Chewing The Fat</a> podcast.</em></p></p> Tue, 17 Feb 2015 20:07:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/illinois-lawmakers-work-close-vaccination-loopholes-111577 With quakes spiking, oil industry is under the microscope in Oklahoma http://www.wbez.org/news/science/quakes-spiking-oil-industry-under-microscope-oklahoma-111572 <p><p>Out on Oklahoma&#39;s flat prairie, Medford, population about 900, is the kind of place where people give directions from the four-way stop in the middle of town.</p><p>It seems pretty sedate, but it&#39;s not. &quot;We are shaking all the time,&quot; says Dea Mandevill, the city manager. &quot;All the time.&quot;</p><p>The afternoon I stopped by, Mandevill says two quakes had already rumbled through Medford.</p><p>&quot;Light day,&quot; she laughs. But, she adds, &quot;the day&#39;s not over yet; we still have several more hours.&quot;</p><p>Mandevill may be laughing it off, but Austin Holland, the state seismologist, isn&#39;t.</p><p>&quot;I certainly regret starting smoking again, but there are some days when nicotine and coffee are about what get me through the day,&quot; he says. &quot;As far as we know, this has never happened before.&quot;</p><p>Holland says that Oklahoma used to have, on average, one or two perceptible earthquakes a year. Now the state is averaging two or three a day. There were more magnitude 3 or greater tremors here last year than anywhere else in the continental United States, and the unprecedented spike in earthquakes has intensified.</p><p>Holland suspects that modern oil production techniques are triggering the jump in quakes. A few years back, companies figured out how to drill sideways through layers of shale, then break, or frack, the rock, releasing a torrent of oil.</p><p>The combination of fracking and horizontal drilling sparked a massive oil boom here, but the technique produces much more water than oil &mdash; tens of billions of gallons of very salty, toxic water. The only economical way to dispose of it, Holland says, is to force it deep into the earth.</p><p>&quot;That pressure acts as a lubricant,&quot; he says. &quot;It&#39;s not actually the water itself lubricating, but the pressure, and the best way to think about that is an air hockey table,&quot; with huge slabs of rock as the pucks.</p><p>Holland says injecting water near faults can deliver just enough lubricating pressure to set them in motion. It&#39;s called &quot;induced seismicity.&quot;</p><p>The Prague earthquake hit the state four years ago. At magnitude 5.6, it was the strongest ever recorded in Oklahoma.</p><p>&quot;It was coming from everywhere &mdash; I mean the walls, the roof,&quot; says Ryan Ladra, standing in his parents&#39; battered house. &quot;When it hit, it hit so violent and hard that we thought the house was coming down on top of us.&quot;</p><p>The Ladras&#39; stone chimney collapsed, striking his mom, Sandra, who is suing companies that ran nearby wastewater injection wells.</p><p>But Kim Hatfield of the Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association says he&#39;s not convinced there&#39;s a connection. He says oil companies have been pumping brine down wastewater injection wells for decades. More than 3,200 of the wells dot the state.</p><p>&quot;You&#39;re going to find out that all tornadoes are close to injection wells as well,&quot; he says. &quot;If a meteor strikes the state of Oklahoma, I&#39;m going to guarantee it&#39;s going to be close to an injection well.&quot;</p><p>Still, evidence linking injection wells to earthquakes is building. And though oil industry wields enormous clout in Oklahoma, the agency regulating it is ramping up.</p><p>Matt Skinner, public information manager for the Oklahoma Corporation Commission, says that the agency has never denied a permit for a disposal well, but it has recently closed a few bad ones and is scrutinizing applications for new wells like never before.</p><p>&quot;When we say we&#39;re doing everything we can, what we&#39;re really saying is, we&#39;re doing everything we know, today,&quot; Skinner says. &quot;Tomorrow, we may know something more.&quot;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/dea_medford-61167ff8f4cededddab27c9a2a9e68834208ce8b-s400-c85.jpg" style="float: left; height: 209px; width: 280px;" title="Dea Mandevill, city manager of Medford, Okla., says the earthquakes are worth all the benefits the oil boom has brought: a new park, police cars, construction equipment and ambulances. (Frank Morris/KCUR)" />Mandevill says she worries about an earthquake rupturing the big natural gas pipeline here &mdash; but then beams while looking out over the new park the city recently built with oil boom tax money.</p><p>&quot;We have a new swimming pool, splash pad, new sidewalks and a new basketball/tennis court,&quot; she says.</p><p>It illustrates the complex relationship between oil and earthquakes in Oklahoma.</p><p>&quot;You put up with a few things falling off your walls, a few nights being woken up in the middle of the night with the shakes,&quot; she says. &quot;Overall it&#39;s been good. I&#39;ll take the earthquakes for all the benefits that Medford&#39;s had so far.&quot;</p><p>But those benefits are starting to sag a little. With oil prices low, companies are laying off workers. On the bright side, less oil coming out of the ground means less wastewater going back down deep into it, and just possibly, fewer earthquakes.</p></p> Tue, 17 Feb 2015 08:36:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/science/quakes-spiking-oil-industry-under-microscope-oklahoma-111572 As rules get sorted out, drones may transform agriculture industry http://www.wbez.org/news/rules-get-sorted-out-drones-may-transform-agriculture-industry-111567 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/img_3297_wide-0eaf22bd10778693f1839956d8a491c74b257934-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>On a breezy morning in rural Weld County, Colo., Jimmy Underhill quickly assembles a black and orange drone with four spinning rotors. We&#39;re right next to a corn field, littered with stalks left over from last year&#39;s harvest.</p><p>&quot;This one just flies itself. It&#39;s fully autonomous,&quot; Underhill says.</p><p>Underhill is a drone technician with <a href="http://agribotix.com/">Agribotix, a Colorado-based drone start</a> up that sees farmers as its most promising market. Today he&#39;s training his fellow employees how to work the machine in the field.</p><p>&quot;So if you want to start, we can walk over to the drone,&quot; Underhill says. &quot;It&#39;s got a safety button on here.&quot; And now it&#39;ll start flying.&quot;</p><p>The quadcopter zips 300 feet into the air directly above our heads, pauses for a moment and then begins to move.</p><p>&quot;So it just turned to the East and it&#39;s going to start its lawnmower pattern,&quot; Underhill says.</p><p>What makes the drone valuable to farmers is the camera on board. It snaps a high-resolution photo every two seconds. From there Agribotix stitches the images together, sniffing out problem spots in the process. Knowing what&#39;s happening in a field can save a farmer money.</p><p>At farm shows across the country, drones have become as ubiquitous as John Deere tractors. The Colorado Farm Show earlier this year included an informational session, telling farmers both the technical and legal challenges ahead.</p><p>&quot;I think it&#39;s a very exciting time,&quot; says farmer Darren Salvador, who grows 2,000 acres of wheat and corn near the Colorado-Nebraska border.</p><p>&quot;Can you look at disease concern, insect concern, so now you can be more proactive and treat smaller areas and not treat the entire field,&quot; he says.</p><p>Salvador and about 50 other farmers got an earful from Rory Paul, CEO of <a href="http://www.voltaerialrobotics.com/">Volt Aerial Robotics</a>, a St. Louis-based drone start up.</p><p>&quot;We really don&#39;t know what they&#39;re good for,&quot; Paul says. &quot;We&#39;ve got a few ideas of where they could benefit agriculture. The majority of which are still theoretical.&quot; Theoretical because commercial drone use is still widely banned in the U.S.</p><p>On Sunday, the Federal Aviation Administration <a href="http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2015/02/15/386464188/commercial-drone-rules-to-limit-their-speed-and-altitude">released long-awaited draft rules </a>on the operation of pilotless drones, opening the nation&#39;s airspace to the commercial possibilities of the burgeoning technology, but not without restrictions.</p><p>Currently, companies may apply for exemptions from the FAA, but the requirements to get that exemption can be costly. Like requiring drone operators to hold a private pilot&#39;s license.</p><p>&quot;These small drones, that are almost priced to be expensive toys, are not reliable. And that&#39;s the concern of the FAA,&quot; says Eric Frew, who studies drones at the University of Colorado-Boulder.</p><p><a href="http://www.faa.gov/">The FAA </a>didn&#39;t respond to requests for comment for this story, but Frew says the agency is trying to find a balance. Putting a large flying machine in the hands of someone who&#39;s inexperienced can cause big problems.</p><p>&quot;When these systems work, they work fantastically. When they don&#39;t work, they don&#39;t work,&quot; Frew says.</p><p>Back at the corn field in rural Colorado, Agribotix President Tom McKinnon watches as the drone comes in for a landing.</p><p>&quot;So we bash the FAA a lot,&quot; McKinnon says. &quot;I mean the FAA&#39;s job is air safety. And they have delivered on that. But when it comes to drones they&#39;re badly fumbling the ball.&quot;</p><p>McKinnon says until the agency gives solid guidance to commercial drone operators, he&#39;ll be doing most of his work in countries like Australia and Brazil where laws are friendlier to farm drones.</p><p><em><em>&mdash; via <a href="http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2015/02/16/385520242/as-rules-get-sorted-out-drones-may-transform-agriculture-industry" target="_blank">NPR&#39;s All Tech Considered</a></em> and <a href="http://harvestpublicmedia.org/">Harvest Public Media</a>, a reporting collaboration that focuses on agriculture and food production.</em></p></p> Mon, 16 Feb 2015 11:27:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/rules-get-sorted-out-drones-may-transform-agriculture-industry-111567 Doctors grapple with how to talk to vaccine-hesitant parents http://www.wbez.org/news/science/doctors-grapple-how-talk-vaccine-hesitant-parents-111558 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Measles-parent_150213_oy.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Anna Jakubek&rsquo;s cozy apartment in Chicago&rsquo;s Rogers Park neighborhood can be chaotic in the mornings as she readies her six-year-old daughter, Nina, for school.</p><p>On weekdays, Jakubek makes sure Nina eats her organic berries, bacon and eggs, dresses her and brushes her hair. Then they rush out the door, hoping not to miss the bus.</p><p>Nina, who attends Chicago Public Schools, only received her MMR shot, against measles, mumps and rubella, a few months ago. Worried that her daughter would not be allowed to participate fully in school activities, Jakubek had her inoculated just before she started kindergarten.</p><p>But Jakubek still has not had her younger daughter, three-year-old Mila, vaccinated. With the exception of the MMR vaccine, Mila has received all the shots she should have, including Hepatitis A, Dtap, and more.</p><p>&ldquo;So what I really refuse right now is this MMR,&rdquo; she said.</p><p>Doctors recommend that children get the MMR vaccine between 12 and 15 months of age. But Jakubek, like many other vaccine-hesitant parents, believes it could cause autism, behavioral disorders, or problems with her child&rsquo;s nervous system. The original study that suggested a link between vaccines and autism <a href="http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2011/01/06/132703314/study-linking-childhood-vaccine-and-autism-was-fraudulent">has long been discredited</a>, and further studies have conclusively shown no link between vaccines and those conditions. Still, Jakubek is unconvinced.</p><p>&ldquo;I feel like getting the vaccination is a greater risk than getting (the) actual disease,&rdquo; said Jakubek, who herself had the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as a child growing up in Poland. &ldquo;If I had a choice not to vaccinate her at all, yeah, I wouldn&rsquo;t.&rdquo;</p><p>So far, Jakubek said she hasn&rsquo;t experienced much push-back on her beliefs. Other parents have not challenged her, and her children&rsquo;s pediatrician has respected her wishes.</p><p>&ldquo;She&rsquo;s not pushing, which I really appreciate that, she&rsquo;s not pushing,&rdquo; Jakubek said of the pediatrician. &ldquo;She wants (an) explanation why, and I deliver that explanation and she will tell me that this could be a deadly disease, and I have my opinion about this, too. So we exchange three or four sentences and this is it.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;There are physicians who have just given up,&rdquo; said Dr. Robert Jacobson, a pediatrician at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Jacobson says he looks at the recent resurgence of measles, as well as dismally low vaccination rates for other diseases, such as the flu, and he blames his fellow medical community.</p><p>&ldquo;That&rsquo;s our fault,&rdquo; he said. &ldquo;We&rsquo;re being challenged and we should rise up to the challenge and make sure our patients hear our recommendations.&rdquo;</p><p>For the last several years, Jacobson has been training other doctors on how to talk to parents like Jakubek. His methodology, which he calls the C.A.S.E. Approach, urges doctors to establish personal connections with vaccine-hesitant parents.</p><p>&ldquo;They want to hear your expertise, they want to hear your recommendation,&rdquo; Jacobson said of parents. &ldquo;They want to hear what you&rsquo;re doing with your own children, and what you would do if you were in their shoes.&rdquo;</p><p>Jacobson said he is dismayed when he sometimes hears about doctors who ban unvaccinated children from their practices, or who stuff parents&rsquo; arms with brochures on vaccines, rather than discuss the issue with them. In his trainings, Jacobson said he urges doctors to have those conversations in their offices when they come up</p><p>&ldquo;We&rsquo;ve got real work to do, and we can&rsquo;t just rely on being the high priests of medicine,&rdquo; he said.</p><p>For Jakubek, those discussions might push her away from her doctor. But she may end up vaccinating her younger daughter soon, anyhow.</p><p>In the wake of Illinois&rsquo;s measles resurgence, her younger daughter&rsquo;s daycare informed parents that they should get their children vaccinated. Jakubek said she&rsquo;d still rather wait, but she&rsquo;ll do it if she has to.</p><p><em>Odette Yousef is a WBEZ reporter. Follow her </em><a href="https://twitter.com/oyousef"><em>@oyousef</em></a><em> and </em><a href="https://twitter.com/wbezoutloud"><em>@WBEZoutloud</em></a><em>.</em></p></p> Fri, 13 Feb 2015 08:06:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/science/doctors-grapple-how-talk-vaccine-hesitant-parents-111558 Illinois says 11 now diagnosed with measles http://www.wbez.org/news/science/illinois-says-11-now-diagnosed-measles-111547 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/measles-cook-county-chicago_wide-5a473387692684b6ea37d1e38fbeed7bc759dbf6-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Illinois public health officials are now reporting 11 people have diagnosed with measles.</p><p>Cook County Department of Public Health spokeswoman Amy Poore confirmed Wednesday the most recent case involves an infant associated with KinderCare in suburban Palatine. Officials say eight other infants and one adult from the day care have also been diagnosed. The adult is not an employee.</p><p>A student at a suburban Chicago community college has also been diagnosed with measles.</p><p>Kane County Health Department spokesman Tom Schlueter said Wednesday the Elgin Community College student with measles lives in Cook County.</p><p>A notice on the college website says the student attended classes Feb. 3 and 5 and visited the library Feb. 3. Health officials are recommending anyone exposed and not vaccinated stay out of school for three weeks.</p></p> Thu, 12 Feb 2015 09:08:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/science/illinois-says-11-now-diagnosed-measles-111547 Illinois lawmaker wants health dept. to clarify its vaccination rules http://www.wbez.org/news/illinois-lawmaker-wants-health-dept-clarify-its-vaccination-rules-111538 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/measles.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>SPRINGFIELD, Ill. &mdash; An Illinois lawmaker has filed legislation asking the Illinois Department of Public Health to clarify state regulations on whether children must be vaccinated.</p><p>Democratic Rep. Mike Zalewski&#39;s resolution follows a widely reported measles infection at a suburban Chicago day care center. The cases are among more than 100 nationwide this year.</p><p>Zalewski is the father of three small children. He says the department needs the opportunity to tighten criteria for why kids can opt out of vaccinations by next school year. He also says Illinois&#39; regulations could be clearer.</p><p>State regulations generally require vaccinations for older children in day care centers, but measles shots are not recommended for children under age 1.</p><p>Any rule issued by the department must be approved by legislators.</p></p> Wed, 11 Feb 2015 13:43:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/illinois-lawmaker-wants-health-dept-clarify-its-vaccination-rules-111538 Who needs an adult measles booster shot? http://www.wbez.org/news/who-needs-adult-measles-booster-shot-111524 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP233664971953_0.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>If you&rsquo;re an adult of a certain age, the measles vaccine you received as a child might not be enough.</p><p>In the wake of the spreading measles outbreak that hit a <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/five-children-palatine-day-care-diagnosed-measles-111503">local day care center</a> last week, officials say some adults may need to get measles boosters or be re-vaccinated.</p><blockquote><p><strong>Related: <a class="underlined" href="http://www.wbez.org/news/city-chicago-falls-below-safe-levels-measles-vaccination-111512">Chicago falls below safe levels for measles vaccination</a></strong></p></blockquote><p>The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the only people who can be presumed immune are the following:</p><ul dir="ltr"><li>Those with &ldquo;documentation&rdquo; of receiving a &ldquo;live measles virus containing vaccine&rdquo;</li><li>Those with &ldquo;laboratory evidence of immunity&rdquo; (determined through a test doctors can administer called a titer)</li><li>Those with &ldquo;laboratory confirmation of [having survived the] disease&rdquo; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</li><li>Those born before 1957</li></ul><p>&ldquo;Persons who do not have documentation of adequate vaccination or other acceptable evidence of immunity should be vaccinated,&rdquo; the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices said in its <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6204a1.htm">2013 report. </a></p><p>Lurie Children&rsquo;s Hospital pediatric infectious disease specialist Dr. Tina Tan said it&rsquo;s also important for adults, especially those in contact with children, to know if they got two doses of the vaccine. &nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;If you have an adult person who is worried about measles and doesn&rsquo;t know whether or not they&rsquo;ve received two doses of the vaccine, they should see their physician,&rdquo; Tan said. &ldquo;If for some reason they are not able to find out if they got two doses it&#39;s not going to hurt them to get a booster dose to protect themselves.&rdquo;</p><p>Between 1963 and 1967, U.S. doctors were administering both &ldquo;killed&rdquo; and &ldquo;live&rdquo; measles vaccines to their patients. Later, it was discovered that the &ldquo;killed&rdquo; vaccine was not effective. So, the <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/measles/faqs-dis-vac-risks.htm">CDC suggests</a> that &ldquo;People who were vaccinated prior to 1968 with either inactivated (killed) measles vaccine or measles vaccine of unknown type should be re-vaccinated with at least one dose of live attenuated measles vaccine.&rdquo;</p><p>Tan says this is important not just for an adult&rsquo;s health.</p><p>&ldquo;One of the reasons for adults to get vaccinated is basically to prevent them from getting the disease,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;But also to protect young infants that may be around who are too young to be vaccinated.&rdquo;</p><p>The double dosage of measles vaccine is especially important, the CDC report states, &ldquo;for students attending colleges or other post-high school education institutions, health care personnel and international travelers.&rdquo;</p><p><em>Monica Eng is a WBEZ producer and co-host of the Chewing The Fat podcast. Follow her at<a href="https://twitter.com/monicaeng"> @monicaeng</a> or write to her at meng@wbez.org</em></p></p> Mon, 09 Feb 2015 15:23:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/who-needs-adult-measles-booster-shot-111524 Illinois officials not enforcing rules on school vaccinations http://www.wbez.org/news/illinois-officials-not-enforcing-rules-school-vaccinations-111513 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP233664971953.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>According to state records, at least 130 Illinois schools report measles vaccination levels of under 90 percent. That is the minimum percentage <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/city-chicago-falls-below-safe-levels-measles-vaccination-111512">health officials believe communities must achieve for &ldquo;herd immunity&rdquo;&mdash;</a>an environment that can prevent a disease from spreading. &nbsp;</p><p>Schools are supposed to lose 10 percent of their state funding when they fall below the 90 percent level of vaccinations. But no school has ever been sanctioned for this violation, according to the Illinois State Board of Education.</p><p><a href="http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/fulltext.asp?DocName=09300SB0805&amp;GA=93&amp;SessionId=3&amp;DocTypeId=SB&amp;LegID=3675&amp;DocNum=805&amp;GAID=3&amp;Session=">Illinois code</a> states that funding &ldquo;shall be withheld by the regional superintendent until the number of students in compliance&rdquo;... reaches the &ldquo;specified percentage or higher.&rdquo;</p><p><a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/officials-predict-more-illinois-measles-cases-111509">But even as measles cases arrive in Illinois</a>, the state&rsquo;s Board of Education says it has no plans to start enforcing the rules through funding sanctions any time soon.</p><p>&quot;We are not looking to penalize a district or remove money from a district,&quot; said ISBE spokesman Matt Vanover. &quot;What we&#39;re looking for is compliance. It&#39;s difficult for educators to remove or exclude a child from education, especially when the child is from a poor or struggling family. Local districts will follow through with initaitves and reminders of their own.&quot;</p><p>Still, some doctors believe the state&#39;s purported 90 percent vaccination standard is too low.</p><p>&ldquo;In order for a community to have herd immunity you really need to maintain vaccination rates around 95 percent,&rdquo; said Dr. Tina Tan, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Lurie Children&rsquo;s Hospital in Chicago. &ldquo;Otherwise, what happens is that when the rates below drop below 95 percent, you can have the reemergence or reappearance of these preventable diseases occurring in individuals that are either not vaccinated or are too young to be vaccinated.&rdquo;</p><p>That&rsquo;s what happened this week in Illinois when <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/five-children-palatine-day-care-diagnosed-measles-111503">infants at a day care center</a> in northwest suburban Illinois were diagnosed with measles.</p><p>All those children were too young to be eligible for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccination (MMR), which is traditionally administered after a child turns 1-year-old. But Cook County health officials say they expect the disease to spread.</p><p>&ldquo;The cat is out of the bag,&rdquo; Dr. Terry Mason, chief operating officer of the Cook County Department of Public Health said yesterday at a press conference in Oak Forest.</p><p>According to the <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/measles/about/complications.html">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</a> one in 20 children who contract measles will also get pneumonia; one in 1,000 may develop encephalitis that could lead to deafness and mental retardation; and for one or two in 1,000, the disease could be fatal.</p><p>Thursday, WBEZ contacted schools who, according to the ISBE vaccination site, self-reported measles vaccination rates as low as 27 percent. The schools claimed that the site was showing inaccurate information.</p><p>Vanover acknowledges that the self-reported data may be flawed, but says it can&#39;t be fixed.&nbsp; After the yearly November 17 deadline, &quot;the data becomes locked in for reporting purposes and we don&rsquo;t have any opportunity to go back and correct it,&quot; he said.</p><p>For more updated information, Vanover suggests calling individual districts.</p><p><em>Monica Eng is a WBEZ producer and co-host of the Chewing The Fat podcast. Follow her at <a href="https://twitter.com/monicaeng">@monicaeng</a> or write to her at meng@wbez.org.</em></p><p><em>WBEZ web producer Chris Hagan contributed to this story. </em></p></p> Fri, 06 Feb 2015 13:38:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/illinois-officials-not-enforcing-rules-school-vaccinations-111513 City of Chicago falls below safe levels for measles vaccination http://www.wbez.org/news/city-chicago-falls-below-safe-levels-measles-vaccination-111512 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/AP903599864933.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>In the City of Chicago, only 88.8 percent of adolescents are covered by the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine, according to data from <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6329a4.htm" target="_blank">Center for Disease Control and Prevention.</a> That level could threaten herd immunity<a href="http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/about/terms/glossary.htm" target="_blank">, the point at which &ldquo;a sufficient proportion of a population is immune to an infectious disease&hellip; to make its spread from person to person unlikely.&rdquo;</a></p><p>Dr. Tina Tan, an infectious disease specialist at Lurie Children&rsquo;s Hospital in Chicago, says to be safe, vaccination rates should be at 95 percent. That sentiment is echoed by the <a href="http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/Measles_Rubella_StrategicPlan_2012_2020.pdf">World Health Organization</a>.</p><p>&ldquo;Here in Illinois unfortunately we still have medical as well as philosophical exemptions from vaccines,&rdquo; Tan said. &ldquo;So there are some parents who decide they don&#39;t want to vaccinate their children and take advantage of these exemptions.&quot;</p><p>The state&rsquo;s overall adolescent measles vaccination rate is at 93.5 percent.</p><p>State law requires children in school to be vaccinated, but allows for two categories of exemption: medical and religious. Illinois law has a fairly low bar for showing the need for religious exemption.</p><p>The state requires &ldquo;a written and signed statement from the parent or legal guardian detailing the objection&rdquo; and the law states <a href="http://www.ilga.gov/commission/jcar/admincode/077/077006950000300R.html">&ldquo;the religious objection may be personal and need not be directed by the tenets of an established religious organization.&rdquo;</a></p><p>The Illinois Department of Public Health has yet to comment.</p><p><em>Shannon Heffernan is a WBEZ reporter. Follow her <a href="https://twitter.com/shannon_h">@shannon_h.</a></em><em> WBEZ digital producer Chris Hagan contributed to this story. </em></p></p> Fri, 06 Feb 2015 13:29:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/city-chicago-falls-below-safe-levels-measles-vaccination-111512