WBEZ | water http://www.wbez.org/tags/water Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Researchers Investigating How Lead Exposure Could Affect DNA http://www.wbez.org/news/researchers-investigating-how-lead-exposure-could-affect-dna-114514 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/drinking_fountain_0.png" alt="" /><p><p>Researchers are looking into the possible ripple effects of lead exposure.&nbsp;</p><div><div><div>After the city of Flint switched to the Flint River for its drinking water<a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/lead-poisoning-michigan-highlights-aging-water-systems-nationwide-114352" target="_blank">, experts found the number of kids with elevated levels of lead in their blood doubled</a>.</div></div></div><p>Even low levels of lead can cause kids to lose IQ points and end up with behavior problems.</p><p><strong>Lead and DNA</strong></p><p>A recent study suggests lead exposure can cause changes to DNA that might affect several generations.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p>Doug Ruden is the Director of Epigenomics at the Institute of Environmental Health Sciences at Wayne State University. He tested 35 moms and their babies in Detroit.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p>To do this, he tested blood lead levels in neonatal blood spots from the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mnbb.org/">Michigan Neonatal Biobank</a>. The biobank collects blood spots from all newborn babies in the state, and has done so since 1984.&nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;We recruited young mothers who were born after 1984 and got permission to measure their blood lead levels,&rdquo; Ruden says.</p><p><a href="http://www.nature.com/articles/srep14466">They observed</a>&nbsp;a correlation between elevated blood lead levels in the mothers and changes in DNA.</p><p>&ldquo;If the mothers had high blood lead levels when they were born, then their grandchildren have changes in their DNA,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;And the changes in the DNA we were looking at weren&rsquo;t mutations &mdash; they weren&rsquo;t permanent changes &mdash; but they&rsquo;re what we call epigenetic mutations. They&rsquo;re changes in DNA methylation.&rdquo;</p><p>Ruden says these sorts of changes control gene expression.</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s thought that&rsquo;s how lead causes neurobehavioral defects &mdash; or loss of IQ in children,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;It&rsquo;s not by directly mutating the DNA, but altering their DNA methylation.&rdquo;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p><strong>What does this mean?</strong></p><p>Ruden says they don&#39;t know if these changes in DNA are good, bad or neutral. He says they need to do more studies to learn what this could mean.</p><p>&ldquo;Mothers who are exposed to lead in the water, for instance, can not only affect their children&rsquo;s IQ but can also affect, potentially, the IQ of their grandchildren,&rdquo; Ruden says. &ldquo;We know the DNA is affected, but we don&rsquo;t know right now &mdash; we&rsquo;re continuing to study this &mdash; we don&rsquo;t know right now whether these changes in the DNA in the grandchildren can also affect their IQ.&rdquo;</p><p><strong>A Russian nesting doll</strong></p><p>Ruden says they&#39;re studying how exposures in pregnancy can affect not just the baby a mom is carrying, but also her grandbabies.</p><p>&ldquo;The way you think about it is: if a mother is pregnant with a baby, she&rsquo;s also carrying the baby&rsquo;s children too,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;Because it&rsquo;s like a Russian doll.&rdquo;</p><p>He says a fetus develops fetal germ cells while still inside its mother.</p><p>&ldquo;So all of the eggs that a person has in life are actually developed in the fetus, during the fetal period, and all the sperm progenitor cells in the boy babies, the boy fetuses, are also present in the fetus,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;So when a mother drinks leaded water, like what happened in Flint, she&rsquo;s exposing her fetus, so that&rsquo;s going to directly affect brain development of her baby.&rdquo;</p><p>But he says, there could be effects on the next generation too.</p><p>&ldquo;What most people don&rsquo;t realize is that you&rsquo;re also expressing the germ line cells, and that can affect the grandchildren, and even potentially beyond that,&rdquo; he says.</p><p>One important caveat here: this study is small. Ruden says it will need to be repeated on larger scales and in different populations.</p><p>&ldquo;It is well established in animal models, though &mdash; like in mice and rats &mdash; that environmental exposures to compounds such as lead can have effects for many generations,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;So this isn&rsquo;t entirely surprising.&rdquo;</p><p>&mdash; <em><a href="http://michiganradio.org/post/researchers-investigating-how-lead-exposure-could-affect-dna#stream/0" target="_blank">via Michigan Radio</a></em></p></p> Tue, 19 Jan 2016 12:12:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/researchers-investigating-how-lead-exposure-could-affect-dna-114514 Who Will Pay for Michigan's Orphaned, Contaminated Sites? http://www.wbez.org/news/who-will-pay-michigans-orphaned-contaminated-sites-114478 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/image003.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Michigan has&nbsp;<a href="http://www.audgen.michigan.gov/finalpdfs/13_14/r761021714.pdf">more than 280 contaminated sites&nbsp;</a>that are &ldquo;orphans.&rdquo; That means the company that made the mess no longer exists and the state has to deal with it.</p><p>But Michigan is running out of money to tackle these environmental problems. That was not good news for Antrim County, home to one of the largest contaminated sites in the country. State management of an underground plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) has been crucial here for years and will be needed in the future.</p><p><strong>A lack of state funding to clean up the plume is causing concern</strong></p><p>It&rsquo;s been more than a decade since residents like Ruth Ann Clark went onto city water because of the TCE contamination. Her water comes from Mancelona, about eight miles away from her house.</p><p>Clark has a small farm with llamas and donkeys. She says she spends more than $100 a month on water. She doesn&rsquo;t know if the TCE plume has reached her land yet, but she&rsquo;s not worried because she has clean water.</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s been okay,&rdquo; she says with a smile.</p><p>But it&rsquo;s not okay for everyone in Antrim County. In fact, millions more dollars must be spent to keep all her neighbors safe. Where that money will come from is a critical question for this community.</p><p><strong>An expanding legacy of pollution</strong></p><p>Not far from Clark&rsquo;s home is Summit Village, part of Shanty Creek Resort. The resort is one of the main drivers of economic growth in this area. It was purchased in 2007 and the new owners say they&rsquo;ve put another $15 million into it.</p><p>Realtor Donna Gundle-Krieg says a lot of money has been spent in Summit, one of three villages in Shanty Creek, where there&rsquo;s a hotel and conference center.</p><p>&ldquo;This is probably the area with the most expensive homes,&rdquo; she says.</p><p>But homes here will need to hook up to city water soon, because the TCE plume is moving towards them.</p><p>Gundle-Krieg has a vacant lot listed in Summit Village for $10,000. She doesn&rsquo;t expect to see a house on it anytime soon. She thinks it will be bought by someone who wants the beach access that goes with it on Lake Bellaire.</p><p>There is some confusion about exactly what is happening with the water. Gundle-Krieg says she frequently comes across homeowners who say they weren&rsquo;t told anything about the plume when they bought property and ask her what the situation is.</p><p>Property owners between Mancelona and Bellaire have this trouble today because of a degreaser used to clean machinery 50 years ago.</p><p>Herb Tipton got a job at Mount Clemens Metal Products in the 1960s.</p><p>&ldquo;The cleaning fluid was kind of a last resort,&rdquo; Tipton says. &ldquo;It was expensive.&rdquo;<br />&nbsp;<br />He says what they did use, they poured down the drain.</p><p>&ldquo;But I don&rsquo;t think anybody really knew the after-effects,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;&#39;Course, that&rsquo;s true all over the world.&rdquo;</p><p><strong>Michigan comes up short for clean water</strong></p><p>The TCE plume spreading across Antrim County might be the largest in the country, contaminating trillions of gallons of water.<br />&nbsp;<br />That&rsquo;s too expensive to clean up, so the state has spent $18 million to keep people from drinking the stuff. More will be needed to get clean water to everyone who will eventually need it. That&rsquo;s why community leaders were surprised in 2014 when they were told there wasn&rsquo;t enough money to extend more water lines.</p><p>They went to Lansing and proposed the state spend another $2 million to expand and upgrade the city water system. The state offered $500,000.</p><p>The idea that the state couldn&rsquo;t afford to protect drinking water in Antrim County sent shockwaves through the community last year.</p><p>Dean Branson, with Three Lakes Association, says the state&rsquo;s ability to manage this problem is critical. Without it, he says property becomes worthless since nobody will build a home on a lot that might not have clean water one day.</p><p>&ldquo;You aren&rsquo;t going to pay anything for that lot,&rdquo; Branson says. &rdquo;You aren&rsquo;t even going to pay your taxes. You&rsquo;re basically going to let it go back to the bank.&rdquo;</p><p>Branson helped work out a novel solution last spring. It involves the county sharing some of the costs of the next phase of work on the water system. Local governments seldom finance this kind of project. It&rsquo;s usually left to the state or federal government.</p><p>The agreement was not easy to get. Some county commissioners said the state would find the money one way or another and voted against the plan. County officials insisted this is the only time they&rsquo;ll spend money on this problem.</p><p>The agreement will protect everyone for a few years before more work is needed. Dean Branson says he&rsquo;s confident the state will be there to help.</p><p><strong>Who will pay?</strong></p><p>That&rsquo;s because at a meeting this summer, a division chief from the Department of Environmental Quality told a room full of people that the state will protect their drinking water. On videotape, Bob Wagner said if anyone asks the DEQ whether it&rsquo;s safe to buy property in Antrim County, the answer will be &ldquo;yes.&rdquo;</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s safe. It&rsquo;s fine,&rdquo; he said. &ldquo;There is no risk. It&rsquo;s all managed. That&rsquo;s our message.&rdquo;</p><p>Where the money will come from to keep that commitment is the question.</p><p>More than 280 contaminated sites were identified in Michigan in 2014 that still need work, including the TCE plume coming from Mancelona, and there is no more money to start new projects. In fact, Wagner says the state might have to pull back on groundwater monitoring at some of these sites next year.</p><p>The pool of money that has been used for this work in recent decades came from voter approved bonds. Voters have agreed to let Michigan borrow more than $2 billion since 1988 for an array of environmental initiatives.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p><p>Finding a new long-term funding source is one of the goals laid out in Michigan&rsquo;s new water strategy, a comprehensive approach to a variety of water-related issues. Conversations about how that could happen are just beginning in Lansing.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://michiganradio.org/post/who-will-pay-michigans-orphaned-contaminated-sites#stream/0" target="_blank"><em> via Michigan Radio</em></a></p></p> Thu, 14 Jan 2016 10:19:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/who-will-pay-michigans-orphaned-contaminated-sites-114478 More Help Headed to Flint Residents in Need of Lead-Free Water http://www.wbez.org/news/more-help-headed-flint-residents-need-lead-free-water-114438 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/flint_fire_stationgiveaway_011116_002.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><img src="http://michiganradio.org/sites/michigan/files/styles/x_large/public/201601/flint_fire_stationgiveaway_011116_002.jpg" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="An American Red Cross volunteer stacks cases of bottled water at Flint fire station #3. (Michigan Radio/Steve Carmody)" /></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><figcaption><div><div><div>This week, state and local&nbsp;<a href="https://www.cityofflint.com/2016/01/10/flint-city-leaders-county-state-officials-announce-relief-effort-expansion/">efforts are being stepped up&nbsp;</a>to help people in Flint have clean water.</div></div></div></figcaption></p><p>Flint&rsquo;s tap water is not safe to drink because of lead contamination. &nbsp;The problem dates back to the city&rsquo;s switch to the Flint River as its primary drinking water source. Mistakes with the way the water was treated allowed corrosive river water to seriously damage aging water pipes. The city switched back to a less corrosive water source last fall, but the damage was done.&nbsp;</p><p>This month, Gov. Snyder declared a &lsquo;State of Emergency&rsquo; in Flint.&nbsp;</p><p>This morning, American Red Cross volunteers helped a steady stream of people walking into Fire Station #3 in Flint to pick up free water filters and cases of bottled water. People patiently waited in a bitterly cold garage as volunteers filled out paperwork and helped them carry cases of bottled water to cars in the parking lot.&nbsp;</p><p>Like other people standing in line, Tateionia Rice says she&rsquo;s glad to see help finally coming.</p><p>&ldquo;Hey, can&rsquo;t turn down free water,&rdquo; says Rice, &ldquo;and can&rsquo;t turn down what the city of Flint is trying to do for us.&rdquo;</p><p>In addition to extended hours at water distribution sites around Flint, teams of state workers will fan out across the city this week to reach people who need water filters and bottled water.&nbsp;</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://michiganradio.org/post/more-help-coming-people-flint-need-lead-free-water#stream/0" target="_blank"><em>via Michigan Radio</em></a></p></p> Mon, 11 Jan 2016 10:35:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/more-help-headed-flint-residents-need-lead-free-water-114438 Putting together a team to travel to Mars http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift/2015-09-29/putting-together-team-travel-mars-113105 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/mars water NASA.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>A couple of days before the release of a film about a voyage to Mars, NASA announces it&rsquo;s discovered <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/09/28/444160913/scientists-confirm-theres-water-in-the-dark-streaks-on-mars">water on the Red Planet</a>. Whether it was a deliberate marketing ploy by NASA or not, the water news has more folks wondering about life on Mars and scientists chomping at the bit to get a manned mission there.</p><p>But with such a long journey in an isolated environment, who would be best suited to embark on the trip with other astronauts and not get on each other&#39;s nerves? We&#39;re joined by <a href="https://twitter.com/teamslab">Suzanne Bell</a>, an Associate Professor of industrial and Organizational Psychology who&rsquo;s working on a NASA-funded research on team composition.</p></p> Tue, 29 Sep 2015 12:19:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift/2015-09-29/putting-together-team-travel-mars-113105 Scientists confirm there's water in the dark streaks on Mars http://www.wbez.org/news/scientists-confirm-theres-water-dark-streaks-mars-113080 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/MARS.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res444165530" previewtitle="For several years, a satellite orbiting Mars has seen streaks flowing from Martian mountains during warm periods on the surface. Scientists have now confirmed that water is involved."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="For several years, a satellite orbiting Mars has seen streaks flowing from Martian mountains during warm periods on the surface. Scientists have now confirmed that water is involved." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/28/esp_040170_1440-ed6eb60e9e09208555e68c9ab6748af3829a035b-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 449px; width: 600px;" title="For several years, a satellite orbiting Mars has seen streaks flowing from Martian mountains during warm periods on the surface. Scientists have now confirmed that water is involved. (NASA/JPL/University of Arizona)" /></div><div><p>Scientists have caught Mars crying salty tears.</p></div></div><p>Photos from NASA&#39;s&nbsp;<a href="http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mro/">Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter</a>&nbsp;show dark streaks flowing down Martian slopes. The streaks appear in sunny spots or when the weather is warm, and they fade when the temperature drops.</p><p>Water was suspected to be involved, but now scientists have confirmed its presence. The new analysis,&nbsp;<a href="http://nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/ngeo2546">published in Nature Geoscience</a>, shows salts mixed with water when the streaks are darkest. The water disappears when the streaks lighten.</p><div id="res444166425" previewtitle="Streaks a few hundred feet in length appear on the walls of Garni crater on Mars. Scientists suspect they are formed by the flow of briny, liquid water on Mars."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Streaks a few hundred feet in length appear on the walls of Garni crater on Mars. Scientists suspect they are formed by the flow of briny, liquid water on Mars." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/28/perspective_6_wide-a6e7e8285cd80b68bca8050577a6396f3315b5ce-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 337px; width: 600px;" title="Streaks a few hundred feet in length appear on the walls of Garni crater on Mars. Scientists suspect they are formed by the flow of briny, liquid water on Mars. (NASA/JPL/University of Arizona)" /></div><div><p>&quot;It&#39;s only when these streaks are biggest and widest that we see evidence for molecular water,&quot; says&nbsp;<a href="http://www.lujendraojha.net/">Lujendra Ojha</a>, a graduate student at the Georgia Institute of Technology.</p></div></div><p>Ojha cautions this isn&#39;t the same as streams trickling downhill on Earth. Standing on the streaks would be like standing on a hot beach on Earth and dribbling a little water out of a drinking bottle. &quot;You would just see a hint of wetness,&quot; he says.</p><div id="res444167777" previewtitle="The lines appear on slopes with exposure to sunlight. Researchers now believe that the warm sun may cause water to begin flowing."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="The lines appear on slopes with exposure to sunlight. Researchers now believe that the warm sun may cause water to begin flowing." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/28/esp_030373_1755-4208a4d7882165185e589d3cd0e50e2e4059496e-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 450px; width: 600px;" title="The lines appear on slopes with exposure to sunlight. Researchers now believe that the warm sun may cause water to begin flowing. (NASA/JPL/University of Arizona)" /></div><div><p>Ojha says the water could be <a href="http://www.uahirise.org/ESP_030373_1755" target="_blank">important for future exploration </a>of Mars. It might be that astronauts could one day use it for everything from drinking water to rocket fuel, but that depends on how much there is.</p></div></div><p>The water could be coming from a subsurface reservoir, but that&#39;s not the only option, Ojha says. Ice, or even moisture in the atmosphere, could also be causing the streaks.</p><p>&quot;We&#39;re not entirely sure what the source of the water may be,&quot; he says.</p><p>&mdash; <em><a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/09/28/444160913/scientists-confirm-theres-water-in-the-dark-streaks-on-mars?ft=nprml&amp;f=444160913" target="_blank">via NPR&#39;s The Two-Way</a></em></p></p> Mon, 28 Sep 2015 10:23:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/scientists-confirm-theres-water-dark-streaks-mars-113080 Worldview in India: Jal Bhagirathi and water security http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism/worldview-india-jal-bhagirathi-and-water-security-111933 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/IMG_0293.JPG" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="A woman carries a bucket with fresh water in Rajasthan, India. (Jerome McDonnell)" /></div><div class="image-insert-image "><font color="#333333" face="Arial, sans-serif"><span style="font-size: 23.9999980926514px; line-height: 22px; background-color: rgb(255, 244, 244);">Worldview in India: Jal Bhagirathi Foundation and water security</span></font></div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image "><em>Worldview</em>&nbsp;took&nbsp;<em>Global Activism</em>&nbsp;on the road to India! And we continue our visit to India&rsquo;s Rajasthan State, the world&rsquo;s most densely populated desert region, with the first of a two-part conversation with Jal Bhagirathi Foundation. It&rsquo;s an NGO focused on water security. Parikshit singh Tomar of Jal Bhagirathi, will show us their retention basin where they store rainwater. The land reserve has developed into a beautiful ecosystem. Next week, Parikshit will take us to a remote rural village that was revolutionized by Jal Bhagirathi projects.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image "><strong>Guest:</strong></div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image "><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-9682de71-e7e8-e514-bbea-7f8d829048fb">Parikshit singh Tomar is the</span> media and communications director for&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/jalbhagirathi">Jal Bhagirathi Foundation,</a> based outside of Jodhpur, India.</em></div></p> Thu, 23 Apr 2015 15:09:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/global-activism/worldview-india-jal-bhagirathi-and-water-security-111933 Worldview: The politics surrounding the Jordan River Valley's fresh water http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2015-04-23/worldview-politics-surrounding-jordan-river-valleys-fresh-water-111932 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/5418351509_7f19ae4fbc_z.jpg" style="height: 415px; width: 620px;" title="The Jordan River (Bill Rice/Flickr)" /></div></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/202229142&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 23.9999980926514px; line-height: 22px; background-color: rgb(255, 244, 244);">Middle East water issues in the Jordan River Valley</span></p><p>The Great Lakes contain one of the world&rsquo;s largest shares of fresh water. &nbsp;Its environmental health depends on collaboration between states and countries. The Jordan River is also a shared body of water, requiring collaboration between the Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian governments. Leaders from the Midwest and the Middle East are gathered in Chicago to share knowledge and experience with regards to water resources at the Water After Borders summit at UIC. &nbsp;Mayors from the Midwest and Middle East plan to sign a &ldquo;Sister Waters&ldquo; agreement. We&rsquo;ll talk about plans to restore the Jordan River and other Middle East water issues with&nbsp;Nader Al-Khateeb, a Palestinian and Yana Abu Taleb, a Jordanian, both with Ecopeace/Friends of the Earth Middle East and with Ran Molcho, chief engineer of the Sea of Galilee Drainage Authority, Israel.</p><p><strong>Guests:</strong></p><p><em>Yana Abu Taleb is a project manager for <a href="https://twitter.com/FoEMidEast">Ecopeace/Friends of the Earth Middle East.</a></em></p><p><em>Nader Al-Khateeb is the &nbsp;Palestinian director of <a href="https://twitter.com/FoEMidEast">Ecopeace/Friends of the Earth Middle East.</a></em></p><p><em>Ran Molcho is the chief engineer of the Sea of Galilee Drainage Authority, Israel.</em></p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/202231994&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 23.9999980926514px; line-height: 22px; background-color: rgb(255, 244, 244);">Global Activism: Jal Bhgirathi Foundation and water security</span></p><p><em>Worldview</em>&nbsp;took&nbsp;<em>Global Activism</em>&nbsp;on the road to India! And we continue our visit to India&rsquo;s Rajasthan State, the world&rsquo;s most densely populated desert region, with the first of a two-part conversation with Jal Bhagirathi Foundation. It&rsquo;s an NGO focused on water security. Parikshit singh Tomar of Jal Bhagirathi, will show us their retention basin where they store rainwater. The land reserve has developed into a beautiful ecosystem. Next week, Parikshit will take us to a remote rural village that was revolutionized by Jal Bhagirathi projects.</p><p><strong>Guest:</strong></p><p dir="ltr"><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-9682de71-e7df-fab4-8ba9-f6355d6f3152">Parikshit Singh Tomar is the </span>media and communications director for &nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/jalbhagirathi">Jal Bhagirathi Foundation</a>, based outside of Jodhpur, India.</em></p></p> Thu, 23 Apr 2015 14:52:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2015-04-23/worldview-politics-surrounding-jordan-river-valleys-fresh-water-111932 Morning Shift: Mayoral runoff heats up after second televised debate http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift/2015-03-27/morning-shift-mayoral-runoff-heats-after-second-televised-debate <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/swanksalot.jpg" style="height: 620px; width: 620px;" title="Flickr/swanksalot" /></div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/197977766&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Mayoral Forums recap</span></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">Round two of the televised debate portion of Chicago&rsquo;s mayoral race gets underway Thursday night. Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel and Cook County Commissioner Jesus &ldquo;Chuy&rdquo; Garcia have already faced off once during the runoff, and that debate got heated at times. WBEZ&rsquo;s Lauren Chooljian fills us in on if the jabs continued at the Fox 32 debate, and what issues drove the conversation. ​ Also, WBEZ&#39;s Chip Mitchell weighs in on public safety.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Guests:&nbsp;</strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/laurenchooljian">Lauren Chooljian</a> is a WBEZ reporter.</em></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><em><a href="https://twitter.com/ChipMitchell1">Chip Mitchell</a> is a WBEZ reporter.</em></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">&nbsp;</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/197977760&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">State budget faces vote</span></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">The Illinois Senate voted Thursday to shift funds to help plug a $1.6 billion budget gap. And while some state agencies have already taken a hit, this latest vote is only a partial solution. The AP&rsquo;s statehouse reporter Kerry Lester has the latest on the action in Springfield.&nbsp;</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Guest:&nbsp;</strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/kerrylester">Kerry Lester</a> is an Associated Press reporter.&nbsp;</em></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">&nbsp;</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/197977752&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; line-height: inherit;">Aurora residents arrested in ISIL plot</span></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">Two Aurora cousins, one of them an Army National Guard Specialist, were arrested Wednesday night for what authorities say is their role in planning to inflict violence on behalf of ISIL. WBEZ&rsquo;s Lynette Kalsnes has the details of the arrest and how they came to the attention of the FBI.&nbsp;</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Guest:&nbsp;</strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/LynetteKalsnes">Lynette Kalsnes</a> is a WBEZ reporter.</em></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">&nbsp;</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/197977743&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; line-height: inherit;">Great Lakes Pollution Symposium</span></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">Last August a toxic algae bloom in Lake Erie temporarily shut down Toledo, Ohio&#39;s water source leaving questions about the long term viability of that source of water for about 400,000 people. This was fueled not only by warm temperatures but nutrient rich runoff. Nutrient pollution has recently been connected to adverse impacts for ecological and economic systems across the Great Lakes Region. A two-day symposium in Chicago is examining the current state of nutrient management in the Great Lakes, what policies are working and how stakeholders can work towards solutions. Aquatic Ecologist Nancy Tuchman and Gail Hesse of the Ohio Lake Erie Commission sift through some of these issues.&nbsp;</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Guests:&nbsp;</strong><em>Gail Hesse is the Executive Director of the <a href="https://twitter.com/OhioLakeErie">Ohio Lake Erie Commission.</a></em></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><em>Nancy Tuchman is the founding Director of the Institute of Environmental Sustainability and professor at <a href="https://twitter.com/GreenLoyola">Loyola University.</a></em></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">&nbsp;</p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/197977738&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="font-family: inherit; font-size: 24px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; line-height: inherit;">So long selfie stick</span></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);">Museums like the Art Institute of Chicago want to be clear, they encourage selfies, just not selfie sticks. The popular social media accessory has been officially banned by The Art Institute as well as other major cultural institutions across the globe including London&rsquo;s National Gallery, The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Museum of Modern Art in New York and Washington D.C.&rsquo;s Smithsonian. Chicago&#39;s Lollapalooza music festival has even banned the device at this year&#39;s three day event. We discuss the reasoning and process behind the ban and what selfie sticks say about trends in tourism. Art Institute&rsquo;s Director of Protection Services Tom Henkey joins us.&nbsp;</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Guest:&nbsp;</strong><em><a href="https://twitter.com/artinstitutechi">Tom Henkey</a> is the Director of Protection Services at the Art Institute of Chicago.</em></p></p> Fri, 27 Mar 2015 07:39:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift/2015-03-27/morning-shift-mayoral-runoff-heats-after-second-televised-debate What happens to 'Number 2' in the Second City http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/what-happens-number-2-second-city-111723 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/POOP THUMB.jpg" alt="" /><p></p> Wed, 18 Mar 2015 17:28:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/what-happens-number-2-second-city-111723 Great Lakes' low water levels captivate, worry artists http://www.wbez.org/news/science/great-lakes-low-water-levels-captivate-worry-artists-110672 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/SCHROEDER_WBEZ_2.jpg" title="Tim Schroeder’s pictures of the lakeshore capture the eerie effect of Lake Michigan’s receding water levels. (Tim Schroeder/TWS Photography)" /></div><p>The Great Lakes have been facing some serious challenges, from algae blooms in Lake Erie, to the loss of ice cover in Lake Superior. Water levels in lakes Michigan and Huron have been mostly below their long-term average for fifteen years. <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/what-happens-if-water-lake-michigan-keeps-disappearing-104748">At the start of 2013, they hit record lows</a>, but a long winter with a lot of snow and ice has brought the lakes back up.</p><p>Michigan and Huron, which rise and fall together and have been the hardest-hit by the low water, peaked <a href="http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/data/dashboard/GLWLD.html">just around their long-term average in July</a> (although they&rsquo;re still several inches below their average for this time of year, when the water is typically highest). If the levels in Michigan-Huron stay above the overall average, it will be the first sustained rise since 1998.</p><p>WBEZ has reached out to scientists, fishermen, shippers &mdash; anyone who could shed light on what&rsquo;s happening. It turns out, some of the sharpest observers of the lake&rsquo;s wild swings the last few years are artists. We talked to a photographer and a landscape painter, both of whom look at the same lake, but don&rsquo;t necessarily see the same things.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Lewis-Pier-Photo.jpg" title="Tim Schroeder is a photographer and long-time resident of St. Joseph, Michigan. (Lewis Wallace)" /></div><p>St. Joseph, Michigan is a small town on Lake Michigan about 100 miles from Chicago, a weekend getaway spot.</p><p>At the beach on a bright day, sailboats cruise out of the St. Joseph river and onto the open water. Tim Schroeder says he comes down here all the time to take pictures, or just to observe.</p><p>&ldquo;I&rsquo;ve done a lot of photographs of fishermen and stuff on the pier, just the mood of the lake, the atmosphere,&rdquo; he says. Schroeder, 62, has been a <a href="http://www.twsphotography.com/">professional photographer</a> in St. Joseph for 40 years.</p><p>The lakefront is always changing, and Schroeder&rsquo;s photographs show that. They&rsquo;re kind of eerie, mystical photos featuring rocks jutting out into misty skies, the remnants of rotting piers.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/SCHROEDER_WBEZ_1.jpg" title="A photo of Lake Michigan from Tim Schroeder’s collection (Tim Schroeder/TWS Photography)" /></div><p>&ldquo;I can see things now that may not have even been visible before, old pilings, breakwaters, stuff like that,&rdquo; says Schroeder. He says the low water has revealed a lot of visually interesting things that use to be submerged.</p><p>Further north in Michigan, <a href="http://maryeandersen.com/art/">painter Mary Andersen</a> keeps a studio in Grand Rapids. Her house is full of her impressionistic, abstract paintings of the lakeshore, all pale colors and light.</p><p>She often goes back to the same spot over and over as it changes, and just like Tim Schroeder, Andersen has been watching the lake her whole life.</p><p>&ldquo;I grew up looking at it, swimming in it, traveling to the beaches,&rdquo; Andersen says.</p><p>She loves how the shoreline shifts and moves, she says. &ldquo;I find it interesting and exciting. If it was always the same, how boring.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Mary-Andersen-Pic-1.jpg" title="Painter Mary Andersen isn’t particularly worried about the water levels fluctuating. (Lindsey Smith/Michigan Radio)" /></div><p>Schroeder agrees: The constant transformation is inspiring. But back out at the lakefront, he gestures towards a stepladder that goes off the edge of the pier. It&rsquo;s the kind you climb down to get in for a swim, but we&rsquo;re still yards from the actual water and the ladder goes straight into the sand.</p><p>This change &mdash; the water receding &mdash; makes Schroeder uncomfortable.</p><p>&ldquo;I don&rsquo;t like seeing the lake levels lower, because I think it&rsquo;s a little unnerving,&rdquo; he says. Like a lot of folks, Schroeder&rsquo;s not exactly sure why the water tends to be lower these days.</p><p>Part of it may be man made; a shipping channel on the other side of Lake Huron has been deepened over and over to keep it passable. Most researchers agree that&rsquo;s <a href="http://www.jsonline.com/news/wisconsin/once-steady-great-lakes-flow-altered-by-dredging-dams-and-now-warming-temperatures-217150821.html">lowered Lake Michigan and Huron by 10-18 inches</a>. In general though, <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/what%E2%80%99s-causing-record-low-levels-lake-michigan-105262">lake levels fluctuate based on climate: precipitation and evaporation</a>. The record lows in 2013 were caused by a hot summer and drought, and this past winter&rsquo;s <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/just-how-bad-chicago-winter-109637">Polar Vortex</a>, complete with loads of snow and ice, helped bring them back up.</p><p>But now some scientists are saying droughts and lack of ice cover could cause Lakes Michigan and Huron to stay low over the long run. The Council of the Great Lakes Region (CGLR) <a href="http://councilgreatlakesregion.org/projects/low-water-blues/">commissioned a study</a> of a worst-case scenario.</p><p>&ldquo;If we were to see a future, as a result of climate change where water levels in the Great Lakes region would be at their lows for an extended period of time, what would the economic impact be?&rdquo; asks Mark Fisher, CEO of the CGLR.</p><p>The report finds cargo ships would have to reduce their loads for every inch the lakes go down. There are also costs for the exposed and rotting infrastructure Schroeder likes to photograph; tourism and the region&rsquo;s indigenous communities would take a hit, and lakefront property values could also suffer.</p><p>Between now and 2030, the report estimates a potential economic loss of $9.6 billion in the U.S. and Canadian areas surrounding the Great Lakes. By 2050, it would add up to almost $19 billion across the region.</p><p>This is just one scenario, and water levels are difficult to predict beyond about 6 months out. But Fisher says many of the estimates are conservative, and regardless, we need to look at the short-term changes as part of a bigger picture.</p><p>&ldquo;The challenge with climate change is that it&rsquo;s subtle, it&rsquo;s incremental. It&rsquo;s sometimes hard to see depending on where you are in the basin,&rdquo; he says.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Mary-Andersen-Pic-2.jpg" title="Mary Andersen does most of her painting in her home in Grand Rapids, but she also spends hours at the lakeshore observing. (Lindsey Smith/Michigan Radio)" /></div><p>But not everyone is worried about all this &mdash; artist Mary Andersen knows the lake better than most, and she says last year&rsquo;s record low water didn&rsquo;t faze her. &nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;Because I grew up along the lake, I have witnessed the fluctuation in the lake levels three times over my lifetime, from severe lows to record highs,&rdquo; she says.</p><p>In fact, she remembers extremely high water in the 1980s being destructive in its own way, causing erosion on the lakefront, and sometimes flooding low-lying areas.</p><p>Andersen says she is worried about <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/front-and-center-water/drought-drives-drilling-frenzy-groundwater-california-110483">water scarcity and drought in other places</a>, but she&rsquo;s not sure about climate change. She thinks the lake&rsquo;s changes are a natural cycle.</p><p>&ldquo;The fluctuation of the lake levels is not our fault,&rdquo; Andersen says.</p><p>When it comes to fluctuation, most scientists would agree that it is a natural cycle: <a href="http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/data/dashboard/GLWLD.html">The levels have gone from low to high every 10-25 years</a> since humans started recording it about 100 years ago. &nbsp;The concern is that climate change could mean the lows keep getting lower, and the highs never get quite as high.</p><p>But the extremes associated with climate change means it&rsquo;s difficult for scientists to predict; after all, in the middle of winter 2012-2013, no one had any idea the lake levels would <a href="http://w3.lre.usace.army.mil/hh/ForecastData/MBOGLWL-mich_hrn.pdf">rise by several feet in just over a year.</a></p><p>And, lower water levels is only a piece of what could be coming to the Great Lakes.</p><p>&ldquo;It almost feels like death by a thousand cuts to the Great Lakes region,&rdquo; says Beth Gibbons, the project manager with the Great Lakes Climate Change Assessment for Cities (GLAA-C) in Ann Arbor. &nbsp;</p><p>Gibbons is focused on adaptation and preparedness for climate change. &ldquo;We can&rsquo;t wait for a single event &mdash; sea level rise to pass &lsquo;X&rsquo; threshold, a Hurricane Sandy to come up the coast, a wildfire that&rsquo;s burning 800 acres to suddenly threaten one of our major cities. We need to be able to look at this day by day, storm by storm.&rdquo;</p><p>She says we need <a href="http://graham.umich.edu/glaac/great-lakes-atlas">to take stock of what&rsquo;s coming</a> in order to plan for more climate extremes. Most cities in the region haven&rsquo;t even estimated the costs.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/SCHROEDER_WBEZ_7.jpg" title="Photographer Tim Schroeder looks forward to a time when human activity doesn’t threaten the Great Lakes’ health. (Tim Schroeder/TWS Photography)" /></div><p>&ldquo;We can live beautiful lives, we don&rsquo;t have to mess everything up while we&rsquo;re doing it,&rdquo; says Tim Schroeder.</p><p>The photographer insists he&rsquo;s not an activist, but he wants to see all the lake&rsquo;s problems turn around. &ldquo;I mean, there has to be a way to figure out how to do this without poisoning our waterways and without ruining landscapes...I mean, there&rsquo;s just gotta be a balance.&rdquo;</p><p>Schroeder takes in the scene at the lakefront &mdash; it&rsquo;s quiet except for a few kids, and an occasional charter boat coming into the channel.</p><p>&ldquo;I look at these kids playing around on the beach, and one of those kids might be eight years old, well I&rsquo;m 62, so what&rsquo;s it gonna be like when he&rsquo;s 62?&rdquo; Schroeder ask. &ldquo;Is it gonna get to the point where we&rsquo;re using so much water for everything that these piers will basically just become a monument on sand?&rdquo;</p><p>He says he&rsquo;d love to come back to Lake Michigan with his camera in a hundred years, just to see what it looks like then.</p><p><em>Lewis Wallace is a reporter and host at WYSO, the public radio station for Ohio&rsquo;s Miami Valley region. Follow him </em><a href="http://twitter.com/lewispants"><em>@lewispants</em></a><em>.</em></p><p><em>Reporter Lindsey Smith of Michigan Radio contributed to this story.</em></p></p> Tue, 19 Aug 2014 08:09:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/science/great-lakes-low-water-levels-captivate-worry-artists-110672