WBEZ | Immigration http://www.wbez.org/tags/immigration Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en This Isn't The First Time Americans Have Shown Fear Of Refugees http://www.wbez.org/news/isnt-first-time-americans-have-shown-fear-refugees-113888 <p><div id="res456922619" previewtitle="The Statue of Liberty, as seen through windows on the south side of the Great Hall at Ellis Island."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="The Statue of Liberty, as seen through windows on the south side of the Great Hall at Ellis Island." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/21/ap_341703699854_wide-69453f4b153ef88326af0668a54bb88f2f31ef0f-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 349px; width: 620px;" title="The Statue of Liberty, as seen through windows on the south side of the Great Hall at Ellis Island. (Julie Jacobson/AP)" /></div><div><div><p>Political leaders in the national and state capitals this week began raising barriers against refugees coming to the U.S. from Syria and Iraq. They were responding to a sense of fear in the land that refugees might bring with them some of the dangers they were fleeing.</p><p>Such fears escalated sharply after the deadly terror attacks in Paris on Friday, the 13th&mdash; a November night of random slaughter that took at least 130 lives and wounded hundreds.&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2015-11-18/bloomberg-poll-most-americans-oppose-syrian-refugee-resettlement">Polls</a>&nbsp;throughout the week showed&nbsp;<a href="http://www.langerresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/1173a1AfterParis.pdf">clear majorities</a>&nbsp;of Americans supporting at least &quot;a pause&quot; in the resettlement of refugees from the region being roiled by the self-proclaimed Islamic State.</p></div></div></div><div id="res456915278" previewtitle="The Bloomberg/Selzer poll asked about the best approach to dealing with the Syrian refugee crisis — proceeding with a plan to resettle 10,000 in the U.S., to filter by religion or accept none."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2015-11-18/bloomberg-poll-most-americans-oppose-syrian-refugee-resettlement" target="_blank"><img alt="The Bloomberg/Selzer poll asked about the best approach to dealing with the Syrian refugee crisis — proceeding with a plan to resettle 10,000 in the U.S., to filter by religion or accept none." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/21/take-in-syrian-refugees-_chartbuilder_custom-b76bae834062bab36cded85e3cd7059368b5a42d-s400-c85.png" style="height: 294px; width: 500px;" title="The Bloomberg/Selzer poll asked about the best approach to dealing with the Syrian refugee crisis — proceeding with a plan to resettle 10,000 in the U.S., to filter by religion or accept none. Domenico Montanaro/NPR/Bloomberg/Selzer poll, conducted Nov. 16-17, margin of error of +/- 3.9 percent" /></a></div><div><p>&nbsp;</p></div></div><p>For all that America prides itself on being &quot;a nation of immigrants&quot; symbolized by the Statue of Liberty with her lamp beside a golden door, the U.S. is also a nation of people &mdash; subject to human insecurity and fears for safety heightened over the past decade.</p><p>Within 48 hours of the attack,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/2015/11/20/456713306/governor-who-started-stampede-on-refugees-says-he-only-wants-answers">Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder&nbsp;</a>had called for a pause in refugee resettlements. The Republican&#39;s state is home to a significant Muslim population and might have been a logical destination for many new arrivals. Within a day, a majority of the nation&#39;s governors had joined Snyder or gone even further. In Tennessee, a GOP legislative leader called for Syrians already resettled in Nashville to be&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/2015/11/19/456502693/tennessee-lawmaker-calls-for-national-guard-to-round-up-syrian-refugees">rounded up</a>&nbsp;and turned over to federal authorities.</p><p>On Thursday, the U.S. House voted overwhelmingly to suspend the resettlement of Syrian and Iraqi refugees until each and everyone could be certified as safe by the heads of the FBI, the CIA and the Department of Homeland Security.</p><p>&quot;From a law enforcement perspective, the bill presents us with an impracticality,&quot; Attorney General Loretta Lynch said. And FBI Director James Comey, one of the three officials charged with certifying the refugees as safe, noted, &quot;It would be very, very difficult to say of anyone coming into the country that there is zero risk.&quot;</p><p>Despite the big bipartisan majority vote, perhaps no one expects this House bill to become law. It will be altered in the Senate, and it has drawn a veto threat from the White House. Nonetheless, it had to happen &mdash; if only to defuse the explosive atmosphere of anxiety even on Capitol Hill in the wake of the horrors in Paris. All these politicians were giving voice to the powerful popular impression &mdash; visible in much of the media &mdash; that lax policies and porous borders could expose Americans to the same sort of violence visited on the French.</p><p>Prosecutors said Friday they determined that&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2015/11/20/world/europe/ap-eu-paris-attacks-the-latest.html">two of the suicide bombers</a>&nbsp;at France&#39;s national stadium had passed through Greece last month. Greece is a common European entry point for many refugees because of its proximity to Syria. It scarcely seems to matter, however, that the core of the Paris problem is that principal players were European nationals &mdash; or that the supposed mastermind was&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/2015/11/19/456683674/suspected-planner-of-paris-attacks-took-conventional-journey-to-radicalization">radicalized in a French prison</a>.</p><p>This is not, of course, the first time Americans have confronted a sudden influx of refugees. And it is not the first time the impulse has been to raise the drawbridge:</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/AP_100112020274.jpg" style="height: 213px; width: 310px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: right;" title="Rescuers work to free trapped survivors and find dead victims in a four story building that collapsed in the 7.0-magnitude earthquake in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Wednesday, Jan. 13, 2010. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)" /><strong>2010 &mdash; Haitians:&nbsp;</strong>The earthquake in Haiti in 2010 increased the already strong incentives for Haitians to attempt the hazardous seaborne transit to the U.S., whether legally or illegally. Given the new devastation in the island nation, the U.S. relaxed its usual policy of deportation for undocumented Haitians already in the U.S. illegally, granting them Temporary Protected Status. Similar status had been granted to arrivals of other Latin American countries after earthquakes and hurricanes. But the idea of accepting new Haitian immigration because of this disaster was strongly resisted both in Florida and beyond.</p><p><strong>1980 &mdash; Cubans:</strong>&nbsp;In the summer of 1980, an economic crisis in Cuba led the Communist regime of Fidel Castro to allow thousands of Cubans to leave the country. Over the course of months, perhaps 125,000 Cubans made the trip from Cuba to the U.S. in a massive, but haphazard, flotilla known as the &quot;Mariel boatlift.&quot; Public opinion was positive at first, but soured at reports that Castro had salted the exodus with an admixture of inmates from prisons and hospitals. Partly as a result, relocation was slowed while the &quot;Marielitos&quot; arrivals were vetted and processed at military reservations in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Puerto Rico and Arkansas, as well as South Florida. In Arkansas, there were riots at the camp and escapes. The political fallout caused the defeat that fall of the state&#39;s young first-term Democratic governor, Bill Clinton.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/AP_7501250109.jpg" style="height: 203px; width: 310px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: right;" title="A little girl in a pedicab, and her driver stare as they pass a demonstration of nine anti-war activists before the United States embassy in Saigon, Friday, Jan. 25, 1975. The activists, led by David Harris, left, of Menlo Park, Calif. former husband of folk singer Joan Baez, passed out leaflets demanding the end of U.S. intervention in South Vietnam. (AP Photo)" /><strong>1975 &mdash; Vietnamese:</strong>&nbsp;The fall of Saigon sent hundreds of thousands of South Vietnamese fleeing from the triumphant new Communist regime. Some had the means to travel, while others were forced onto flimsy vessels that were barely seaworthy. They came to be known as &quot;boat people.&quot; Many had the U.S. as their ultimate destination, and a young Democratic Gov. Jerry Brown of California resisted their relocation. He even tried to prevent planeloads of refugees from landing in his state at Travis Air Force Base. Brown eventually relented, and Vietnamese have assimilated successfully in California and elsewhere since. Returning to the governorship in 2011, Brown has been a vocal supporter of accepting Syrian refugees.</p><p><strong>Mid-1950s </strong>&mdash;<strong> Post-WWII Europeans, including Jews who survived the Holocaust:</strong>&nbsp;When the Soviet Union was tightening its grip on Eastern Europe through proxy governments run by the Communist Party, President Dwight D. Eisenhower released a plan to bring a quarter-of-a-million asylum-seekers to the U.S. But the end of World War II in 1945 sent waves of refugees in multiple directions. Here again, the popular reaction was resistance. A Gallup poll in 1946 found 59 percent of Americans disapproved of a plan to accept those displaced by the war &mdash; including Jews, who had survived the Holocaust. President Harry Truman directed that 40,000 refugees be admitted in December of that year, a number that barely registered against the magnitude of human movement at the time.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/AP_781671446777.jpg" style="height: 224px; width: 310px; float: right; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="In this Aug. 22, 1939 file photo, the S.S. Parita, with 700 European Jewish refugees on board, lists after it was beached near the Ritz Hotel in Tel Aviv, an all-Jewish town in Palestine, under British mandate. The state of Israel declared independence in 1948. (AP Photo)" /><strong>Late 1930s</strong><strong> &mdash; European Jews before the Holocaust:</strong>&nbsp;Those seeking political asylum from the rise of Nazism in central Europe often wanted to come to the U.S., and some with the necessary means or connections managed to do so. Still, others were turned away. A Fortune magazine poll in 1938 found 67 percent opposed to allowing &quot;German, Austrian and other political refugees&quot; to come to the U.S. That same year, a troubled President Franklin D. Roosevelt convened a 29-nation conference to discuss the Jewish refugees in particular, who were fleeing Hitler&#39;s rise.</p><p>As one account put it, &quot;If each nation [present] had agreed on that day to take in 17,000 Jews at once, every Jew in the [German] Reich could have been saved.&quot; But the conference, which was held in France, accomplished little. The U.S. and Great Britain were not willing to lead the way in accepting substantially higher numbers of Jewish refugees. In one especially notorious case, the ocean liner&nbsp;St. Louis&nbsp;arrived at Miami in 1939, but was not allowed to disembark more than 900 passengers &mdash; nearly all of them Jewish refugees. The ship returned to Europe, where many of the 900 would die in the Holocaust. That same year, a Gallup Poll found 61 percent of Americans opposed to taking in 10,000 refugee children, most of them German Jews.</p><p><strong>1918 &mdash; Post-WWI Europeans:&nbsp;</strong>Hundreds of thousands of people tried to come to the U.S. after the end of World War I in 1918. Their efforts merged with the surging immigration that had characterized the decades before the war, bringing waves of Italians, Greeks, Eastern Europeans and Russians to America. These populations found assimilation more difficult than Northern Europeans had before them.</p><p>This same convergence of concerns is evident in the current panic over Syrians, which bleeds into a more general public unease over immigration in general. For Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump and others, the threat of terrorists arriving among refugees is an extension of a larger resistance to immigration. And that story is nearly as deeply woven into American history as the idea of immigration itself.</p><p><strong>In the </strong><strong>1850s</strong><strong> it was the Irish, </strong>driven onto the sea by famine, dispersing to the New World and the Australia. America also greeted many Germans in those same years before the Civil War, fleeing turmoil at home and arriving in force in New York, the Midwest and even frontier Texas.</p><p><strong>The late 1800s and early 1900s brought the first big waves of Italians, </strong><strong>Greeks</strong><strong> <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/poland-elsewhere-why-so-many-poles-came-chicago-113578" target="_blank">and Poles</a>,</strong> as well as many Jews from Russia and from eastern and central Europe. Chinese, many of them refugees from political unrest in Asia, came in great numbers in this era as well.</p><p>The U.S. set up a processing camp on Angel Island in the San Francisco Bay that operated from 1910 to 1940. Arriving immigrants from Asia stayed there for vetting and processing that could take many months. The rates of exclusion for arrivals here was far greater than for Ellis Island, the processing site in New York Harbor, hard by the Statue of Liberty.</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/2015/11/21/456857350/this-isnt-the-first-time-americans-have-shown-fear-of-refugees" target="_blank"><em>via NPR</em></a></p></p> Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:09:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/isnt-first-time-americans-have-shown-fear-refugees-113888 Mollenbeek: A look at Brussels' immigrant neighborhood http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2015-11-18/mollenbeek-look-brussels-immigrant-neighborhood-113842 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/AP_628937859283.jpg" title="(Photo: Associated Press/Virginia Mayo)" /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/233666094&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="font-size: 22px; background-color: rgb(255, 244, 244);">Belgian immigration after the Paris attacks</span></p><div style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">The investigation into the terror attacks in Paris has focused attention on Belgium. Investigators believe the attacks were planned there. Belgium has sent the largest number of foreign fighters in Europe to join ISIS. The country&rsquo;s been linked to several other terror attacks in recent years, and several with ties to a neighborhood in Brussels called Molenbeek. The area has a large Muslim and immigrant population. Brussels, like France, has struggled to integrate its immigrants. We&rsquo;ll take a look at Belgium&rsquo;s immigrant communities and the Molenbeek neighborhood in particular with Marco Martiniello, a professor of sociology at the University of Liege in Belgium.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;"><strong>Guest:&nbsp;</strong><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-1e7164c0-1c54-a2b3-d8cb-bbc59ec84ac9"><a href="http://twitter.com/MarcoMartiniell">Marco Martiniello</a> is a professor of sociology at the <a href="http://twitter.com/UniversiteLiege">University of Liege</a>.&nbsp;</span></em></p></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/233666594&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="font-size: 22px; background-color: rgb(255, 244, 244);">Is food waste unavoidable?</span></p><div style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">According to the Worldwatch Institute, Americans waste three times more food between Thanksgiving and New Year&rsquo;s than the rest of the year. Globally, we waste one-third of all food produced for us to eat (1.3 billion tons), according to the UN&rsquo;s Food and Agriculture Organization. For our EcoMyths segment, Kate Sackman of EcoMyths Alliance joins us with Dr. Barbara Willard of DePaul University, to bust the myth that large holiday food bills and waste are inevitable.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;"><strong>Guests:&nbsp;</strong></p><ul><li style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;"><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-1e7164c0-1c59-a303-7f74-b2f2c0330ca6">Dr. Barbara Willard is an environmental science communications expert, and an associate professor at <a href="http://twitter.com/DePaulU">DePaul University</a>. </span></em></li><li style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;"><em><span id="docs-internal-guid-1e7164c0-1c59-b7be-6864-fa958186bd2a">Kate Sackman is the founder and president of <a href="http://twitter.com/EcoMyths">EcoMyths Alliance</a>. </span></em></li><li style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;"><em><a href="http://twitter.com/Bkosson">Beth Kosson</a> is the education and outreach director for EcoMyths Alliance.</em></li></ul></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/233667033&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: 22px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="font-size: 22px; background-color: rgb(255, 244, 244);">Global Notes: &#39;The Good Ones&#39;</span></p><div style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Tutsi, Hutu and Twa. The three tribes from the African country of Rwanda have come together in the form of the band The Good Ones. The quartet is led by subsitance farmer Adrien Kazigira who went looking for the best musicians around, ergo the name of the band. The band consists of acoustic guitar, tight harmonies and minimal percussion ( boots). This week on Global Notes, Morning Shift and Radio M host Tony Sarabia brings us music from the band&rsquo;s lastest effort, the album Rwanda is My Home.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;"><strong>Guest:</strong>&nbsp;<em><span id="docs-internal-guid-1e7164c0-1c5d-39ba-85f5-96dd9865d025"><a href="http://twitter.com/wbezsarabia">Tony Sarabia </a>is the host of <a href="http://twitter.com/WBEZmorning">Morning Shift</a> and Radio M.&nbsp;</span></em></p></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Wed, 18 Nov 2015 14:29:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2015-11-18/mollenbeek-look-brussels-immigrant-neighborhood-113842 Gary mayor withdraws support for proposed immigration detention center http://www.wbez.org/news/gary-mayor-withdraws-support-proposed-immigration-detention-center-113748 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Democrat Karen Freeman-Wilson is greeted by a shopper at Fresh County Market in Gary, Ind. as she campaigns on election day Tuesday Nov. 8, 2011. AP PhotoSun-Times Media, Stephanie Dowell.jpg" alt="" /><p><div>The mayor of Gary, Indiana is pulling her support for the building of a detention center to house undocumented immigrants in her city.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>The lure of 200 to 300 new jobs for the struggling Steel City had been the rationale for Mayor Karen Freeman-Wilson&rsquo;s initial support.</div><div>&nbsp;&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;It wasn&rsquo;t just the jobs but it was infrastructure around the airport that we were going to have help with, along with tax base. These are taxpaying, corporate citizens,&rdquo; Freeman-Wilson told WBEZ late Wednesday evening. &ldquo;This was a very difficult decision.&rdquo;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>The for-profit Florida-based prison company <a href="http://www.geogroup.com/" target="_blank">GEO Group</a> was looking at building a $65 million processing facility for undocumented immigrants just north of the Gary Chicago International Airport. The project could have generated up to $1 million in property taxes for a city that&rsquo;s struggling to pay its police and fire personnel and keep many of its public schools open.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>But soon after it was announced, opposition began to swell.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><a href="http://www.chicagotribune.com/suburbs/post-tribune/news/ct-ptb-gary-geo-rezone-bid-st-1111-20151110-story.html" target="_blank">Opponents packed the Gary City Council chambers earlier this week </a>when the city&rsquo;s Board of Zoning Appeals was going to meet to discuss the issue. The board put off talking about GEO Group&rsquo;s proposal for another two weeks.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>In the meantime, opponents began to develop plans for a protest march this weekend. &nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;I understand Gary&rsquo;s situation. I understand the mayor is trying to find solutions to it but for a few gold coins, it&rsquo;s not right,&rdquo; said Antonio Barreda of the Community Coalition for Immigrants of Northwest Indiana.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Gary has an unemployment rate of 18 percent, more than three times the state average at 4.5 percent. But Freeman Wilson, a former Indiana attorney general and civil rights attorney, says she began to share activists&rsquo; concerns.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;The detention of individuals is not consistent with what I fought for in terms of civil and human rights,&rdquo; Freeman-Wilson said. &ldquo;I understand that it has to be done. I understand that there are folks who certainly ought to be deported but I just didn&rsquo;t think that was the type of economic development we wanted to see in the city of Gary.&rdquo;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Since 2011, GEO Group has been trying to build an immigration processing center in the Chicago area without much success. Past attempts in south suburban Crete and in Hobart, just east of Gary, failed.&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&ldquo;The GEO Group approached the City of Gary in search of a potential processing facility in an industrial area. &nbsp;While we are disappointed in the city&rsquo;s decision to withdraw from the potential opportunity, The GEO Group successfully operates safe and secure facilities all over the world and employs thousands of men and women in communities across the U.S. and overseas,&rdquo; Pablo Paez, Vice President of Corporate Relations for The GEO Group, stated in a news release. &ldquo;We look forward to continuing our efforts to identify and work with a partner in the region to bring new economic opportunities and provide the services the Federal government requires in this part of the country.&rdquo;</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><div><div><div property="content:encoded"><p><em>WBEZ&rsquo;s Michael Puente covers Northwest Indiana. Follow him on Twitter&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/MikePuenteNews">@MikePuenteNews</a>.</em></p></div></div></div></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Thu, 12 Nov 2015 11:06:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/gary-mayor-withdraws-support-proposed-immigration-detention-center-113748 Appeals court deals blow to Obama's immigration plan http://www.wbez.org/news/appeals-court-deals-blow-obamas-immigration-plan-113719 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/obama_immigration_custom-736ffe3644f565465e50f2237116dc6cad6f0c2a-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res455440370" previewtitle="It was about a year ago that President Obama announced executive actions that would shield millions of immigrants from deportation."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="It was about a year ago that President Obama announced executive actions that would shield millions of immigrants from deportation." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/10/obama_immigration_custom-736ffe3644f565465e50f2237116dc6cad6f0c2a-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 414px; width: 620px;" title="It was about a year ago that President Obama announced executive actions that would shield millions of immigrants from deportation. (Pool/Getty Images)" /></div><div><div><p>&nbsp;</p><p>(UPDATED AT 11:32 A.M. ET.)</p></div></div></div><p>A federal appeals court in New Orleans dealt President Obama a big blow on Monday&nbsp;<a href="http://www.ca5.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/15/15-40238-CV0.pdf">when it ruled</a>&nbsp;that Obama had overstepped his legal authority in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2014/11/20/365519963/obama-will-announce-relief-for-up-to-5-million-immigrants">attempting to shield</a>up to 5 million immigrants from deportation.</p><p>The Obama administration has vowed to appeal the decision to the Supreme Court.</p><p>NPR&#39;s Richard Gonzales filed this report for our Newscast unit:</p><blockquote><div><p><em>&quot;The 2-to-1 ruling upholds&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/02/17/386905806/federal-judge-blocks-obama-s-executive-actions-on-immigration">an injunction by a federal judge in Texas</a>&nbsp;who blocked President Obama&#39;s executive actions on immigration.</em></p><p><em>&quot;It was just about a year ago when the president announced his plan to allow parents of U.S. citizens and permanent residents to remain here and work without fear of deportation.</em></p><p><em>&quot;He also wanted to extend that protection to younger immigrants brought here as children. That plan was challenged by 26 states, led by Texas. The appellate court agreed that the president had overreached his authority.</em></p><p><em>&quot;Immigration activists argued that the president was acting within his authority.&quot;</em></p></div></blockquote><p>In a statement, Department of Justice spokesman Patrick Rodenbush said the department disagrees with the ruling.</p><p>&quot;The Department of Justice remains committed to taking steps that will resolve the immigration litigation as quickly as possible in order to allow DHS to bring greater accountability to our immigration system by prioritizing the removal of the worst offenders, not people who have long ties to the United States and who are raising American children,&quot; Rodenbush said.</p><p>At issue here is whether the executive actions fit within the powers of prosecutorial discretion granted to the executive branch.</p><p>A three-judge panel of the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals said Obama&#39;s executive action goes beyond merely saying that the executive would not try to deport these immigrants. Instead, the majority argues, Obama&#39;s executive action also allows those individuals to be &quot;lawfully present&quot; in the United States.</p><p>&quot;[Obama&#39;s immigration plan] is foreclosed by Congress&#39; careful plan; the program is &#39;manifestly contrary to the statute&#39; and therefore was properly enjoined,&quot; the two judges in the majority write.</p><p>In English, it means that the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952 expressly lays out how and when an immigrant can legally remain in the country. The president, the court ruled, cannot unilaterally change that, even if Congress refuses to enact new immigration laws.</p><p>Another sticking point in this case is that the Obama administration argued that the court should not even be taking up this issue because it cannot review prosecutorial discretion action that the executive is making on a case-by-case basis.</p><p>The Obama administration argued that&#39;s how it would roll out this program, but the court dismissed that argument.</p><p>The lone dissenter in the case, Judge Carolyn Dineen King, writes that when the court dismissed that claim, it went way too far.</p><p>&quot;Although the very face of the Memorandum makes clear that it must be applied with such [case-by-case] discretion, the district court concluded on its own &mdash; prior to [the immigration program&#39;s] implementation, based on improper burden-shifting, and without seeing the need even to hold an evidentiary hearing &mdash; that the Memorandum is a sham, a mere &#39;pretext&#39; for the Executive&#39;s plan &#39;not [to] enforce the immigration laws as to over four million illegal aliens,&#39; &quot; King writes.</p><p>King concludes: &quot;I have a firm and definite conviction that a mistake has been made.&quot;</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/11/10/455438464/appeals-court-deals-blow-to-obamas-immigration-plan?ft=nprml&amp;f=455438464" target="_blank"><em> via NPR</em></a></p></p> Tue, 10 Nov 2015 11:46:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/appeals-court-deals-blow-obamas-immigration-plan-113719 Can Chicago brag about the size of its Polish population? http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/can-chicago-brag-about-size-its-polish-population-113490 <p><p><em>Editor&#39;s note: This story about the number of Poles and folks of Polish ancestry has a related <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/poland-elsewhere-why-so-many-poles-came-chicago-113578" target="_blank">companion piece, which explains what drove successive waves of Polish migration to Chicago in the first place</a>.</em></p><p>Chicago is a proud city. We have a lot to brag about:<a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/building-skyscrapers-chicagos-swampy-soil-111658" target="_blank"> amazing architecture</a>, an expansive<a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/how-has-chicago%E2%80%99s-coastline-changed-over-decades-104328" target="_blank"> lakefront park system</a>, and <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/beyond-deep-dish-exploring-chicagos-other-native-foods-112815">distinctive cuisine,</a> to name a few. This year, we even had opportunities to brag about the Chicago Cubs.</p><p>Sometimes, though, we brag about things that may not actually be true. Questioner Todd Leiter-Weintraub wonders about one such boasting point.</p><p>&ldquo;It was something my father told me,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;He&rsquo;s a smart guy, but he likes to remind people how smart he is so he was like &lsquo;You know, Todd, Chicago has the largest Polish population outside of Warsaw. I bet you didn&rsquo;t know that.&rsquo;&rdquo;</p><p>Todd does know, because he&rsquo;s heard it a half-dozen times already. But recently, he&rsquo;s been wondering if it&rsquo;s actually true. After all, Chicago has changed a lot since the 1980s, when his dad enjoyed trotting out that impressive &ldquo;fact.&rdquo; His question for Curious City:</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align: center;"><em>Is it really true that the Chicago is the largest Polish City outside of Warsaw?</em></p><p>Todd&rsquo;s dad, Jay Weintraub, is not the only one who thinks so. Curious City has six other queries about whether or not we are actually No. 1 outside of Warsaw. We thought it would be simple: Just find a demographer who knows the answer. Bam. Done. But the question of who is No. 1 outside of Poland turns out to be surprisingly complex. For one thing, the answer changes over time, and it depends on what you mean by &ldquo;Chicago.&rdquo; There are also different metrics for measuring &ldquo;Polish&rdquo; in different time periods, and in other countries.</p><p>In taking it on comprehensively, we&rsquo;re breaking new ground: As far as we can find, nobody has conducted a study that compares the leading candidate cities and metropolitan areas over the decades. Read on for an evaluation of who gets bragging rights in the contest for demographic &ldquo;Polishness&rdquo; between cities, and the separate and perhaps <a href="http://america2050.org/pdf/beyondmegalopolislang.pdf" target="_blank">more relevant </a>contest between metropolitan regions.</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Ancestry city to city</span></p><p>Questioner Todd Leiter-Weintraub says he&rsquo;s sure his father was referring to the city of Chicago, not the Chicago region, when he repeated his claim, so we&rsquo;ll start there.</p><div class="image-insert-image ">Right away, we can say Chicago is not the largest Polish city outside of Warsaw because there are two cities, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Łódź" target="_blank">Łódź</a> and<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wroc%C5%82aw" target="_blank"> Wroclaw</a>, that at any given time, appear to have a&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_and_towns_in_Poland" target="_blank">larger population</a> (by definition Polish) than Chicago&rsquo;s Polish ancestry. But if we reframe the question to find the largest Polish city outside of Poland, that sets up a nice rivalry between Chicago and a couple of other major cities you&rsquo;ve probably heard of. In this contest, sticking to the city limits is, well, limiting, but Chicago is still a strong contender. After all, Chicago is famous for welcoming tens of thousands of Polish immigrants in the 19th century. According to Chicago historian Dominic Pacyga, Poles saw Chicago as a land of opportunity.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/city limits category usa.png" style="height: 349px; width: 400px; float: right;" title="(WBEZ/Logan Jaffe)" /></div></div><p>&ldquo;If you can&rsquo;t make it in Chicago, you can&rsquo;t make it anywhere,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;You had the stock yards, you had the tanneries, you had the steel mills, tremendous industrial growth in the 19th century just attracted people.&rdquo;</p><p>By 1920 there were 151,260 Polish-born people living in Chicago, and by 1930 &mdash; six years after the federal government drastically <a href="http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publication/2008/03/20080307112004ebyessedo0.1716272.html#axzz3pOVmnds4" target="_blank">limited the number of Poles who could immigrate</a> &mdash; there were about 400,000 people of Polish &ldquo;stock&rdquo; as measured by the census. In the 1950s, Chicago got a boost as tens of thousands of Poles displaced by WWII settled here. And we got yet another boost in the 1980s, when Chicago welcomed Polish political refugees during the <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/13/opinion/the-rise-and-fall-of-solidarity.html" target="_blank">tumultuous Solidarity period in Poland</a>.</p><p>However, as early as the 1950s, successful well-established Polish-Chicagoans have done what other immigrant groups in Chicago do: move out to the suburbs. And while Chicago certainly received many Poles over the years, other American cities also saw their share of Polish immigrants during all of those migrations, particularly Detroit, Pittsburgh and New York. When immigration to Chicago started to taper off back in 2007, newspaper accounts reported that <a href="http://voicesofny.org/2012/02/new-york-dethrones-chicago-as-the-largest-polish-city-outside-of-warsaw/" target="_blank">Chicago had been passed</a>&nbsp;by New York City. Unfortunately, these accounts were only half-right.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/chicagonycpolishchart4.png" style="height: 357px; width: 620px;" title="New York City surpassed Chicago's Polish population sometime before 1940. (Source: U.S. Census Bureau)" /></div><div class="image-insert-image ">Based on the best information we can find, New York has been ahead of Chicago for at least 35 years, and possibly much longer than that. Currently, a quick search of the U.S. Census American Factfinder reveals that, as of 2014, the city of Chicago is behind New York in its Polish ancestry population. That survey puts Chicago at about 150,000 and New York at about 205,000. But when you look at the historic census data, it&rsquo;s clear that if New York &ldquo;passed&rdquo; Chicago, it was much earlier than 2007.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/nyc-chicago-population.png" style="height: 230px; width: 350px; float: right;" title="Source: American Community Survey 2014 estimates" /></div></div><div class="image-insert-image ">The U.S. Census Bureau provides reliable &ldquo;Polish-Ancestry&rdquo; data back to 1980, and New York was ahead then. Before that, the U.S.Census Bureau measured &ldquo;foreign stock,&rdquo; which includes immigrants and second-generation Polish-Americans. According to the data we could find, New York&rsquo;s Polish &ldquo;stock&rdquo; was ahead of Chicago&rsquo;s at least as far back as 1940. Chicago may have been ahead of New York around the turn of the century, but New York has definitely been No. 1 since 1980 &mdash; and likely decades earlier.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">How could this be true? Joseph Salvo, a demographer in New York&rsquo;s Department of City Planning, says it&rsquo;s not so surprising.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&ldquo;I want to be fair to Chicago here. New York is three times the size of Chicago. Our sheer size gives us a large volume of people,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;For that reason, we can surprise people when it comes to the size of groups.&rdquo;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">Salvo points out that while there may be more people of Polish ancestry in New York, they&rsquo;ve always been more diffuse and spread out than in Chicago. And, because it is a smaller city, Chicago has a much higher percentage of people with Polish ancestry &mdash; 20 percent compared to just over two percent in New York. While New York has always had a handful of predominantly Polish neighborhoods, it has never had anything like Chicago&rsquo;s &ldquo;Polish Downtown,&quot; which has twice the area of Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York&rsquo;s biggest historically Polish neighborhood.</div><p>Salvo also thinks the long misperception might have something to do with other differences between the Polish populations in New York and Chicago. He observes some of the largest Polish ancestry neighborhoods in New York tend to be heavily Jewish and believes New York&rsquo;s Polish population probably includes large numbers of Jews of Polish descent. Chicago also has Jews with Polish ancestry, but not as many as New York.</p><p>Salvo says when comparing New York to Chicago, Chicagoans may not take into account Jews of Polish ancestry, because of the historical significance of the Polish Catholics: &ldquo;My wife works at a school that is run by the Sisters of the Resurrection, a Polish order with very very deep roots in Chicago. I&rsquo;m always hearing stories about the nuns and how they [visit] Chicago. So I want to give Chicago some credit, the Polish Catholic population in Chicago is quite legendary in some ways.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/city%20limits%20category%20global.png" style="float: right; height: 349px; width: 400px;" title="(WBEZ/Logan Jaffe)" /><span style="font-size:24px;">But what about Europe?</span></p><p>Legendary or not, it&rsquo;s a bit hard to accept we&rsquo;re No. 2 to New York. And there may be worse news. We&rsquo;ve been focusing on the U.S., but immigration from Poland to the U.S. has declined in the last 10 years. Poland, on the other hand, is still losing many young, talented workers to other countries. If they&rsquo;re not coming here, where are they going?</p><p>Pick up any European newspaper for the answer. You can read about Poles migrating all over Europe: Ireland, Germany, Sweden, and most of all, the United Kingdom. Because of that, we estimate London passed New York and Chicago as the biggest Polish city outside of Poland sometime between 2011 and 2014.</p><p>Here&rsquo;s why we think that&rsquo;s the case. In 2004 the U.K. opened its borders and labor markets to the European Union, and hundreds of thousands of Poles took the opportunity to migrate. Since the 1990s, Poles have learned English in school, and the wages and standard of living in the U.K. are much higher than those in Poland.&nbsp;Richard Butterwick-Pawlikowski, a Polish-Briton and a Professor of Polish-Lithuanian History at University College London says that Poles were initially quite welcome, but over time, things changed. &ldquo;Reaction to Polish migration has become more hostile in the last few years,&rdquo; he says, pointing to pressures put on education, social and health services.</p><p>Butterwick-Pawlikowski says Poles are scapegoats &mdash; <a href="http://www.bbc.com/news/business-29910497" target="_blank">studies show they pay more in taxes</a> than they receive in social benefits. And despite complaints from British-born workers, he says, Polish migrants remain welcome in the eyes of employers.&nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;If you&rsquo;re a British employer and you&rsquo;ve got the choice between an educated polite immigrant from Poland, with really very good English, and a great work ethic, and a local born person who is uneducated, unqualified, unwilling, unable to treat customers properly, then it&rsquo;s a no-brainer: You&rsquo;re going to go for the immigrant,&rdquo; he says.</p><p>Whether they&rsquo;re welcome or unwelcome, most of the Polish migrants have stayed, and many have become citizens.</p><p>Does London actually have more Poles than New York and Chicago? The most recent reliable numbers come from the 2011 British census, which indicated there were about 150,000 people in London who were born in Poland, still fewer than New York or Chicago. But since then, the total number of Polish people in the U.K. has grown by<a href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2856046/Britain-home-1-3m-eastern-Europeans-Poles-KRAKOW.html"> 75 percent or more</a>. If you assume that London has maintained its share of the overall growth, then London&rsquo;s Polish population would be over 250,000, nearly 50,000 more than New York. Again, no expert we encountered knows the exact number, but Richard Butterwick-Pawlikowski agrees our estimate is plausible.</p><p>Which means, Chicago is the city with the third largest Polish population outside of Poland. Bad news for anybody who wants to boast about Chicago.</p><p>If you&rsquo;ve ever succumbed to buying the urban legend yourself, you shouldn&rsquo;t feel too bad. According to <a href="http://www.robparal.com/" target="_top">Rob Paral, a Chicago-based demographer</a>, it&rsquo;s easy for a city to love the legend of identifying with a group and then exaggerate the numbers &mdash; and that goes for Polish-Americans as well as much smaller groups.</p><p>&ldquo;There are a number of groups where people will tell you &lsquo;There are about a hundred thousand of us in Chicago,&rsquo;&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;Unfortunately, if you added up all the 100,000 groups, we&rsquo;d be a city of 10 million or something.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/metro%20category%20global2.png" style="height: 349px; width: 400px; float: right;" title="(WBEZ/Logan Jaffe)" /><span style="font-size:24px;">Let&rsquo;s compare metros for a change</span></p><p>We may not be a city of ten million, but our metropolitan area is almost that big. And if you think about it, &ldquo;Chicago&rdquo; has come to mean more than &ldquo;the city of Chicago&rdquo; to most people in the area. The city might be the economic heart of the region, but<a href="http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/323.html" target="_blank"> hundreds of thousands</a> of people commute into the city from the suburbs. And if you look at Polish ancestry census figures, provided by demographer Rob Paral, you see that the number of Chicago residents with Polish ancestry began to decline in the 1980s, all the while growing in the suburbs. Dominic Pacyga says Polish-Americans in the region are now &ldquo;mostly suburban.&rdquo;</p><p>The Chicago metro is actually more suburban than the New York metro. About half of the people in the New York metro live outside of New York City. In our metro, it&rsquo;s more like two-thirds, and people of Polish ancestry are five times more likely to live in the suburbs than the city.</p><p>Which means, that when it comes to comparing Polish ancestry of metropolitan areas, we win! The Chicago area has a Polish ancestry population of just less than 900,000. New York&rsquo;s is closer to 800,000, and London&rsquo;s is much smaller. Translation: The Chicago metropolitan area is the largest Polish metropolitan area outside of Poland.</p><p>That large Polish and Polish-American population has had a real impact. You can r<a href="http://www.chicagoelections.com/po/about-the-chicago-election-board.html" target="_blank">egister to vote</a> in Polish. You can get a Polish interpreter<a href="http://www.advocatehealth.com/luth/body.cfm?id=141&amp;action=detail&amp;ref=381" target="_blank"> if you go to the right hospital</a>. There are fifty-two Catholic Churches in the Archdiocese of Chicago that offer Mass in Polish, and there are 104 priests who speak Polish. We have <a href="http://www.polskieradio.com/" target="_blank">Polish radio</a> and <a href="http://www.polvision.com/" target="_top">Polish TV</a>.</p><p>For a more personal spin, take the story of Kasia McCormick and her family, the Krynskis. She came with her parents as a baby in the 1980s, political refugees from the Soviet-controlled Polish government. Her father worked construction at first, and her mother taught pre-school, but now the family has a<a href="http://domitp.com/electric-potato-grater" target="_blank"> business importing goods from Poland</a> to sell in Chicago. They bring in Polish clothing, China, and Christmas ornaments, among other goods. She says there are so many Poles and Polish-Americans that one of their best-selling imports is an appliance only used to make potato pancakes.</p><p>&ldquo;If you ever grated potatoes by hand,&rdquo; she says, &ldquo;you would probably look for an electric potato grater your second time because it&rsquo;s so much work. I think we&rsquo;re one of the only places in the states that actual carry that.&rdquo; The Krynskis rely on a large Polish community here for their livelihood.</p><p>That Polish community has also influenced Chicago&rsquo;s sense of itself. Paral says Chicago likes to identify with Polish working-class culture. He cites a phrase used by Mike Ditka, the legendary Polish-American football coach.</p><p>&ldquo;Ditka used to say the Chicago Bears were a &lsquo;<a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1986-01-19/features/8601050626_1_chicago-magazine-sunday-s-super-bowl-mike-ditka" target="_blank">Grabowski team&rsquo;</a>,&rdquo; referring to a typical-sounding Polish name. &ldquo;It was his way of saying we don&rsquo;t finesse things. We&rsquo;re not fancy. We&rsquo;re just kind of tough and we get the job done. Chicago was always kind of proud of that and reveled in it.&rdquo;</p><p>According to historian Dominic Pacyga, Chicago&rsquo;s Polishness is legendary in Poland itself, and it doesn&rsquo;t matter whether Chicago&rsquo;s is the largest Polish city or not.</p><p>&ldquo;It is the Polish home in America. And it&rsquo;s a symbol of opportunity for most people, a place where you know where you go and talk to people and people will understand you. I&rsquo;m not just talking about language here,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;That will remain for the foreseeable future. Unless the next wave of immigrants are from Mars.&rdquo;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/ToddWeintraub%20Photoedited.jpg" style="height: 201px; width: 270px; float: left;" title="Questioner Todd Leiter-Weintraub with his wife, Sharon. " /><span style="font-size:24px;">More about Todd &ldquo;I know, Dad, because you already told me six or seven times&rdquo; Leiter-Weintraub</span></p><p>Our questioner Todd Leiter-Weintraub grew up in Highland Park and now lives in the suburb of Western Springs. As far as he knows, he is not Polish-American, but he claims to be an &ldquo;Eastern-European mongrel&rdquo; with Czech, Russian, and German ancestry. He writes catalog copy for WW Grainger, and uses the Oxford comma in his<a href="http://www.grainger.com/category/compressed-air-treatment/pneumatics/ecatalog/N-c94?ssf=3" target="_blank"> descriptions of compressed air treatment</a> solutions. He says his father, Jay Weintraub, will get a kick out of this story, even if it means he&rsquo;s only half right.</p><hr /><div><p dir="ltr"><a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1AvOb6ZXA4k6bjebQbYwf9ehJyaKLCWYb_6OayDUgdJA/edit?usp=sharing" name="notes" target="_blank"><span style="font-size:10px;"><em>Notes and citations for demographic data</em></span></a></p><p dir="ltr"><span style="font-size:10px;"><em>FN 1 Whenever possible, we use Polish &quot;Ancestry&quot; as documented in the U.S. Census Bureau since 1980. &ldquo;Ancestry&rdquo; is self-reported, which means anybody who claims they have Polish ancestry &mdash;immediate or quite distant &mdash; counts. For periods before 1980, or cities outside the US, we use different metrics, which we explain in the relevant sections</em></span></p><p dir="ltr"><em style="font-size: 10px;">FN2: &ldquo;Stock&rdquo; is a different measurement than ancestry. It refers to anybody who was born in Poland, or who has a parent born in Poland. As such, it excludes third generation Polish-Americans or people whose ancestry goes back even farther.</em></p><p dir="ltr"><em style="font-size: 10px;">FN3 Since &quot;foreign stock&quot; only includes first and second generation Polish-Americans, it&#39;s possible Chicago&#39;s Polish &ldquo;ancestry&rdquo; population &mdash; as measured in today&rsquo;s terms &mdash; might have been higher than New York&#39;s from 1940 to 1980 if Chicago had more third or fourth generation Polish-Americans in that period.</em></p><p dir="ltr"><em style="font-size: 10px;">FN4 FN: The UK census doesn&#39;t measure ancestry, but it does measure both Polish language speakers, and the number of people born in Poland. These are both tools we can use to obtain a conservative estimate of the number of Britons of Polish heritage. Anecdotally, we understand that there are tens of thousands of Polish-Britons who emigrated in earlier periods, including following World War II. This would suggest the &quot;ancestry&quot; population in 2011 would be higher than 150,000 but we can&#39;t say how much higher.</em></p></div><p><em>Corrections: An earlier version of this story misstated the point of comparison between the&nbsp;Chicago metropolitan area and areas within Poland. The most appropriate comparison is: The Chicago metro area&nbsp;is the largest Polish&nbsp;</em><em>metropolitan area&nbsp;</em><em>(Polish immigrants and people of Polish ancestry) outside of Poland.&nbsp;</em></p><p><em>We regret we misspelled Kasia McCormick&#39;s maiden name. The proper spelling is Krynski.&nbsp;</em></p></p> Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:28:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/can-chicago-brag-about-size-its-polish-population-113490 StoryCorps Chicago: ‘Do I belong?' http://www.wbez.org/series/storycorps/storycorps-chicago-%E2%80%98do-i-belong-113489 <p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/StoryCorps%20151023%20Margaret%20Agatha%20bh.jpg" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="Agatha Vonderberg brought her mom, Margaret Wieczorek, to the StoryCorps booth. (Courtesy of StoryCorps)" /></div><div class="image-insert-image "><div>&nbsp;</div><div><div style="text-align: justify;">In December of&nbsp;1981, Margaret Wieczorek and her husband were married in Communist Poland. They&#39;d planned on leaving the country, but within a week of their wedding the government declared a state of martial law. This meant that movement within the country was severely restricted and their plans for leaving had to be put on hold.</div><div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div><div style="text-align: justify;">A few months from now, Margaret, her husband Andy and their daughter Agatha will celebrate 30 years in the United States. Agatha brought her mom to the StoryCorps booth recently and asked her about the decision to marry and what it meant to leave Poland.</div><div style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</div></div><div style="text-align: justify;"><em><a href="http://www.storycorps.org">StoryCorps</a>&rsquo; mission is to provide Americans of all backgrounds and beliefs with the opportunity to share, record and preserve their stories. These excerpts, edited by WBEZ, present some of our favorites from the current visit, as well as from previous trips.</em></div><div>&nbsp;</div></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 23 Oct 2015 16:43:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/storycorps/storycorps-chicago-%E2%80%98do-i-belong-113489 Why do we even have borders anymore? http://www.wbez.org/programs/takeaway/2015-10-21/why-do-we-even-have-borders-anymore-113449 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/A member of Egypt&#039;s security forces stands on a watchtower in North Sinai as seen from across the border in southern Israel July 1, 2015.jpg" alt="" /><p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/story_main/public/story/images/border.jpg?itok=hWiYv2Cy" style="height: 349px; width: 620px;" title="A member of Egypt's security forces stands on a watchtower in North Sinai as seen from across the border in southern Israel July 1, 2015. (Amir Cohen/Reuters)" /></p><div><p>As Philippe Legrain, former economic adviser to the president of the European Commission,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thetakeaway.org/story/how-migrants-could-boost-europes-economy/">told The Takeaway</a>&nbsp;last month, &quot;These asylum seekers and refugees can also play a very valuable role as workers, as taxpayers, very often also as innovators and entrepreneurs who can boost growth and help cope with an aging society.&quot;</p></div><p dir="ltr">Alex Tabarrok, a professor of economics at George Mason University, takes Legrain&#39;s argument one step further. Tabarrok, author of the forthcoming book &quot;How to Save Humanity,&quot; says the world should do away with borders altogether.</p><aside><div id="dfp-ad-pri_ros_atf_300x600-wrapper"><div id="dfp-ad-pri_ros_atf_300x600"><div id="google_ads_iframe_/1009951/PRI_STORY_ATF_0__container__"><div dir="ltr" id="ebDiv34065191028639674">&ldquo;Borders are fine for controlling governments; I&rsquo;m not against different places having different rules,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;But they&rsquo;re bad for controlling people. I&rsquo;d like to see a much more open world&nbsp;&mdash; a world in which people are free to move about.&rdquo;</div></div></div></div></aside><p>Tabarrok says that the world should do away with borders for both economic and moral reasons.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;Some people in the world, through no fault of their own, are born in an economic desert, or they&rsquo;re born in a place where there&rsquo;s a civil war going on,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;We have imprisoned them there by building walls, barriers&nbsp;and sending people with machine guns and saying, &lsquo;You can&rsquo;t move.&rsquo;&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">Though no serious leader of a nation-state would earnestly suggest the dissolution of national borders, Tabarrok says there is historical precedent for such an idea.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;If you go back to the 19th century in the United States, for example, we had virtually completely open borders,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;Anyone from anywhere in the world could come to the United States and make a home here with almost no paperwork whatsoever.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">At the time, the US&nbsp;government was trying to encourage settlers to move to its vast and newly-acquired Western territories, something that helped to push out existing residents, like the Native Americans. But Tabarrok says the American West still has plenty of land to offer newcomers.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;There is still plenty of room to grow in the United States, and in the developed world more generally,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;We have lots and lots of room, and we could have a lot more people.&rdquo;</p><p>As technology breaks down barriers between communication and commerce, Tabarrok argues that it&rsquo;s time to fundamentally rethink the nation-state.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;It&rsquo;s quite amazing when you look around,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;Ideas flow freely all throughout the world, and capital &mdash; money &mdash; flows freely throughout the entire world. The only thing which doesn&rsquo;t flow freely is labor. And yet, the right to vote with one&rsquo;s feet, the right to migrate, and the right to move &mdash; this is one of the most fundamental human rights. And yet, in our world today, we&rsquo;ve divided it, we&rsquo;ve separated it, and we&rsquo;ve created a system, really, of global apartheid.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">According to Tabarrok, economists have calculated that a world with completely open borders could double global GDP. And not just for one year, but for every year going forward.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;Even if we allowed, just in the developed world, our labor force to increase by say, one percent, that alone would be worth more than all of the world&rsquo;s foreign aid combined,&rdquo; he says.</p><p dir="ltr">It seems like a nice idea in theory, but the political will for such a plan doesn&#39;t exist. But Tabarrok says the tide may one day shift.</p><p dir="ltr">&ldquo;We feel now today that it&rsquo;s wrong to discriminate against someone on the basis of race, gender, or sexual preference. And yet, we discriminate against people based upon where they&rsquo;re born,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;I think when people realize this is a moral issue, they&rsquo;ll change their feelings about borders.&rdquo;</p><p dir="ltr">&mdash; <a href="http://www.pri.org/stories/2015-10-21/argument-taking-down-all-worlds-international-borders"><em>via The Takeaway</em></a></p></p> Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:20:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/takeaway/2015-10-21/why-do-we-even-have-borders-anymore-113449 In a first, border agent indicted for killing Mexican teen across fence http://www.wbez.org/news/first-border-agent-indicted-killing-mexican-teen-across-fence-113271 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/burnett_azshooting3-1f7b7e61b609870f010327c32580cba275c96438-s1200.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res446877245"><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Diego Roman Elena Rodriguez stands on the spot where his brother, 16-year-old Jose Antonio Elena Rodriguez, was killed by a Border Patrol agent on International Street in Nogales, Mexico, in 2012." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/10/08/burnett_azshooting5_wide-d159ba9a06ffda1090407b38ad00dc2a4349b9bf-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 337px; width: 600px;" title="Diego Roman Elena Rodriguez stands on the spot where his brother, 16-year-old Jose Antonio Elena Rodriguez, was killed by a Border Patrol agent on International Street in Nogales, Mexico, in 2012. (John Burnett/NPR)" /></div><div><p>On Friday, in a federal courtroom in Tucson, Ariz., an agent of the U.S. Border Patrol for the first time will be arraigned on charges of murder for shooting and killing a Mexican national across the international border.</p></div></div><p>On Oct. 10, 2012, Agent Lonnie Ray Swartz, standing behind the border fence in Nogales, Ariz., shot 16-year-old Jose Antonio Elena Rodriguez, who was walking along a sidewalk in Nogales, Sonora. The agent claims he acted in self-defense against rock-throwers on the other side.</p><p>If Swartz is convicted of the intentional murder of Elena Rodriguez, he faces up to life in prison.</p><p><img alt="The fence between Nogales, Mexico, and Nogales, Ariz., sits atop a steep embankment. It's 20 to 25 feet high, with 3.5-inch gaps between the bars." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/10/09/img_0288_custom-c1f018b26e9aa17fe25ff03ab373977682cc4463-s300-c85.jpg" style="height: 376px; width: 300px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: right;" title="The fence between Nogales, Mexico, and Nogales, Ariz., sits atop a steep embankment. It's 20 to 25 feet high, with 3.5-inch gaps between the bars. (John Burnett/NPR)" /></p><p><strong>The Embankment</strong></p><p>Standing on International Street in Nogales, Mexico, in the exact spot where the teenager was shot to death, it&#39;s a wonder how Swartz could have felt threatened by rock-throwers.</p><p>The border fence across the street from where the teenager was shot is built on top of a steep embankment, high above the street where the Mexican rock-throwers allegedly were.</p><p>They would have to throw their projectiles 40 to 50 feet up in the air to clear the top of the fence, and the rocks would have to drop straight down to harm an agent standing on the other side. Or they would have to aim their rocks to fly through the 3.5-inch gaps between the iron bars.</p><p>Swartz, firing from behind the fence, shot Elena Rodriguez 10 times &mdash; eight times in the back, according to the Sonoran state medical examiner.</p><p>Diego Roman Elena Rodriguez is here at the spot where his brother died. He&#39;s a 22-year-old taxi driver with wispy facial hair and a fierce expression.</p><p>&quot;Sure, we are pleased to know that this agent knows what he did,&quot; Roman says. &quot;It pleases me that they exposed him, and they&#39;re not protecting him just because he&#39;s an American. On the contrary, they&#39;ve indicted him.&quot;</p><p><strong>Split-Second Decisions</strong></p><div id="res446876845"><div><p>Swartz&#39;s fellow agents in the rugged Tucson Sector &mdash; where human smugglers, drug smugglers and rock-throwers are common &mdash; have come to his defense.</p></div></div><p>&quot;A lot of us have been involved in rockings; I&#39;ve been involved in rockings,&quot; says Art Del Cueto, president of the Tuscon chapter of the Border Patrol union. &quot;You have individuals, border patrol agents, they have to make split-second, life-and-death decisions. Unfortunately, with social media it&#39;s very easy to &#39;Monday-morning quarterback&#39; somebody.&quot;</p><p>Saturday will mark three years to the day since Elena Rodriguez was killed. The U.S. attorney&#39;s office in Tucson has not said why it took so long to bring charges against the agent.</p><p>A source close to the case, who asked not to be named, says he believes the government decided to prosecute because of the alleged use of deadly force involved. If forensics investigators from Sonora state are correct, Swartz emptied his service handgun on the 16-year-old, reloaded, and kept firing.</p><p>Witnesses in Mexico say the teenager was just walking down the sidewalk, not throwing rocks. There&#39;s a video of the nighttime incident recorded from a security camera, but it hasn&#39;t been made public.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Diego next to posters of his brother Jose. The agent involved in Jose's death will be the first ever charged with murder for a cross-border shooting." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/10/08/burnett_azshooting3-1f7b7e61b609870f010327c32580cba275c96438-s300-c85.jpg" style="text-align: center; height: 375px; width: 500px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="Diego next to posters of his brother Jose. The agent involved in Jose's death will be the first ever charged with murder for a cross-border shooting. (John Burnett/NPR)" /></p><p><strong>The Benefit Of The Doubt</strong></p><p>This is one of several controversial cross-border shootings involving Border Patrol agents and Mexicans that have gotten a lot of attention in recent years.</p><p>&quot;The indictment is the first time in the history of the country when an agent has been charged with a cross-border shooting. That makes it significant by itself,&quot; says Lee Gelernt, deputy director of the ACLU&#39;s Immigrants&#39; Rights Project, who is involved in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/documents/2015/oct/RodriguezSwartz.pdf">a parallel civil lawsuit</a>&nbsp;in which the mother of the teenager is suing the agent.</p><p>Swartz claims immunity from litigation because the U.S. Constitution does not apply in Mexico, but a federal judge in Arizona ruled that it can go forward. That decision is on appeal.</p><p>Convictions of federal agents are rare outside of corruption cases.</p><p>Johnny Sutton, a former U.S. attorney for the Western District of Texas, is one of the few prosecutors who has sent two Border Patrol agents to prison. They were convicted in 2006 of shooting a Mexican drug dealer and covering up evidence. After a sustained outcry from critics who believed the pair did nothing wrong, the agents later had their sentences commuted by President George W. Bush.</p><p>&quot;It&#39;s really hard to prosecute border agents, because their job is extremely hard,&quot; Sutton says. &quot;We&#39;ve asked them to do extremely difficult things in extremely difficult locations, and people give them the benefit of the doubt &mdash; including juries.&quot;</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/2015/10/09/446866267/in-a-first-border-agent-indicted-for-killing-mexican-teen-across-fence?ft=nprml&amp;f=446866267"><em>via NPR</em></a></p></p> Fri, 09 Oct 2015 15:15:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/first-border-agent-indicted-killing-mexican-teen-across-fence-113271 The Supreme Court's new term: here's what to watch http://www.wbez.org/news/supreme-courts-new-term-heres-what-watch-113172 <p><p style="text-align: justify;">The United States Supreme Court opens a new term Monday, and, as always, many of the most contentious issues facing the country &mdash; including abortion, birth control coverage, public employee unions, affirmative action in higher education, voter participation &mdash; are likely to be before the court.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">But there is a difference this term. Chief Justice John Roberts, despite his overall conservative record on the bench, has become a punching bag for candidates vying for the Republican presidential nomination.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/first%20three.JPG" style="height: 749px; width: 250px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; float: right;" title="" />Presidential candidates have often criticized the court, pledging that they would appoint a different kind of justice. It&#39;s been more than a half century, though, since politicians have put a chief justice, by name, in the cross-hairs of criticism. What is puzzling about the Roberts critique is that the right hailed this George W. Bush appointee when he was named ten years ago, and Roberts has a consistently conservative record on most issues.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">He has voted with the court&#39;s conservatives to strike down most of the legal limits on campaign spending, opening election campaigns nationwide to a flood of new cash. He has consistently supported an individual&#39;s right to bear arms. He wrote the court&#39;s opinion in the 2013 case&nbsp;<em>Shelby County v. Holder</em>, which struck down the heart of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. He has consistently opposed any sort of racial preferences. Last term, he wrote the leading dissent when the court struck down state laws banning same-sex marriage.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">On only one flashpoint subject has he parted ways with some or all or the court&#39;s most conservative members: Obamacare.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Yet, in the first two televised debates, Republican candidates took turns pummeling him, characterizing his nomination as a grave mistake, and suggesting that Roberts follows a political path rather than a legal one. If President George W. Bush had appointed someone more conservative than Roberts, said Sen. Ted Cruz, &quot;Obamacare would have been struck down three years ago, and the marriage laws of all fifty states would be on the books.&quot;</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/last2.JPG" style="text-align: justify; float: right; height: 495px; width: 250px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="" /></p><p style="text-align: justify;">Never mind that Roberts actually dissented in the same-sex marriage case.&nbsp;Jeb Bush, whose brother appointed Roberts, was less strident, but suggested nonetheless that Roberts was a &quot;politically expedient&quot; choice because he was a conservative whom the Senate could confirm. And Gov. Mike Huckabee said that he would require anyone he appointed to oppose all abortions and to see religious freedom as the first of all rights.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Nobody thinks it will be easy for Chief Justice Roberts or the other justices to ignore such talk. But, the job of the chief justice is, among other things, to guard the independence of the judiciary and to preserve the court&#39;s institutional role as a dispassionate arbiter of the nation&#39;s laws and the Constitution.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Notwithstanding the critique in the GOP debates, the Roberts court is most often a conservative court. But it is closely divided, and last term, for the first time in a decade, the court&#39;s liberals prevailed in the majority of 5-to-4 rulings. They did that by picking off not just Roberts and Justice Kennedy on Obamacare, and Kennedy on same-sex marriage, but other conservative justices in other cases.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Most experts see those liberal victories, however, as a product of an idiosyncratic mix of cases. This term, the issues play much more to the strength of the court&#39;s conservatives. There are cases that could further cut back affirmative action in higher education, hobble or destroy public employee unions, and make it easier to limit voter participation in elections.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">There is a strong likelihood that the court will revisit the abortion question, as well as the issue of birth control coverage under Obamacare. &quot;The worry is, does what goes around come around,&quot; said Tom Goldstein, Supreme Court advocate and publisher of SCOTUSblog, &quot;and the writing on the wall sure seems to up there that has got the left scared &mdash; bejesus!&quot;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The court, for instance, for the first time is being asked to determine the meaning of the one-person, one-vote principle in<em>&nbsp;Evenwel v. Abbott.</em> Does it mean that state legislative districts should have the same number of people, or the same number of eligible voters? Does the population count include children, non-citizen immigrants both in the country legally and illegally, and others like those with a criminal record who are thus ineligible to vote? Or does the population count include only those eligible to vote, or even just those registered to vote?</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Virtually all state and local governments currently draw districts based on total population. But if those challenging that practice prevail, it could dramatically shift political power away from districts with lots of children and immigrants, and it would likely give Republicans a big boost in state legislative elections.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Also likely to come before the court are election cases involving strict voter ID laws and other provisions that make it more difficult to vote.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The union case,&nbsp;<em>Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association</em>, could also have huge political consequences by crippling public employee unions and possibly all unions. The case pits the practical needs of collective bargaining against the First Amendment. The nation&#39;s labor laws, as the court has interpreted them since 1977, have struck the balance this way. Once a majority of public employees vote to be represented by a union, those who choose not to join do not have to pay for the union&#39;s political activities, but they do have to pay for contract negotiations that they benefit from.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">In short, they must pay their so-called &quot;fair share.&quot; Otherwise they would become free riders on the backs of those who do pay. In two recent cases, four justices, and possibly five, have suggested that requiring such fair share payments violates the nonmembers&#39; free speech rights.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Waiting in the wings at the high court are two politically incendiary cases: one involving abortion, the other birth control under Obamacare. The abortion test case will likely come from Texas, where the Republican-controlled legislature enacted strict new regulations on abortion clinics, requiring them to make costly renovations, and limiting the ability of doctors to perform abortions. The state maintains that the new law was aimed at protecting the health and safety of women. Abortion providers, backed by major medical organizations, counter that the regulations are unnecessary and that the law is in fact aimed at making abortions difficult to obtain.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The birth control case is a test of the Obamacare provision that exempts religious organizations from having to pay for birth control coverage in their health insurance plans. While churches, synagogues and the like are totally exempt, religiously affiliated organizations such as universities and hospitals are exempt only if they notify the federal government of their objections. That in turn triggers an independent mechanism to provide the coverage for those employees who want it. Some religious organizations contend that the notification requirement makes them complicit in facilitating birth control coverage and thus violates their religious principles.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/itsallpolitics/2015/10/05/445885201/the-supreme-courts-new-term-heres-what-to-watch?ft=nprml&amp;f=445885201" target="_blank"><em>via NPR</em></a></p></p> Mon, 05 Oct 2015 09:47:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/supreme-courts-new-term-heres-what-watch-113172 The future of the United States immigrant population in one graphic http://www.wbez.org/news/future-united-states-immigrant-population-one-graphic-113090 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Jihye Jang of Korea participates in a naturalization ceremony at the Chicago Cultural Center on July 3, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois..jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res444210514" previewtitle="Jihye Jang of Korea participates in a naturalization ceremony at the Chicago Cultural Center on July 3, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="Jihye Jang of Korea participates in a naturalization ceremony at the Chicago Cultural Center on July 3, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/09/28/gettyimages-172583116_custom-20c4a6d32137827e471c70182cd070ac356d1982-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 399px; width: 600px;" title="Jihye Jang of Korea participates in a naturalization ceremony at the Chicago Cultural Center on July 3, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois. (Scott Olson/Getty Images)" /></div><div><p>Here&#39;s something you probably knew: Asians have become the fastest growing minority in this country.</p></div></div><p>Today, the Pew Research Center released&nbsp;<a href="http://www.pewhispanic.org/2015/09/28/modern-immigration-wave-brings-59-million-to-u-s-driving-population-growth-and-change-through-2065/">new analysis</a>&nbsp;that shows that by 2055, Asians will pass Latinos as the largest immigrant group in the country.</p><p>Here&#39;s a graphic that shows past, present and projected future pivots in the country&#39;s immigrant population:</p><p data-pym-src="http://apps.npr.org/dailygraphics/graphics/immigrant-groups-20150928/child.html">&nbsp;</p><div id="res444193456"><div id="responsive-embed-immigrant-groups-20150928">Of course these numbers will translate into a country that looks very different from what it looks like now. Here&#39;s a paragraph from the Pew report that summarizes the effect on the overall population:</div></div><blockquote><div><p><em>&quot;Non-Hispanic whites are projected to become less than half of the U.S. population by 2055 and 46% by 2065. No racial or ethnic group will constitute a majority of the U.S. population. Meanwhile, Hispanics will see their population share rise to 24% by 2065 from 18% today, while Asians will see their share rise to 14% by 2065 from 6% today.&quot;</em></p></div></blockquote><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/09/28/444193182/the-future-of-the-united-states-immigrant-population-in-one-graphic?ft=nprml&amp;f=444193182" target="_blank"><em>via NPR&#39;s The Two-Way</em></a></p></p> Mon, 28 Sep 2015 13:43:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/future-united-states-immigrant-population-one-graphic-113090