WBEZ | Richard J. Daley http://www.wbez.org/tags/richard-j-daley Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en So, why did it take so long for it to be Mayor Jane Byrne's turn? http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/so-why-did-it-take-so-long-it-be-mayor-jane-byrnes-turn-110556 <p><p>Shortly before Chicago&#39;s City Council officially honored former Mayor Jane Byrne by <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/jane-byrne-closer-getting-memorial-110573" target="_blank">naming the Water Tower Plaza after her</a>, her name had been thrown about quite a bit. The political momentum required for July&#39;s up-or-down vote, as well as the effusive praise heaped on Byrne, grew exponentially in the previous months. But that came after decades-worth of radio silence concerning her, the city&#39;s first and only female mayor.</p><p>Perhaps that silence &mdash;&nbsp;which began almost as soon as Byrne left office in 1983 &mdash;&nbsp;contributed to lifelong Chicagoan Shana Jackson stepping forward with our Curious City question. Shana said before the recent hullabaloo over the former mayor, she&nbsp;had&nbsp;never even heard&nbsp;Jane Byrne&#39;s name. That is, until her father gave her a quick quiz one day.</p><p>&ldquo;My parents are former teachers, and so my dad is always quizzing me about things,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;Out of the blue, he asked me about the first woman mayor of Chicago. And I said, &lsquo;What woman mayor of Chicago?&rsquo;&rdquo;</p><p>Shana said her father, and later her Facebook friends, told her she should be ashamed that she didn&rsquo;t know about Jane Byrne. So then she hit the Internet.</p><p>There&rsquo;s a <em>lot</em> to be learned about Jane Byrne: There&rsquo;s her <a href="http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/chi-chicagodays-byrne-story,0,7583194.story" target="_blank">landslide victory </a>in 1979 over incumbent Mayor Michael Bilandic (and thus the so-called Democratic machine) in an election held shortly after his administration <a href="http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/The-312/February-2011/Snowpocalypse-Then-How-the-Blizzard-of-1979-Cost-the-Election-for-Michael-Bilandic/" target="_blank">botched handling a massive blizzard</a>.</p><p>Byrne served only one term, but many credit her as the prime mover behind some of the most recognizably &ldquo;Chicago&rdquo; events: the Taste of Chicago, Jazz Fest and numerous neighborhood summer festivals. Ditto for the physical transformation of the city: O&rsquo;Hare&rsquo;s International Terminal, the redevelopment of Navy Pier and the museum campus, public transportation options to the airport and much more.</p><p>There&rsquo;s also her controversial decision (or PR stunt, depending upon your interpretation) to move into the <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/1981/04/02/us/chicago-s-mayor-spends-lovely-night-at-project.html?module=Search&amp;mabReward=relbias%3Ar" target="_blank">Cabrini-Green</a>&nbsp;public housing development,&nbsp;as well as the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DCLCX1cqAc" target="_blank">protest </a>that erupted when she held a public Easter celebration there.<a name="timeline"></a></p><p><iframe allowfullscreen="true" frameborder="0" height="377" mozallowfullscreen="true" src="https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1gLzQq7ISqUuKt5ufNFfQOVXPTrjL_BBaImlnDBuSTc0/embed?start=false&amp;loop=false&amp;delayms=3000" webkitallowfullscreen="true" width="620"></iframe></p><p>But what Shana <em>didn&rsquo;t</em> find is any structure or building or street around Chicago named for Mayor Byrne. That&#39;s despite the fact that she could have found <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/so-when-it-jane-byrnes-turn-110556#mayors">plenty named in honor of <em>other</em> Chicago mayors</a> &mdash; even some recent ones.</p><p>That led her to ask:</p><p style="text-align: center;"><em>Why is there rare mention and no memorials, buildings or streets named after the only woman mayor of Chicago &mdash; Jane Byrne?</em></p><p>Shana&rsquo;s question arrived as Chicago newspapers, local bloggers and columnists, city officials &mdash; you name it &mdash; were debating whether Jane Byrne deserved to have her name affixed on something, and whether or not she&rsquo;s been ignored.</p><p><em>Chicago Sun-Times </em>columnist Neil Steinberg wrote what he called an <a href="http://www.suntimes.com/news/steinberg/27312474-452/an-open-letter-to-jane-byrne.html#.U8VW35RdV8E" target="_blank">&ldquo;open letter&rdquo;</a> to Byrne ahead of her 80th birthday, where he talked about her legacy, and how she may think she&rsquo;s been &ldquo;forgotten, erased from history.&rdquo;</p><p><em>Sun-Times</em> columnist Michael Sneed, press secretary for Byrne for a short time in 1979, had led the charge. She&#39;d written extensive <a href="http://www.suntimes.com/news/sneed/27773585-452/sneed-jane-byrnes-daughter-tells-of-fearless-mom-with-incredible-instincts.html" target="_blank">columns </a>about Byrne, listing her accomplishments and pushing for the city to honor its first woman mayor. Sneed wrote that Byrne&rsquo;s &ldquo;<a href="http://www.suntimes.com/27761148-761/ex-mayor-jane-byrnes-trailblazing-legacy-unfairly-ignored-sneed.html#.U8VW4ZRdV8E" target="_blank">legacy has been ignored</a> by subsequent mayoral administrations, basically erased during Mayor Richard M. Daley&rsquo;s tenure in office, and long overdue for recognition.&rdquo;</p><p>Sneed&rsquo;s columns opened the floodgates for other <a href="http://abc7chicago.com/news/movement-pushes-for-recognition-of-former-mayor-jane-byrne/94032/" target="_blank">media outlets</a> to chase down the story, and for city <a href="http://politics.suntimes.com/article/chicago/sneed-proposals-introduced-honor-ex-mayor-byrne/wed-06252014-1053am" target="_blank">officials</a> to weigh in.</p><p>To answer why it took so long for Byrne&rsquo;s name to grace any public assets, it helps to understand how something &mdash; anything &mdash; gets named by the city in the first place. And then, of course, there&rsquo;s the core of Shana&#39;s concern: <em>Why</em> hadn&#39;t Byrne had anything named after her?</p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">The process: Naming something after a Chicago mayor</span></strong></p><p>The city of big shoulders has a penchant for slapping peoples&rsquo; names on things. (Just ask <a href="http://thedailyshow.cc.com/videos/4rc83p/signfeud" target="_blank">Donald Trump</a>). But regardless of who the honored may be (<a href="http://www.nbcchicago.com/the-scene/food-drink/Charlie-Trotter-Honored-on-Eve-or-Retirement-168088876.html" target="_blank">Charlie Trotter</a>, <a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2000-03-08/news/0003080158_1_honor-sinatra-statue-city-of-big-shoulders" target="_blank">Frank Sinatra</a>, or a Chicago mayor), the process eventually involves Chicago&rsquo;s City Council.</p><p>Let&rsquo;s start with city streets. Up until 1984, official street names and the green signs that depict their directions were up for grabs. For example Cermak Road, formerly 22nd Street, was named after Mayor Anton Cermak, who was <a href="http://www.wbez.org/blogs/john-r-schmidt/2013-02/anton-cermak-chicagos-first-boss-105346" target="_blank">assassinated </a>while in office. Same goes for Hoyne Avenue, named after Mayor Thomas Hoyne. (Interestingly, Hoyne has a street named after him, despite the fact that he was <a href="http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/795.html" target="_blank">never allowed to take office</a>.)</p><p>But as one former alderman explained to the <em>Chicago Tribune</em> in <a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2000-02-20/news/0002200122_1_street-signs-street-names-renaming" target="_blank">2000,</a> this street-naming process became onerous. It requires permanent changes to maps, surveys and other records. The Honorary Street Ordinance changed the game in 1984. After that, brown honorary street signs began popping up, directly underneath the green signs that identify Chicago&rsquo;s official street names.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><strong><span style="font-size:22px;"><span style="font-size:18px;">What is named after Chicago&#39;s mayors?</span></span></strong></p><p style="text-align: center;">(Click the right margin or swipe to proceed through the slides.)<strong><span style="font-size:22px;"><a name="mayors"></a></span></strong></p><p><iframe frameborder="0" height="700" src="http://cdn.knightlab.com/libs/timeline/latest/embed/index.html?source=0Ag9RbLc9jJ4QdG1fcnlrSUlWNlExc3dDR0lIdDVSX0E&amp;font=Bevan-PotanoSans&amp;maptype=toner&amp;lang=en" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Chicago City Clerk Susana Mendoza said, currently, the process begins with one of the city&rsquo;s 50 aldermen. Any of them can write a resolution or ordinance to name a stretch of street. It then goes before the full council.</p><p>These resolutions pass unless they&rsquo;re controversial. Mendoza says some aldermen in 2006 wanted to create Fred Hampton Way, after a <a href="http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/142.html" target="_blank">leader in the Black Panther Party</a>. Another time, an alderman wanted to name a portion of Michigan Avenue after Hugh Hefner, the <em>Playboy Magazine</em> magnate.</p><p>If an honorary street name ordinance passes City Council, the Chicago Department of Transportation creates the requisite brown sign and affixes it to the appropriate post.</p><p>The process works the same way for other structures, too: The council votes on a proposal to name a fountain, building or other public asset after someone. Mendoza says it&rsquo;s most common to wait until after a mayor (or anyone else) dies. For example: Richard J. Daley Center was rededicated and named after him just days after he passed away.</p><p>There are a few ways to name something for a former mayor without the council&rsquo;s purview. Private buildings, naturally, can be named without council approval. DePaul University&#39;s Richard M. and Maggie C. Daley Building is one notable example.</p><p>As for public school buildings, the Chicago Public Schools Board of Education has a written policy that a school can only be named after someone who has been deceased for at least six months. A sitting mayor and the district&rsquo;s CEO can seek special exemptions, however. A CPS spokesman says this was the case for the naming of Barack Obama College Prep.</p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">So, why was there nothing for Jane Byrne?</span></strong></p><p>When it comes to political history, no single person (or opinion) can tell &quot;the whole story.&quot; That&#39;s especially the case when it comes to why a controversial, so-called &ldquo;machine-fighting,&rdquo; tough cookie such as Jane Byrne had taken so long to be memorialized.&nbsp;</p><p>As for asking the lady herself, she&rsquo;s now 80 years old and is not in great health, after reportedly suffering from a stroke last year. Her only daughter, Kathy Byrne, a lawyer at local personal injury and mesothelioma firm Cooney and Conway, said her mom is &ldquo;doing okay. She&rsquo;s holding her own, she&rsquo;s stable.&rdquo;</p><p>Kathy Byrne was along for the roller coaster ride of her mom&rsquo;s campaign and then election to the 5th floor office in 1979. Despite that, she&#39;s not sure how to answer Shana Jackson&rsquo;s &ldquo;why so long&rdquo; question.</p><p>&ldquo;You know, I think sometimes &mdash; what do they say? Politics isn&rsquo;t a beanbag?&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;And people take their politics very seriously in Chicago, and I think whether or not anything was intentional, it may just be sort of an effect where if someone perceived that if someone doesn&rsquo;t like someone, they&rsquo;re not going to do anything for the person they don&rsquo;t like. ... I don&rsquo;t know that anything was intentional, I think it may have been a misperception.&rdquo;</p><p>Kathy Byrne was obliquely referring to Chicago lore &mdash; printed in the papers and spoken in bars &mdash; that Mayor Richard M. Daley was behind Jane Byrne&rsquo;s absence from Chicago streets and buildings.</p><p>Several people I spoke with for this story were quick to blame him.</p><p>&ldquo;There&rsquo;s an old adage, young lady,&rdquo; said Paul Green, Director of the Institute for Politics at Roosevelt University. &ldquo;It&rsquo;s called Irish Alzheimer&#39;s: You forget everything but your grudges, and the Daley family and the Byrne family have been grudging themselves for a long time.&rdquo;</p><p>Green said he believes the battle between Jane Byrne and Daley was &ldquo;personal&rdquo; and that Daley didn&rsquo;t want her recognized for anything. But he said it&rsquo;s also true that there had not been any true grassroots support for Byrne.</p><p>&ldquo;She left not exactly in the blaze of glory,&rdquo; Green said. &ldquo;She needed to be calm about what she was about, because not only was she the first woman, but it was the first time in approximately 70 years that the Democratic organization lost the mayoral primary, so she had to go slow, and she didn&rsquo;t.</p><p>&ldquo;To her credit, she had an amazing number of ideas, but it was more subject with no predicate.&rdquo;</p><p>But others, like Byrne&rsquo;s first campaign manager, Don Rose, blame it all on Daley.</p><p>&ldquo;Richie Daley did everything possible to make the world forget she ever existed,&rdquo; Rose said. &ldquo;They were mortal enemies. He conceived it that way.&rdquo;</p><p>Rose said he and Byrne didn&rsquo;t part on the best of terms, but he stressed that doesn&rsquo;t influence his appraisal of her. He said Daley&rsquo;s should have been the administration that took on the task of honoring her. Since <a href="http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2013/04/15/1983-mayoral-debate" target="_blank">Byrne had run against Harold Washington</a> in 1983, Washington was likely not in the mood to honor her in anyway during his time in office, according to Rose. By his recollection, a mayor will be honored posthumously, and perhaps one or two mayors down the road. Following this logic, Byrne would have been honored after Richard M. Daley took office in 1989.</p><p>&ldquo;[Daley] was, I have to say, very mean-spirited about Jane Byrne. Of course, I would say, she was mean-spirited about him too,&rdquo; Rose said. &ldquo;If the positions had been reversed, she might have tried to forget about naming anything after him.&rdquo;</p><p>But Ald. Burke &mdash; who served on the Council during Byrne&rsquo;s administration &mdash; said she originally eschewed recognition, and Daley isn&rsquo;t to blame.</p><p>&ldquo;He never, in my presence, expressed any reluctance to have Mayor Byrne honored in any way,&rdquo; he said.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size:18px;"><strong>Listen: Jane Byrne on her legacy</strong></span><a name="byrne"></a></p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/160299515&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>Kathy Byrne said she&rsquo;s not certain Daley is to blame, either.</p><p>&ldquo;I can&rsquo;t explain anyone&rsquo;s motivation or even if they have motivation,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;I would imagine if somebody&rsquo;s running Chicago, they ought to have bigger things on their minds than erasing or not erasing someone else&rsquo;s legacy.&rdquo;</p><p>But one thing is for sure: Kathy said she and her mom have been bothered by the whole thing. She recalled school girls would interview her mother during Women&rsquo;s History Month projects. Jane, she said, couldn&rsquo;t point the girls to anything named after her.</p><p>&ldquo;She could tell them things, like the [CTA] Orange Line, museum campus, but there was nothing that backed up her assertion, and I think that was kind of frustrating,&rdquo; Byrne said.</p><p>&ldquo;I think it was kind of disillusioning, or the worry that it would be disillusioning to little girls that they could do all this work, and have all these achievements and then it might be ignored, and other people would take credit for them.&rdquo;</p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">Jane Byrne International Terminal?</span></strong></p><p>But now, just over 30 years since she left office, Byrne will soon have something to point to: the park plaza around the Water Tower. This was just one of the ideas pitched to the City Council by Ald. Burke.</p><p>The gesture was a far cry from one of the more infamous moments of Byrne and Burke&rsquo;s relationship. Byrne, while on the campaign trail, called out <a href="http://www.nbcchicago.com/blogs/ward-room/Why-Rahm-Cant-Get-Rid-Of-Ed-Burke-120609814.html" target="_blank">Ald. Burke as part of a &ldquo;cabal of evil men&rdquo;</a> who ran the City Council.</p><p>&ldquo;It was the legendary British statesman Edmund Burke who once said that, in politics, there are no permanent enemies, no permanent friends &mdash; only permanent interests,&rdquo; Burke said, referring to a quotation he often uses. &ldquo;I think it is in the municipal interest that a person who achieved what Jane Byrne achieved in our history should be accorded an appropriate honor.&rdquo;</p><p>Burke officially proposed renaming four structures to become Jane Byrne memorials: the Clarence F. Buckingham Memorial Fountain in Grant Park; Navy Pier&rsquo;s grand ballroom; the plaza surrounding the Old Chicago Water Tower; and the O&rsquo;Hare International Terminal.&nbsp;</p><p>Kathy Byrne had predicted her mother would be happy with the selection of the Water Tower idea. It&rsquo;s right across the street from the Gold Coast apartment where she lived while mayor.</p><p>Byrne says a Water Tower memorial would be even better if the city could move her mom&rsquo;s beloved <a href="http://chicago-outdoor-sculptures.blogspot.com/2009/07/childrens-fountain.html" target="_blank">Children&rsquo;s Fountain</a> to that site. Jane Byrne, while mayor, originally dedicated the Children&rsquo;s Fountain on Wacker Drive. The fountain was later moved to Lincoln Park, where it sits today.</p><p>&ldquo;I don&rsquo;t know what that would entail, but the plumbing is all there,&rdquo; Byrne said. &ldquo;If they could do that, that would be ideal, &nbsp;if they could name that park Jane Byrne Plaza. It&rsquo;s her neighborhood, it&rsquo;s the Chicago historical landmark of the Water Tower, and it would be a really nice tribute.&rdquo;</p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">Our question comes from: Shana Jackson<a name="qa"></a></span></strong></p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/shanaJacksonMed.jpg" style="height: 322px; width: 230px; margin: 5px; float: right;" title="Shana Jackson asked our question about former Chicago Mayor Jane Byrne. (Photo courtesy of Shana Jackson)" />Shana Jackson calls herself a total South Side girl. She&rsquo;s been living in or around Chicago for her entire life, except when she pursued a degree from Hampton University in Virginia. She currently resides in the Ashburn/Wrightwood neighborhood.</p><p>And that&rsquo;s why she says she&rsquo;s embarrassed to admit the story behind her Curious City question. &nbsp;</p><p>Her parents are former teachers, and so her dad is always quizzing her on things. During a recent family night, Shana&rsquo;s dad shot her his latest pop quiz question:</p><p>&ldquo;So, what do you think about our only woman mayor in Chicago?&rdquo;</p><p>Shana&rsquo;s response?</p><p>&ldquo;&lsquo;What woman mayor?&rdquo; Shana recalls. &ldquo;And he gave me the weirdest stare ever, because I&rsquo;m super womanist, like &lsquo;yay woman power!&rsquo; And for me to not know there was a woman mayor in Chicago? I was so embarrassed.&rdquo;</p><p>Shana turned things around, though, by doing some Internet research. She said when she couldn&#39;t find any streets or buildings named after Byrne, she came to Curious City to find out why.&nbsp;</p><p>Even then, she couldn&#39;t let the issue go. As she kept up with the news about the proposals, she couldn&#39;t help but believe Jane Byrne deserved some recognition.</p><p>&ldquo;I think that is a travesty,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;How do we as Chicago &mdash; we put our names on everything &mdash; how did we let her down like this?&rdquo;</p><p>Shana is currently pursuing a dual degree in social work and law at Loyola University Chicago.</p><p><em><a href="https://twitter.com/laurenchooljian">Lauren Chooljian</a> is a WBEZ reporter. Digital producer <a href="http://twitter.com/triciabobeda">Tricia Bobeda</a> contributed to this story.</em></p></p> Thu, 24 Jul 2014 19:57:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/so-why-did-it-take-so-long-it-be-mayor-jane-byrnes-turn-110556 Swept from their homes, Chicago's Latinos built new community http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/swept-their-homes-chicagos-latinos-built-new-community-110538 <p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="300" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/playlists/45010154&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_reposts=false" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>Chicago is famous for its ethnic neighborhoods. And there&rsquo;s a funny thing about them. A neighborhood&rsquo;s identity can seem like it has been in place <em>forever</em>, even when big ethnic shifts took place just one or two generations ago. This is how many Chicagoans see Pilsen and Little Village, a corridor with the biggest concentration of Latinos in the Midwest. These neighborhoods have so much vitality &mdash; dense housing, bustling commercial strips, packed playgrounds &mdash; that it seems like Latinos must have been there for ages. A curious citizen named <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/swept-their-homes-chicagos-latinos-built-new-community-110538#CM">CM! Winters-Palacio</a> was wondering how long, so she asked us:</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align: center;"><em>Why are Latinos concentrated in the Pilsen and Little Village neighborhoods? When did it happen?</em></p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/LUCY%20FINAL.jpg" style="float: right; height: 328px; width: 400px;" title="Near West Side resident Rosie Valtierra holds her goddaughter there on the day of her baptism in the mid-1950s. City Hall has embarked on massive construction projects that will raze much of the area. Valtierra and many other displaced Latinos will end up in Pilsen. (Photo courtesy of Rosemarie Sierra)" />We answered the <em>when</em> part of the question just by looking at census numbers: Pilsen did not become mostly Latino until the 1960s; Little Village didn&rsquo;t until the 1970s. Answering <em>why</em> those changes happened took a little more work. We interviewed experts, searched newspaper archives, pounded Pilsen&rsquo;s pavement and tracked down some of the neighborhood&rsquo;s first Latino residents. In our audio story (above), Lucy Gutiérrez, 87, tells us about bringing her family to Pilsen when the place was still populated mainly by Central and Eastern European descendants &mdash; including the Bohemians whose forebears named it after Plzeň, a city in what is now the Czech Republic. Our research also led to some text snapshots from the history. The snapshots begin on Chicago&rsquo;s Near West Side, which included the city&rsquo;s largest Latino enclave just a few decades ago.</p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">In old neighborhood, the beginning of the end</span></strong></p><p><strong>FEBRUARY 15, 1949</strong>: A Chicago housing official complains about residents refusing to leave a 14-block stretch from Desplaines to Paulina streets to make way for a new superhighway along Chicago&rsquo;s Congress Street. The official, Detlef E. Mackelmann, says some would not go &ldquo;until the buildings next door were being torn down.&rdquo; The highway&rsquo;s first section, completed in 1955, will displace thousands of people. It will be among several massive construction projects that will raze much of the Near West Side, including a Mexican neighborhood that dates back to the 1920s. The projects will include three expressways, a university campus and public-housing developments. Some of those Mexicans will move to Pilsen, a neighborhood just south. They will form the nucleus of what will become a much bigger Latino community. The Congress highway, for its part, will eventually be named the Eisenhower Expressway.&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 11px;"><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/swept-their-homes-chicagos-latinos-built-new-community-110538#sources">1</a></strong></span></p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/1%20TAYLOR%20STREET%20FINAL.jpg" style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;" title="" /></div><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/1%20TAYLOR%20STREET%20PIES%20FINAL.jpg" style="margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" title="(WBEZ illustrations by Erik Nelson Rodriguez)" /></div></div><p><br /><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">White exodus from Pilsen makes room for newcomers</span></strong></p><p><strong>OCTOBER 18, 1953</strong>: St. Procopius, a 72-year-old Czech parish in Pilsen, rededicates its school with a Sunday dinner. The meal includes turkey, dumplings, sauerkraut, rye bread and kolacky. The music includes the Czech anthem &quot;Kde domov můj?&quot; and an Antonín Dvořák composition. Although the school has begun to enroll some of Pilsen&rsquo;s first Latino children, today&rsquo;s program includes no hint of their cultures. And Rev. Peter Mizera, the St. Procopius priest, has been complaining to the archdiocese about &ldquo;the recent infiltration of the Mexicans.&rdquo; But Pilsen&rsquo;s white population is declining and growing older as young families head to suburbs. St. Procopius and other parishes will have to open their doors to Latinos. By 1955, six Pilsen parochial schools will be enrolling Mexican children. Over the next two decades, several Pilsen parishes will retool themselves, sending priests to learn Spanish in Mexico, building altars and shrines to the Virgin of Guadalupe, even bringing mariachi music into masses. Some other parishes, slow to adapt, will close.&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 11px;"><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/swept-their-homes-chicagos-latinos-built-new-community-110538#sources">2</a></strong></span></p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">Campus construction pushes more Latinos into Pilsen</span></strong></p><p><strong>MARCH 19, 1961</strong>: Led by a mariachi band, hundreds of Mexican protesters march from St. Francis of Assisi Church and tie up Near West Side traffic. The protesters slam a City Hall plan to replace their neighborhood with a University of Illinois campus. They blame Mayor Richard J. Daley and shout, &ldquo;Down with Daley,&rdquo; &ldquo;Daley sold us out&rdquo; and &ldquo;Respeten nuestros hogares&rdquo; (Respect our homes). The protest is part of a much larger effort to derail the university plan. Italians, the area&rsquo;s biggest ethnic group, are leading the resistance but Mexicans are also visible. Roughly 4,800 of them live in the census tracts the city wants the university to take over. The resistance will fail. On May 10, the City Council will designate 106 acres for the campus. Some of the Mexicans will move a few blocks west, but campus expansions will displace them again. Many will end up in Pilsen. The University of Illinois Chicago Circle Campus, meanwhile, will open in 1965.&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 11px;"><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/swept-their-homes-chicagos-latinos-built-new-community-110538#sources">3</a></strong></span></p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">Chicano movement builds neighborhood&rsquo;s new identity</span></strong></p><p><strong>APRIL 24, 1969</strong>: More than 100 residents of Chicago&rsquo;s Pilsen neighborhood gather for a public meeting of the Latin American Alliance for Social Advancement, known by its Spanish acronym, ALAS. The meeting occurs at Howell House, a community center focused for decades on Czech immigrants. At the meeting, ALAS endorses Arthur Vázquez to lead Howell House; he will be its first Mexican-American director. The meeting also develops strategies to improve Pilsen schools, expose police brutality and publicize a national grape boycott. The organizing reflects two major changes in Pilsen. First, Mexicans have been pouring into the neighborhood for two decades. Along with the arrivals from the Near West Side, many have come from South Texas or various parts of Mexico. A smaller Latino group in Pilsen has roots in Puerto Rico. The 1970 census will record the neighborhood&rsquo;s first Latino majority. The other big change is the rise of the Chicano civil-rights movement. Reflecting that change, Howell House will get a new name: Casa Aztlán. <span style="font-size: 11px;"><b><u>4</u></b></span></p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/2%20MEETING%20TONIGHT%20FINAL.jpg" title="" /></p><p><strong style="font-size: 22px;">Latino community expands west to Little Village</strong></p><p><strong>OCTOBER 30, 1979</strong>: At the urging of Latinos and veterans, the Chicago Park District board agrees to a proposed memorial plaza honoring Manuel Pérez Jr., a World War II hero killed by enemy fire at age 22 and posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Pérez grew up on the city&rsquo;s Near West Side long before his neighborhood was razed and before many of its Mexican residents moved to Pilsen. The city will build the plaza in 1980 in Little Village, a Southwest Side neighborhood known as the &ldquo;Mexican suburb&rdquo; because of its proximity to Pilsen, its larger homes, and its fast-growing Latino population. Next year&rsquo;s census will show that Latinos constitute the majority of Little Village residents. The Pilsen and Little Village corridor now has the largest concentration of Latinos in the Midwest.&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 11px;"><b><u>5</u></b></span><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/3%20PLAZA%20FINAL.jpg" title="" /></p><p><span style="font-size:22px;"><strong>Neighborhoods help put Latino in Congress</strong></span></p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/web%20PilsenFoundGutierrez1crop_0.jpg" style="height: 242px; width: 190px; float: left;" title="" /><strong>MARCH 17, 1992</strong>: In a Democratic primary election for U.S. House, Chicago Ald. Luis V. Gutiérrez (26th Ward) easily defeats his strongest challenger, Juan Soliz. A 1990 court order required a Chicago district with a Latino majority. Shaped like an earmuff, the district covers the Pilsen-Little Village corridor and Puerto Rican neighborhoods on the Northwest Side. Gutiérrez, who was an ally of the late Mayor Harold Washington, has Mayor Richard M. Daley&rsquo;s backing in the Congressional race. After the general election, Gutiérrez will become the first Midwest Latino in the House. Although his family is from Puerto Rico, whose residents are born with U.S. citizenship, Gutiérrez will champion immigrant political causes and maintain strong support in Pilsen and Little Village. <span style="font-size: 11px;"><b><u>6</u></b></span></p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">Pilsen remains Latino, but for how long?</span></strong></p><p><strong>MAY 20, 1997</strong>: In the name of job creation, Ald. Danny Solis (25th) leads a rally for a plan that would extend the University of Illinois at Chicago southward to the edge of Pilsen. The Daley administration, meanwhile, is planning a tax-increment financing district to boost industry in Pilsen. Some residents are linking those efforts to gentrification on the neighborhood&rsquo;s east end. Those residents say the changes are threatening Pilsen&rsquo;s Mexican-American character and pushing rents and property taxes too high. This summer, artists led by Hector Duarte (<span style="font-size: 11px;"><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/swept-their-homes-chicagos-latinos-built-new-community-110538#sources">7</a></strong></span>) will transform an outdoor wall at 1805 S. Bishop St. into a colorful mural called &ldquo;Stop Gentrification in Pilsen.&rdquo;&nbsp;The mural will depict United Farm Workers co-founder César Chávez and Mexican revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata flanking a multigenerational Pilsen family, a pushcart vendor and anti-gentrification protesters. Such efforts will not stop affluent newcomers from moving into Pilsen but, for years to come, the neighborhood will remain the cultural heart of the Chicago area&rsquo;s Mexican-American community. <span style="font-size:11px;"><strong><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/swept-their-homes-chicagos-latinos-built-new-community-110538#sources">8</a></strong></span></p><p style="margin:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt"><span style="color:red"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/4%20MURAL%20FINAL.jpg" title="" /></p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;"><a name="CM"></a>Our question comes from: CM! Winters-Palacio</span></strong></p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/cm winters FINAL.jpg" style="height: 194px; width: 185px; float: left;" title="" />African-Americans in Chicago cannot help but look at the city&rsquo;s most heavily Latino neighborhoods with some envy, according to WBEZ listener CM! Winters-Palacio, who lives in Auburn Gresham, a South Side neighborhood. &ldquo;If you drive through Little Village or Pilsen, they&rsquo;re thriving with little local stores,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;When you go on the South Side, it&rsquo;s a totally different experience.&rdquo;</p><p>Winters-Palacio chairs Malcolm X College&rsquo;s library department and tells us her interests include community development and racial segregation. So what does she think of our answer to her question? Pilsen&rsquo;s Latino identity is &ldquo;relatively new,&rdquo; Winters-Palacio says. &ldquo;It helps dispel one of the myths.&rdquo; Namely, that a strong community must have long historical roots.<a id="sources"> </a>Winters-Palacio says Pilsen and Little Village provide hope for her part of town.</p><p><strong><span style="font-size:22px;">Notes</span></strong></p><p><strong>1.</strong> Lilia Fernández, <em>Brown in the Windy City: Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago</em> (University of Chicago Press, 2012). &ldquo;City&rsquo;s &lsquo;DPs&rsquo; sit tight in path of big projects: Evacuation notices just a &lsquo;wolf cry&rsquo; to them,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Daily Tribune</em> (February 16, 1949). <strong>2.</strong> Deborah Kanter, &ldquo;Making Mexican Parishes: Ethnic Succession in Chicago Churches, 1947-1977,&rdquo; <em>U.S. Catholic Historian, Volume 301:1</em> (Catholic University of America Press, 2012).&nbsp;<strong>3.</strong>&nbsp;&ldquo;Protest rally today against U. of I. campus,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Daily Tribune</em> (March 20, 1961). &ldquo;Council OKs W. Side U. of I. site, 41 to 3: Crowd in gallery boos action, vows fight,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Daily Tribune</em> (May 11, 1961). Fernández, op. cit. <strong>4.</strong>&nbsp;Fernández, op. cit. Administrative History, Bethlehem Howell Neighborhood Center collection, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Illinois at Chicago. <strong>5.</strong>&nbsp;&ldquo;New post of Legion honors Mexican-American hero slain on Luzon,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Daily Tribune</em> (June 30, 1946). &ldquo;Slain vet who killed 75 Japs is honored in memorial service,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Daily Tribune</em> (February 14, 1949). &ldquo;Ordinance requesting the City of Chicago to convey the Manuel Pérez Jr. Plaza to the Chicago Park District,&rdquo; <em>Journal of the Proceedings of the Board of Commissioners of the Chicago Park District, </em>1979-1980. <strong>6.</strong> John Kass, &ldquo;Gutiérrez picks up Daley&rsquo;s backing for Congress,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Tribune</em> (December 10, 1991). Lou Ortiz, &ldquo;Gutiérrez coasts toward big win in Hispanic district race,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Sun-Times</em> (March 18, 1992). <strong>7.</strong>&nbsp;Editor&#39;s Note: Duarte is married to WBEZ reporter Linda Lutton. <strong>8.</strong> Gary Marx, &ldquo;Opposition brewing to UIC expansion; proposal may drive out the poor, foes say,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Tribune</em> (March 12, 1997). Ernest Tucker, &ldquo;Latinos urge UIC to move forward with expansion,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Sun-Times</em> (May 21, 1997). Teresa Puente, &ldquo;Pilsen fears upscale push may shove many out,&rdquo; <em>Chicago Tribune</em> (November 4, 1997).</p><p><em><a href="http://www.wbez.org/users/cmitchell-0">Chip Mitchell</a>&nbsp;is WBEZ&rsquo;s West Side bureau reporter. Follow him&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/ChipMitchell1" target="_blank">@ChipMitchell1</a> and <a href="https://twitter.com/WBEZoutloud" target="_blank">@WBEZoutloud</a>. <a href="http://twitter.com/ero_nel" target="_blank">Erik Nelson Rodrigue</a><a href="http://twitter.com/ero_nel" target="_blank">z</a>&nbsp;is an&nbsp;illustrator and graphic designer in Chicago.</em></p><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Tue, 22 Jul 2014 11:21:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/swept-their-homes-chicagos-latinos-built-new-community-110538 UIC unveils collection of Daley artifacts http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/uic-unveils-collection-daley-artifacts-108187 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Daley Collection_130725_kk.jpg" alt="" /><p><p dir="ltr" id="docs-internal-guid-205334a6-16f2-338c-bfb1-269a0e2158ee">The University of Illinois at Chicago unveiled a collection of documents from Richard J. Daley&rsquo;s 20-plus years as Chicago mayor Wednesday night.</p><p dir="ltr">The archive includes shelves of papers, memorabilia and more than 7,000 photographs.</p><p dir="ltr">It is open to researchers <a href="http://library.uic.edu/daley">by appointment</a>.</p><p dir="ltr">WBEZ&rsquo;s Richard Steele toured the collection with its archivist, Peggy Glowacki.</p><p dir="ltr">To hear about some surprising items in the collection (including a big fish?), listen to the audio above.</p><p><em>Produced by WBEZ&rsquo;s Katie Kather. Kather is an arts &amp; culture reporting intern at WBEZ. Follow her on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/ktkather">@ktkather</a>.</em></p></p> Thu, 25 Jul 2013 12:45:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/uic-unveils-collection-daley-artifacts-108187 Remembering Dr. King in Chicago http://www.wbez.org/programs/afternoon-shift/2013-01-21/remembering-dr-king-chicago-105051 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/dr.%20king%20small%20AP.jpg" style="height: 419px; width: 620px;" title="Dr. Martin Luther King addresses a crowd estimated at 70,000 at a civil rights rally in Chicago’s Soldier Field in 1964. (AP/Charles E. Knoblock)" /></div><p>And so, we celebrate Martin Luther King Day, a big holiday for furniture sales and discounts. Depending on where you live, you may be able to take advantage of MLK discounts at Broyhill, La-Z-Boy, Ethan Allen and American Mattress.</p><p>In 1964, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. won the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1966, he came to Chicago.</p><p>The Civil Rights leader rented an apartment on the West Side and led a march of some 700 supporters through the Marquette Park neighborhood, a white ethnic enclave on the Southwest Side, to protest housing segregation. Thousands of jeering, taunting whites had gathered. The mood was ominous. One placard read: &ldquo;King would look good with a knife in his back.&rdquo;</p><p>Someone threw a rock. It struck King on the head. He fell to one knee. He stayed on the ground for several seconds. As he rose, aides and bodyguards surrounded him to protect him from the rocks, bottles and firecrackers that rained down on the demonstrators.<br /><br />Later King said this: &ldquo;I have to do this, expose myself, to bring this hate into the open. I have seen many demonstrators in the South, but I have never seen anything so hostile and so hateful as I&rsquo;ve seen here today in Chicago.&rdquo;</p><p>WELCOME TO CHICAGO . . . RICHARD J. DALEY, MAYOR.</p><p>Daley did not greet King warmly. He did not like outsiders pointing out Chicago&rsquo;s faults. Mayor Daley said this: &ldquo;Maybe he doesn&rsquo;t have all the facts. He is a resident of another city.&rdquo;</p><p>But it was Daley who gave us Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, yes? It happened like this.</p><p>When the Democratic National Convention was on its way to Chicago in 1968, Daley was not, as one might think given the way things had turned out, concerned about the war protesters and other long-haired &ldquo;agitators&rdquo; expected to come to town. One forgets that the people he most feared might upset the convention were blacks. His paranoia was fueled by the devastating West Side riots that had taken place earlier that year in the wake of the April assassination of Dr. King.</p><p>So it was decided that police would pressure black militants and gang members, arresting some and hassling others, getting across the &ldquo;behave or else&rdquo; message. But Daley&rsquo;s savvy dictated a less aggressive maneuver, and on August 1, 1968 the City Council met to placate the black community by renaming a street in honor of King.</p><p>Many descriptions of this meeting have been written. Non better captured it than Mike Royko in <em>Boss</em>, his biography of Daley:</p><blockquote><p>The meeting was remarkable with one administration Alderman after another eulogizing King as a great man, forgetting that they had assailed him when he was alive. Daley himself described his relationship with King as one of great friendship and mutual understanding, claiming that King had told him what a fine job he was doing for the city&rsquo;s blacks.</p><p>The street selected for the name change was South Park Way, which ran through predominantly black sections of the South Side. There were suggestions that the street chosen cut through the whole city (Western Avenue, perhaps), but Daley wouldn&rsquo;t listen. He knew that in white neighborhoods street signs would be defaced or destroyed.</p></blockquote><p>So that is how South Park Way became Dr. Martin Luther King Drive. And today, in Dr. King&rsquo;s honor, Sears has 50 percent off mattresses and Kmart is offering free shipping.</p></p> Mon, 21 Jan 2013 13:34:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/afternoon-shift/2013-01-21/remembering-dr-king-chicago-105051 12-20-1976: Mayor Daley dies http://www.wbez.org/blogs/john-r-schmidt/2012-12/12-20-1976-mayor-daley-dies-104401 <p><p>This was the Monday before Christmas, the last day before winter, and it was cold in Chicago. A few minutes past two in the afternoon, police began blocking off the streets near Michigan and Chestnut. An ambulance had just arrived. Something big was happening.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/12-20--Richard%20J.%20Daley.jpg" style="width: 250px; height: 328px; float: right;" title="Mayor Richard J. Daley (City of Chicago)" />On the second floor of the building at 900 North Michigan Avenue, Richard J. Daley was dying.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">Daley was 74 years old, in his 21st year as Mayor of Chicago. He&rsquo;d been having chest pains over the weekend, and had made an appointment with his doctor. That&rsquo;s where he was now.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">The doctor had examined Daley. You have to be admitted to the hospital immediately, he&rsquo;d told Daley. The mayor had phoned one of his sons. Then, while the doctor was busy making hospital arrangements, the mayor had collapsed.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">So now came the paramedics. Now came the police to set up the barricades. Now came the Daley family. Now came the reporters, and the curious public.&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">At 3:50 p.m., the mayor was dead.</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">The news spread swiftly. There was shock and disbelief. Sure, Daley had been sick before. And like everyone else, he was going to die someday. But now? Why now? And what was going to happen to our city? It felt like Chicago had suddenly become an orphan.<div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/12-20--Daley Memorial Book.jpg" style="width: 250px; height: 361px; float: left;" title="Daley Memorial Book (author's collection)" /></div></div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">The wake was held at the parish church in Bridgeport the next day. As mayor and Democrat Party leader, Daley had gone to hundreds of wakes. Now his citizens were returning the favor. The doors at Nativity of Our Lord stayed open all night as 100,000 people filed past the open coffin.</div><div class="image-insert-image "><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">Jimmy Carter, president-elect, came for the funeral Mass. So did Vice President Rockefeller, Sen. Ted Kennedy, and other men of power. Then Daley left Chicago for the last time, to be buried in the family plot at Holy Sepulchre in Alsip.&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">Many plans were made to honor Daley. Some wanted to rename Western Avenue &ndash; the city&rsquo;s longest street &ndash; after the city&rsquo;s longest-serving mayor. An unincorporated village talked of incorporating as Daley, Ill. There was a proposal that a 25-foot statue of the late mayor be erected in the Civic Center plaza. In time, the actual memorials would be more modest.&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&quot;Mayor Daley.&rdquo; The phrase had become so common, so indivisible. A ten-year-old boy was said to have asked his father, &ldquo;Who&rsquo;s going to be the mayordaley now?&rdquo;&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">&nbsp;</div><div class="image-insert-image ">One man died, but Chicago lived on. And eventually got a mayordaley named Daley.</div></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Thu, 20 Dec 2012 05:00:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/blogs/john-r-schmidt/2012-12/12-20-1976-mayor-daley-dies-104401 Taped conversations reveal special relationship between Richard J. Daley and Lyndon B. Johnson http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-05-10/taped-conversations-reveal-special-relationship-between-richard-j-daley- <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/segment/photo/2011-May/2011-05-10/J. Daley Flick TG4.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Rahm Emanuel won’t be the first Chicago mayor with connections to the White House. <a href="http://mayor.cityofchicago.org/mayor/en/about_the_mayor.html" target="_blank">Richard M. Daley</a> is a political ally of both Barack Obama and Bill Clinton. Daley's was a good friend of John F. Kennedy’s. And Richard J. Daley also had close ties with Lyndon Johnson. In this report,Eight Forty-Eight contributor <a href="http://www.robertloerzel.com/" target="_blank">Robert Loerzel</a> takes a listen to tapes documenting that relationship.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>President Lyndon Johnson recorded more than 9,000 phone calls when he was president. The people on the other end of the line didn’t realize LBJ was recording everything they said, and one of those people was Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley.</p><p>LBJ and Daley talked on the phone a lot. The Lyndon B. Johnson Library has almost nine hours of Dictaphone tapes from more than fifty calls between these two men. It includes Daley in 1966, telling Johnson what he thinks about Martin Luther King, Jr.</p><p><em>DALEY: I think we’ve gone a long way with the “good doctor,” Mr. President. He’s not your friend. He’s against you on Vietnam. He’s a goddamn faker.</em></p><p>The tape is scratchy, but Daley’s thoughts about King are loud and clear. “He isn’t your friend,” he tells the president. “He’s a faker,” he says, adding a profanity. Longtime Chicago journalist Richard Ciccone says this tape reveals Daley expressing his true feelings about King.</p><p>“Daley had no use for Martin Luther King, but he could never say that publicly,” Ciccone says. “He thought he was a charlatan and a faker and a power-grabber. He would warn Johnson in private, you know, ‘Don’t trust that guy.’”</p><p>Ciccone wrote about Daley’s relationship with Johnson in his book, <em>Daley: Power and Presidential Politics</em>. He says Daley and LBJ had a special relationship, that they were genuine friends, but they also they also needed each other for political reasons.</p><p>“Johnson, in his Great Society programs, provided Chicago with millions of dollars that really enabled Daley to turn the city around,” Ciccone remembers. “In return, Lyndon Johnson, well, he bought into the myth that Daley had elected Jack Kennedy. Part of his reason for getting so close to Daley was because he thought he needed him.”</p><p>LBJ constantly flattered Mayor Daley.</p><p><em>LBJ: I’m a Dick Daley man…I’m a Daley man myself, first, last and all the time. And I’m for you when you’re wrong. You’re the only thing we got left in this country.</em></p><p>Daley wasn’t a yes man for the president, but he was full of flattery, too.</p><p><em>DALEY: I wanted to talk to you and say to you you’re still a great president and doing a great job.</em></p><p><em>LBJ: Thank you.</em></p><p>One of the things the tapes show is how Daley acted as an intermediary between LBJ and Bobby Kennedy. In 1968, LBJ was getting ready to run for re-election and Daley urged Kennedy not to run for president.</p><p><em>DALEY: And I said that, “I don’t care who it is that’s president. If he wants the nomination of his party, it’s a damn poor party that will not stand behind their president when it comes to delegates in the convention.”</em></p><p>Ciccone says Daley was putting party loyalty above his friendship for the Kennedy family.</p><p>“His brand of politician was…you were just loyal to the party,” Ciccone added. “You were loyal to whoever had the office. And while he liked the Kennedys, personally — Irish-Catholic, you know. Jack Kennedy was his idol, and he would have loved to have seen Robert in the White House. But Lyndon was the president. And Daley felt that kind of loyalty was paramount, even over personal friendship.”<br> <br> Robert Kennedy did end up running for president. Johnson pulled out of the race. Kennedy was assassinated. And in August 1968, protesters and police clashed at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The tapes reveal what LBJ and Daley were saying behind the scenes. On the final night of the convention, LBJ called Daley from his ranch in Texas.</p><p><em>LBJ: We are so proud of you, and you are so tremendous, and Ladybird was here and we placed a call just to tell you that the Good Lord and the…is looking over you and guiding you, and you are the one, uh, great courageous, decent thing that I know in this country.</em></p><p>A week later, they spoke again. Daley said the Chicago police couldn’t hold back when they saw protesters burning American flags.</p><p><em>DALEY: Some of our fellas that are policemen have sons in Vietnam. Some of them lost their boys. So anyone with any American blood when he saw that, they went in and goddamn it, I’ll stand behind them until the end, and they whacked the hell out of them and they raised — they raised the Viet Cong flag. Our fellas tore it down and raised the American flag. Well, what are you gonna do if someone hits you with human manure in the face? You gonna stand there? Or hits you with human — see, they were throwing bags of manure in the face. They were throwing bags of urine. And then they were calling — you should know the language, Mr. President.</em></p><p><em>LBJ: Oh, I know it, I know it…</em></p><p>Daley insisted that the leaders of the protest movement should be prosecuted.</p><p><em>DALEY: If the attorney general will only stand up, we will turn up with a conspiracy on all — and show, and, and, reveal it with documentation and with evidence and fact. We don’t wanna go after anyone on a witch hunt. But gosh darn it, Mr. President, I think these people should be exposed to the entire nation and show what you’ve been up against for the last year and a half when you go about this country. Organized behind it. Commie.</em></p><p>The federal government did prosecute some of the protesters. The Chicago Seven were acquitted of conspiracy. Five were convicted of crossing state lines to incite a riot, but an appellate court threw out those convictions.</p><p>On the morning after the 1968 presidential election, LBJ sounded tired. Republican Richard Nixon had just defeated Democratic Vice President Hubert Humphrey.</p><p><em>LBJ: Well, we put up a good fight, Dick. We did our best…</em></p><p>But Daley was defiant. He said LBJ could’ve won the race if he’d stayed in it. Daley criticized Humphrey for apologizing for the violence in Chicago.</p><p><em>DALEY: You, you woulda breezed in. You would, and I, honest to God, you woulda, you woulda won and — because you presented the thing. You fought. You weren’t pussyfooting. You weren’t — like, he comes out here Friday and makes a talk in which he talks about the convention. And, “We’re all sorry what happened in Chicago.” Well, we’re not sorry. I’m not, I, I — mistakes were made. That’s one thing. But goddamn it, you don’t be reminding an audience of 25 or 30,000, all Democrats, that we regret what happened in the city.</em></p><p>Author Richard Ciccone says the tapes of Daley talking with LBJ are a gold mine of information about both men.</p><p>“It really shows you what a relationship Daley had with the president,” says Ciccone. “The tapes are wonderful to listen to. Give you an insight into history you couldn’t get any other way.”</p><p>Will we get that same sort of insight into the relationship between Rahm Emanuel and Barack Obama? It seems likely the two of them will talk on the phone in the months and years ahead. But it’s unlikely we’ll hear tape recordings of it all. For that sort of intimate eavesdropping, it’ll be hard to top the tapes of LBJ and Richard J. Daley.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><em>Music Button: Lou Busch &amp; His Orchestra, "Street Scene '58", from the CD Ultra Lounge Vol. 4 Bachelor Pad Royale, (Capitol)</em></p></p> Tue, 10 May 2011 14:01:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-05-10/taped-conversations-reveal-special-relationship-between-richard-j-daley- A guide to Chicago's mayoral inauguration festivities http://www.wbez.org/blog/city-room-blog/2011-05-09/guide-chicagos-mayoral-inauguration-festivities-86263 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/blog/photo/2011-May/2011-05-09/Rahm_20110125_ScottOlson_Getty.jpg" alt="" /><p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="caption" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/blog/insert-image/2011-May/2011-05-09/Rahm shakes hands outside the Berghoff - Bill Healy.jpg" style="width: 495px; height: 329px;" title=""></p><p>Rahm Emanuel will be sworn into office on Monday, May 16th as Chicago's 46th mayor.&nbsp; Emanuel, of course, succeeds the retiring Richard M. Daley, who has held office for 22 years.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p>Daley's 22-year mayoralty not only means that he's the longest-serving mayor in Chicago's history (outlasting even his father, Richard J. Daley), it also means it's been a really long time since anyone in this city has experienced a mayoral inaugural celebration.</p><p>Not to worry.&nbsp; We've published the list of official inaugural festivities below for your reference.&nbsp;</p><p>The events kick off on Saturday, with a series of events aimed at celebrating Chicago's neighborhoods and its culture.&nbsp; According to the Emanuel campaign, the theme for the inauguration will be togetherness."&nbsp;</p><p>Then on Monday, Emanuel will take oath of office during a ceremony at Millennium Park.&nbsp;</p><p>WBEZ will feature live coverage of the event on-air at 91.5FM and on line here at wbez.org.</p><p><u><strong>Sat, May 14th</strong></u></p><p>9:00am-12:00pm</p><p>The weekend kicks off with a city-wide Day of Service. The Mayor-elect, City Clerk-elect, and Treasurer will join forces with Chicagoans to perform service activities in their neighborhoods and across the city. The Chicago Park District, Friends of the Chicago River, One Good Deed Chicago and Chicago Cares are among the organizations coordinating service projects.</p><p>1:00-4:00pm</p><p>Free family concert at Butler Field in Grant Park.&nbsp; The group, Chicago, will headline, but the event will also feature other artists performing, including JC Brooks and the Uptown Sound.&nbsp; Bring picnics and lawn chairs but no alcohol or glass will be permitted.&nbsp; A ticket will be required for entry, but the admission is free. Tickets are available at <a href="http://www.chicagotogether.org/">www.chicagotogether.org</a></p><p><u><strong>Mon, May 16th</strong></u></p><p>10:30am</p><p>Official inauguration ceremony at the Pritzker Pavillion in Millennium Park, featuring the swearing in of the Mayor-elect Rahm Emanuel, City Clerk-elect Susana Mendoza, Treasurer Stephanie Neely, and City Council &nbsp; Festivities will begin at 10:30am, though by statute Emanuel won't take the oath of office until Noon. This event is open to the public.</p><p>2:00-4:00pm</p><p>Mayor-elect Emanuel will host an open house on the 5th floor of City Hall from 2pm-4pm following the swearing-in ceremony.&nbsp; In keeping with mayoral tradition, Chicago’s 46th mayor will greet his constituents and members of the public.</p><p>Emanuel named an inauguration committee to plan the festivities - and raised private funds to cover the costs.&nbsp; <a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-05-10/news/ct-met-emanuel-inauguration-20110510_1_emanuel-transition-emanuel-administration-tarrah-cooper">According to the Chicago Tribune</a>, some donors contributed $50,000 toward the cause.&nbsp; Though Emanuel is not required to do so, he pledged to release the names of the donors after the inauguration takes place.</p></p> Mon, 09 May 2011 17:52:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/blog/city-room-blog/2011-05-09/guide-chicagos-mayoral-inauguration-festivities-86263 Who's the better Mayor Daley? Richard M. or Richard J.? http://www.wbez.org/blog/best-game-town/whos-better-mayor-daley-richard-m-or-richard-j <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/Richard M. Daley.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>Now that Richard M. Daley has passed officially his father, Richard J.&nbsp;Daley, to become the longest serving mayor in Chicago history, let the great debate begin: &nbsp;Who was the better mayor? &nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: left;"><img src="http://llnw.wbez.org/blog/insert-image/2010-December/2010-12-27/Richard M. Daley.JPG" style="width: 499px; height: 328px;" alt="" title="" /></p><p>To the current mayor, there's little doubt.&nbsp; When asked by reporters recently, the younger Daley said his father was the better of the two.</p><p>&quot;He was both mayor and chairman of the Democratic Party. He came out of the Roosevelt era; one man, one party. That was a whole philosophy during the Depression. So that was very instilled and educated in him as a leader in government and politics,&quot;&nbsp;Richard M. Daley said.</p><p>A true assessment will come with the passage of time and ultimately will fall to historians and political scientists to decide.&nbsp; But comparing the two Daleys is more than just a parlor game. &nbsp; Examining the accompliments of the two men creates a fascinating look at the leadership, priorities and challenges facing U.S. cities during the last half century.</p><p>Richard J. Daley was elected in 1955 and became arguably the most powerful mayor in America during his time in office.&nbsp; His influence extended to the White House and the State House, bringing largesse to Chicago that helped construct expressways, public housing high rises, McCormick Place and the modern O'Hare International Airport.&nbsp; Known as a &quot;builder mayor&quot;, he also presided over a major boom in downtown real estate development&nbsp; and led the creation of a new campus for the University of Illinois-Chicago in the city's near west side.</p><p>But the elder Daley's tenure as mayor was not without controversy.&nbsp; Machine politics strengthened and consolidated under his leadership, as did racial and social divisions, symbolized for many by the riots that erupted on the streets of Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National Convention.</p><p>Even so, University of Illinois-Chicago political scientist Melvin Holli published a 1999 <a href="http://www.psupress.org/books/titles/0-271-01876-3.html">survey ranking the best mayors in American history</a> .&nbsp; Richard J. Daley ranked sixth overall among the 160 historians and political scientists polled.&nbsp;</p><p>More recently, <em>Time</em> magazine published its own list of <a href="http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1050214-2,00.html">America's Best Big City Mayors </a>in 2005, which prominently featured the younger Daley.&nbsp; Indeed, Richard M. Daley has been praised and feted widely for his leadership of Chicago during a time in which the transformation from a manufacturing to service-based economy took its toll on many Midwestern cities.</p><p>The younger Daley &quot;has presided over the city's transition from graying hub to vibrant boomtown, with a newly renovated football stadium, an ebbing murder rate, a new downtown park, a noticeable expansion of green space and a skyline thick with construction cranes&quot;, <span>wrote <em>Time </em>in 2005.&nbsp; </span></p><p><span><span>That record, in part, prompted Chicago voters to return him to office time and again during the 1990's and 2000's by overwhelming margins.&nbsp; Daley also has enjoyed near unanimous support in the City Council, support that even outpaces his father's in the legislative chamber.&nbsp; </span></span></p><p><span>Political dominance allowed the younger Daley to push through controversial, ambitious projects such as an overhaul of public housing, the control and reform of Chicago Public Schools, the expansion of O'Hare Airport, and the creation of Millennium Park.&nbsp; </span>Lesser known initiatives like the <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=LVgUw1QafHgC&amp;pg=PA38&amp;lpg=PA38&amp;dq=Daley%2Blibraries%2BRobert+Putnam&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=chj3fC_PXI&amp;sig=FP6l3zs6MYhT6ytJV8QNdgJMsqQ&amp;hl=en&amp;ei=ztoYTYWqNoyksQP3j7DeCg&amp;sa=X&amp;oi=book_result&amp;ct=result&amp;resnum=1&amp;sqi=2&amp;ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false">construction and expansion of the city's libraries also have earned widespread praise</a>.&nbsp;</p><p>But Daley's strength also has prompted some notable displays of power, such as the night in March 2003, <a href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2003-04-01/news/0304020002_1_meigs-field-mayor-richard-daley-lakefront-airport">when he secretly dispatched bulldozers to Meigs Field </a>under the cover of darkness to close permanently the small lakefront airport.&nbsp; It's since been converted into a public park, with <a href="http://www.suntimes.com/business/2667464-418/park-chicago-district-island-plans.html">new plans for its future</a>.</p><p>In addition, high profile scandals over patronage hiring and clouted contracts have cast a shadow over political corruption under his administration. And the city faces growing concerns about its financial health, as evidenced by budget gaps, debt loads and mounting public pension obligations.</p><p>Mayor Richard M. Daley announced he won't seek another term in office. His current term is set to expire in May 2011.</p><p>But these and other challenges&nbsp; - including improving public schools, economic development and neighborhood safety - will remain.&nbsp; And in that regard, Richard M. Daley's final legacy will be shaped much like his father's was:&nbsp; not just by his own accomplishments, but by those of his successors as well.&nbsp;</p><p>What's your take?&nbsp; Who's the better Daley Mayor - son or father?</p></p> Mon, 27 Dec 2010 18:38:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/blog/best-game-town/whos-better-mayor-daley-richard-m-or-richard-j Richard M. Daley now Chicago's longest-serving mayor http://www.wbez.org/story/mayor/richard-m-daley-now-chicagos-longest-serving-mayor <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/IMG_6505.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley is now the longest-serving mayor the city has ever had. He passed his father, Richard J. Daley.</p><p>The elder Daley died while in office in December, 1976 after serving as mayor for 21 years and 8 months. When asked by reporters, the current mayor said his father was the better mayor out of the two of them.</p><p>&quot;He was both mayor and chairman of the Democratic Party. He came out of the Roosevelt era; one man, one party. That was a whole philosophy during the Depression. So that was very instilled and educated in him as a leader in government and politics,&quot;&nbsp;Richard M. Daley said.</p><p>Mayor Richard M. Daley announced he won't seek another term in office. His current term is set to expire in May 2011.</p></p> Sun, 26 Dec 2010 11:00:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/mayor/richard-m-daley-now-chicagos-longest-serving-mayor