WBEZ | African-Americans http://www.wbez.org/tags/african-americans-0 Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Where are Chicago's poor white neighborhoods? http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/where-are-chicagos-poor-white-neighborhoods-112639 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/whitepovertythumb3.png" alt="" /><p><div><em>Editor&#39;s note: We&#39;re considering additional coverage for this story and we&#39;d like to know which follow-up questions about concentrated white poverty most interest you. Examples: How does Chicago compare to other Midwestern cities? How does this apply to the suburbs? What additional implications does this have for life in our region? If you like one of these or have your own, please place it in the comment section below. Thanks for considering it!</em></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Martha Victoria Diaz, a lawyer who grew up in Lake View during the late &lsquo;70s and &lsquo;80s, remembers the Chicago neighborhood as being fairly integrated. She remembers many Latino families like her own living on the block, as well as white households. But once the neighborhood began to gentrify, working class people of all races were displaced.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Martha says that got her thinking: It was easy to identify areas of Chicago where low-income Latinos live and, for that matter, where low-income African-Americans live, too. But where had all the white people gone? She followed up by asking:</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div style="text-align: center;"><em>Where are all the poor white neighborhoods?</em></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Diaz was especially curious because she knows that nationally, most beneficiaries of some poverty programs are white. (We&rsquo;re talking <a href="http://kff.org/medicaid/state-indicator/distribution-by-raceethnicity-4/">Medicaid</a> and the <a href="http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/ops/Characteristics2013.pdf">Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program</a>, aka food stamps.)</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>So in Chicago, where are all those people living? We found answers in the latest numbers from the U.S. Census Bureau, which reveal striking differences in concentrated poverty between Chicago&rsquo;s three largest racial/ethnic groups. We then called experts to explain how the disparate pictures of poverty in Chicago came to be. They also offered some big takeaways about how our attitudes about poverty and race may be shaped by housing patterns &mdash; and what that means for public policy.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><span style="font-size:24px;">First, the data. Where are Chicago&rsquo;s poor white neighborhoods?</span></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>We began with U.S. Census data, which allowed us to drill down to individual census tracts across Chicago. <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/where-are-chicagos-poor-white-neighborhoods-112639#data">After deciding on a methodology</a>, we generated a map showing areas of high-poverty for each of the races.</div><div><a href="http://interactive.wbez.org/curiouscity/poverty/" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="https://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-assets/curiouscity/mapstillFORWEB4.png" style="width: 620px; height: 395px;" /></a></div><div><div><a name="graph"></a>The data are striking. While it&rsquo;s easy to identify swaths of African-American poverty, and to a lesser extent Latino poverty, Chicago has just two isolated census tracts of white poverty, both of which are tucked away near the lake in the Rogers Park neighborhood. Looking closer, you might notice that those two tracts are in the area adjoining Loyola University&rsquo;s lakeshore campus. We might expect to see this in an area populated by college and graduate students!</div></div><div class="image-insert-image "><p data-pym-src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/white-poverty/child.html">&nbsp;</p><script src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/white-poverty/js/lib/pym.js" type="text/javascript"></script>This is not to say there&rsquo;s no white poverty in Chicago. Indeed, Census Bureau data from the 2009-2013 American Community Survey show 90,328 white Chicagoans living at or below the federal poverty level. But Martha&rsquo;s question is about concentrated white poverty. Our conclusion is that &mdash; those two North Side census tracts notwithstanding &mdash; there really is no concentrated white poverty in Chicago.<p>&nbsp;</p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Why doesn&rsquo;t Chicago have concentrated white poverty?</span></p><p>This follow-up question is a logical one, given that <a href="https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2014/demo/p60-249.pdf">whites represent the largest group of poor people in the United States</a>. For answers, we first spoke with Janet Smith, Assistant Professor of Urban Planning at the University of Illinois Chicago and co-director of the Natalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement.</p><p><strong>Janet Smith:&nbsp;</strong><em>If I look back 40 years ago, I might have turned to a few communities that I can think of where you had more working poor people. But even then ... Hegwisch for example, you think of the far South Side of Chicago, close to the steel mills. Those were actually good-paying jobs. Even then you had white working class people ... but they weren&#39;t poor necessarily.&nbsp;I don&rsquo;t know if we ever really had concentrated white poverty in Chicago, and part of that is because whites, as opposed to blacks and Latinos, have been able to live just about anywhere. And so part of it is more of a diffusion of poverty among white folks, compared to blacks and Latinos.</em></p><p><em>What we&rsquo;ve seen since the 1970s ... is a shrinking of the white middle-income and lower-income families in the city of Chicago. So where we think they&rsquo;ve gone &mdash; and this is based on data that we get from the U.S. Census &mdash; is that they&rsquo;ve relocated probably outside the city and are living more in suburban areas.</em></p><p><em>I think that part of [why Chicago doesn&#39;t have concentrated white poverty] has to get back to a larger history of structural racism in the United States. And what I mean by that is the ability for different races to move to different places. So whites have long had an ability to move around the country and to move to different places. African-Americans have historically just not had as many choices. And Chicago &mdash; and I can think of a couple other Midwestern cities &mdash; has had a really strong history of race relations that have not been positive for African-Americans. So staying in these neighborhoods is probably a result of having limited opportunities to move elsewhere.</em></p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Why does Chicago have so much concentrated black poverty?</span></p><p>It&rsquo;s clear from the data that different factors are at play within the black and Latino communities. To unpack some of the reasons that have contributed to Chicago&rsquo;s extensive areas of concentrated black poverty, we spoke with Mary Pattillo, the Harold Washington Professor of Sociology and African-American Studies at Northwestern University.</p><p><strong>Mary Pattillo:</strong><em> So the answer to the question of why there isn&rsquo;t concentrated white poverty in Chicago &mdash; and many other cities, Chicago is not alone in this &mdash; rests on two big points. One is racial residential segregation, and the other is the different poverty rates in the various race/ethnic groups. So when you combine those two together, you get concentrated black and Latino poverty, and pretty much no concentrated white poverty.</em></p><p><em>Racial residential segregation ... Let&rsquo;s begin with the fact that Chicago is an old city, much of which was built before the Fair Housing Act of 1968 [and] a lot of which [was] built during a time when we had what were called racial restrictive covenants. [These] were agreements ... that white homeowners entered amongst each other to exclude mostly blacks, but in some cities and in some times they also excluded Jewish people. They also excluded Chinese people, depending on what city and what was the marginalized group at the time.</em></p><p><em>The federal government is not at all innocent in this. The federal government very much underwrote the suburbanization of whites and the concentration of blacks in the city. So the building of the suburbs was very much supported by the federal government&rsquo;s insuring of mortgages, and that allowed the banks to give a lot more mortgages, but they only insured those mortgages in neighborhoods that, as they said, didn&rsquo;t house &ldquo;inharmonious racial groups&rdquo; ... which basically meant if there were any prospect of black people moving in, they wouldn&rsquo;t support the mortgage. So this very much created residential racial segregation, not just in the city of Chicago but also in the metropolitan area, by supporting the suburbanization of whites and the concentration of blacks in the city in &mdash; what the federal government also built &mdash; which were public housing projects.</em></p><p><strong>WBEZ: Do any of these factors still play out today, or have new ones crept in?</strong></p><p><strong>Mary Pattillo: </strong><em>The research today still finds housing discrimination. Sometimes it&rsquo;s the blatant discrimination: A black person calls and the realtor says that apartment&rsquo;s been rented. ... So black folks have to work extra hard to see the same number of units as whites. ... But there is something to preferences and knowledge. What neighborhoods do people know about? And, how do you know about neighborhoods? You know about the neighborhoods where your friends live. And if our friendship patterns are racially segregated, then we know about the neighborhoods where other black people live if we&rsquo;re black, or the neighborhoods where other Latinos live if we&rsquo;re Latino. So there&rsquo;s knowledge, and there&rsquo;s preferences and comfort.</em></p><p><strong>WBEZ: Are we seeing higher-income blacks mix up the incomes in some of these high-poverty neighborhoods?</strong></p><p><strong>Mary Pattillo:</strong> <em>That&rsquo;s an excellent question. Let&rsquo;s say you had complete racial residential segregation &mdash; which we don&rsquo;t have, but in Chicago, we almost do &mdash; so that if the black poverty rate is 30 percent, that means all black neighborhoods should have a 30 percent poverty rate, if everybody is kind of shuffled around. But that&rsquo;s not the case. You have class segregation within race. Class segregation among blacks is higher than among both whites and Latinos. So when you measure, as you mentioned, the evenness of the classes within the predominantly black, Latino or white neighborhoods, you find that there is greater pull-away between poor blacks and upper income blacks than there is between poor whites and upper income whites and poor Latinos and upper income Latinos.</em></p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align: center;"><em><a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/where-are-chicagos-poor-white-neighborhoods-112639#graph"><strong><span style="font-family:arial,helvetica,sans-serif;">Chart: Comparison of Chicago residents living in poverty, by race</span></strong></a></em></p><p><strong>WBEZ: Can we account for the psychology, in any way, behind that high level of class segregation among blacks?</strong></p><p><strong>Mary Pattillo:</strong> <em>It is both that many populations don&rsquo;t want to live around poor people (it&rsquo;s a reflection on them, they think) and because what goes along with neighborhoods that have high poverty rates are things like fewer services, schools that are less well invested. ... I think for many reasons people see high-poverty neighborhoods as lacking in the kind of resources and amenities that they want for themselves and for their kids.</em></p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Why is there concentrated Latino poverty in Chicago?</span></p><p>Our experts told us that some of the factors behind concentrated black poverty in Chicago also apply to the question of why we see some areas of concentrated Latino poverty. Researchers have conducted studies where &ldquo;testers&rdquo; of different races and ethnic backgrounds are deployed to inquire about available housing in cities across the U.S. These studies have exposed disparate treatment of Latinos and whites, just as they have found disparate treatment between African-Americans and whites.</p><p>However, many Latino neighborhoods are also landing spots for new immigrants, so we spoke with Sylvia Puente, Executive Director of the Latino Policy Forum. We asked her how immigration, and other unique explanations, might lie behind the data.</p><p><strong>Sylvia Puente: </strong><em>So Latino poverty, to a large extent, you&rsquo;re really going to see families, you&rsquo;re going to see two-parent households &mdash; a married mom and dad with kids &mdash; but they&rsquo;re only able to earn a wage which doesn&rsquo;t take them past the poverty level.</em></p><p><em>A significant number of adults are working in low-wage labor markets. ... That&rsquo;s among all Latinos, but especially for those who are undocumented or unauthorized in this country. They&rsquo;re living in a shadow economy that sometimes doesn&rsquo;t even pay minimum wage. ... A significant number of Latinos are low-wage workers for a variety of reasons, and then people choose to live where they have friends and family. Where they go to church and Mass is in the language that they&rsquo;re most comfortable in, and they can go grocery shopping and know people from their home communities.</em></p><p><em>It&rsquo;s always, I think, an interesting question to say, &ldquo;Are these ethnic enclaves, or are they ghettos?&rdquo; And I think that a community can be both, and I don&rsquo;t mean ghetto in a negative way. But [with ghettos], we see large concentrations of poverty. We don&rsquo;t see a lot of economic activity. We see large concentrations of people in the same ethnic group living there who don&rsquo;t have a way out. [Whereas] ethnic enclaves have, maybe, a lot of those same characteristics. ... Ethnic enclaves are [where] people are choosing to live in these communities, because certainly with Latinos, they can go to the store in Spanish. They can go to the grocery store and find products from their home country, they can cook meals that are familiar to them. A lot of what we&rsquo;ve seen in terms of Latino concentration are people literally coming from the same village in Mexico or in another country, so you go where you know people. And ethnic enclaves also [are] people choosing to live with people who are like them because it&rsquo;s home, it&rsquo;s familiar. There&rsquo;s a certain comfort in that.</em></p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">What does it mean if, when we talk about concentrated poverty in Chicago, we really are only talking about communities of color?</span></p><p><strong>Sylvia Puente:</strong> <em>One of the concerns that I have around it is that we have two Chicagos. We have a thriving white middle class Chicago who largely lives along the lakefront and on the Northwest Side of the city, and Chicago is big enough that you don&rsquo;t have to go into a South Side neighborhood ever in your whole life. And I&rsquo;m certainly of the belief that to have compassion, to really address all the social challenges that we have in our state, you&rsquo;ve got to get out of your comfort zone and understand how people live.</em></p><p><strong>Mary Pattillo:</strong> &nbsp;<em>I think that that contributes to our misunderstanding of poverty in general, our misunderstanding of welfare and social services, and I think it contributes to a kind of political conservatism because we can point to those &ldquo;other people.&rdquo; If we&rsquo;re white, we can point to those other people (and think) &ldquo;Something&rsquo;s wrong with black people, something&rsquo;s wrong with Latinos. White people &mdash; look, you don&rsquo;t see any poor white neighborhoods.&rdquo; But there are poor white people, there are lots of poor white people. But because they&rsquo;re not visibly located in a single place, it doesn&rsquo;t lend itself to our stigmatizing them.</em></p><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Martha&rsquo;s conclusions</span></p><p><a name="data"></a>After hearing input from our three experts, we asked our questioner, Martha Diaz, to reflect on what resonated with her, as a Latina who grew up in a working-class background but attained a college education and lives in today&rsquo;s gentrified Lake View neighborhood.</p><p><strong>Martha Diaz:</strong> <em>Well, I suppose much of the outcome of your life depends on circumstances that are really beyond your control. My parents bought the three-flat that we have in Lake View not because they were speculating, not because they thought that Lake View was going to be the next big thing, but because it was cheaper than the house near the brickyard mall that they had originally been scoping out. And as a result of that, they put themselves and our family in the middle of a community that was about to gentrify. And, as a result of that, my brothers and I had access to better schools probably than our peers did in other parts of the city. And it was serendipitous and wonderful in the example of our family because it made everything for us possible, it made my life possible. But that&rsquo;s obviously not the case for a lot of people in this city.</em></p><hr /><p><strong>How we worked with data</strong></p><p>To get to the bottom of Martha Diaz&rsquo;s question, we had to decide whether a geographic area can be associated with a single, predominant race. We also had to define &ldquo;concentrated poverty.&rdquo; There are lots of ways that one could slice and dice the data, and we took just one approach.</p><p>We started with the 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-year estimates, and examined racial breakdowns within each census tract in Chicago. We decided on a generous definition, characterizing a census tract as predominantly of a single race &mdash; Latino, African-American or white &mdash; if a plurality of people in the tract were of that race.</p><p>Next, we looked at incomes of the predominant races in those census tracts. We used the commonly-accepted definition of &ldquo;high-poverty areas,&rdquo; which are census tracts where the poverty rate (the percentage of people living at or below the federal poverty level) is at or exceeds 40 percent. To find tracts of concentrated white poverty, for example, we looked at the &ldquo;white tracts&rdquo; and asked whether more than 40 percent of those whites are living in poverty. We also disqualified tracts with population counts low enough to raise concerns about statistical confidence. (See &quot;Coefficient of variation&quot; and related listings in the Census Bureau&#39;s <a href="http://www.census.gov/about/policies/quality/standards/glossary.html#c" target="_blank">Glossary of Statistical Quality Standards</a>). &nbsp;</p><p><em>Odette Yousef is a WBEZ reporter. Follow her <a href="https://twitter.com/oyousef">@oyousef</a> and <a href="https://twitter.com/wbezoutloud">@WBEZoutloud</a>. Chris Hagan analyzed Census data and generated maps for this story.</em></p><p><em>Chris Hagan is a data reporter for WBEZ. Follow him&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/chrishagan">@chrishagan</a>.</em></p><div><em>CORRECTION: A previous version of this story used a graphic that displayed incorrect figures regarding national poverty rates relative to those of Chicago&#39;s. The graphic has been corrected, suggesting a closer alignment between national poverty rates within white, black and Latino communities and their Chicago counterparts.</em></div></div><script src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/wbez-dailygraphics/dailygraphics/graphics/white-poverty/js/lib/pym.js" type="text/javascript"></script></p> Wed, 12 Aug 2015 17:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/where-are-chicagos-poor-white-neighborhoods-112639 Study finds high-achieving minorities shun teaching http://www.wbez.org/news/study-finds-high-achieving-minorities-shun-teaching-108963 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Teacher diversity_131018_oy.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>A <a href="http://www.siue.edu/ierc/">decade-long study of more than 225,000 Illinois public high school graduates</a> finds many reasons that minorities are not becoming teachers. The Illinois Education Research Council at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville&nbsp;tracked the classes of 2002 and 2003 as they moved beyond high school and into their careers. The study sheds light on where students, including African-American and Latino graduates, drop out of that pipeline.</p><p>Illinois education officials have been wrestling with a significant mismatch between the number of minority teachers and the number of minority students in the state&rsquo;s public schools. While almost half of students are non-white, more than 80 percent of their teachers are Caucasian. A <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/push-teacher-quality-illinois-takes-toll-minority-candidates-108601">recent push to increase teacher quality standards </a>threatens to exacerbate the difference.</p><p>The Illinois Education Research Council study, meanwhile, finds that while roughly one-third of Illinois public high school graduates earned a Bachelor&rsquo;s degree, only 3 percent became teachers. Within the pool of 4-year college degree earners, minorities went on to become teachers in Illinois public schools at a noticeably lower rate than their white counterparts.</p><p>&ldquo;The minority numbers were actually surprising to me,&rdquo; said Brad White, lead researcher on the study. &ldquo;I sort of went into the study thinking that a lot of that story could be told simply by looking at different rates of enrollment and graduation from college. And that wasn&rsquo;t the case at all.&rdquo;</p><p>White said minority graduates with Bachelor&rsquo;s degrees, and particularly those who fell into the top third of ACT scores, opted to earn teaching certificates at lower rates than similarly qualified white students. And beyond that, African-Americans who did receive teaching certificates were less likely to get teaching positions in Illinois public schools.</p><p>White suggested that the state could increase its pool of minority teachers by recruiting promising students into the profession as early as high school. He said the state could also focus on improving educational opportunities for minority students before they get to college.</p><p>&ldquo;We might be able to see changes in the number of those students that are interested in pursuing teaching as a career if the career is perceived as more prestigious and more difficult to enter,&rdquo; White added. This is an approach state officials say they are trying to take, by increasing testing standards required to enter the profession.</p><p>A spokesperson for the Illinois State Board of Education noted that the state encourages colleges and universities to partner with local school districts to recruit diverse students into the teaching profession, and that the state has expanded funding for Teach for America recruitment. The study found that alternative certification programs such as TFA appear to be good pathways for academically gifted minorities into the teaching profession.</p><p><em>Odette Yousef is WBEZ&rsquo;s North Side Bureau reporter. Follow her at <a href="https://twitter.com/oyousef">@oyousef</a>.</em></p><p>Note: This article incorrectly stated that the Illinois Education Research Council is at Southeastern Illinois University in Edwardsville. It is at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.</p></p> Fri, 18 Oct 2013 10:34:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/study-finds-high-achieving-minorities-shun-teaching-108963 Alderman accuses bank of ‘redlining’ http://www.wbez.org/news/west-side-alderman-accuses-us-bank-owner-%E2%80%98redlining%E2%80%99-103151 <p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/RS5396_Mitts1-scr.jpg" style="margin: 4px 0px 0px; float: left; height: 279px; width: 250px; " title="Ald. Emma Mitts, 37th Ward, is angry about a plan by Minneapolis-based U.S. Bancorp to close a branch in her neighborhood. (WBEZ/Chip Mitchell)" />An alderman on Chicago&rsquo;s struggling West Side is steamed about a plan by Minneapolis-based U.S. Bancorp to close a full-service branch in her neighborhood.</p><p>Ald. Emma Mitts (37th Ward) said the company&rsquo;s decision to shut down its U.S. Bank outlet at 4909 W. Division St. blindsided her. &ldquo;They&rsquo;re leaving high-and-dry with no warning,&rdquo; she said, calling the process &ldquo;disrespectful.&rdquo;</p><p>The branch is an anchor of Austin, a mostly African-American neighborhood hit hard over the years by factory closings and, more recently, home foreclosures.</p><p>But Mitts said there is still plenty of banking business for company officials to keep the branch open. &ldquo;The money is good but they don&rsquo;t want to be in the neighborhood,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;That&rsquo;s redlining.&rdquo;</p><p>U.S. Bancorp spokesman Tom Joyce bristled at the alderman&rsquo;s accusation. &ldquo;It&rsquo;s off base and unfortunate,&rdquo; he said.</p><p>&ldquo;In 2011, we put more than $152 million into affordable housing and economic development in metropolitan Chicago,&rdquo; Joyce said. &ldquo;We&rsquo;re a proud citizen of the Chicago area and the Austin neighborhood and we&rsquo;ll continue to serve the neighborhood.&rdquo;</p><p>When the branch closes November 16, Joyce added, the company will leave an ATM and start shuttling seniors from that part of Austin to nearby U.S. Bank locations two or three times a month.</p><p>The branch on the chopping block was once part of Park National Bank, a&nbsp;commercial chain owned by Oak Park-based FBOP Corp. The chain was known for charity and investment in low-income areas. U.S. Bancorp acquired FBOP holdings as part of a 2009 federal rescue.</p><p>Austin community groups fought the U.S. Bancorp takeover. In 2011, bowing to pressure from the groups, the company agreed to put hundreds of thousands of dollars into affordable-housing efforts in Austin and Maywood, a nearby suburb.</p><p>U.S. Bancorp says it has 88 branches and 1,600 workers in the Chicago area.</p></p> Tue, 16 Oct 2012 05:51:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/west-side-alderman-accuses-us-bank-owner-%E2%80%98redlining%E2%80%99-103151 State Black Caucus makes push to increase African-American blood donations http://www.wbez.org/story/state-black-caucus-makes-push-increase-african-american-blood-donations-96834 <p><p>The Illinois Coalition of Community Blood Centers is working with the General Assembly's Black Caucus to increase blood donations in the African-American community. The campaign is called "Make Every Drop Count."</p><p>Rare blood traits and certain diseases like sickle cell anemia are more prevalent among African-Americans and require frequent blood transfusions.</p><p>Dr. Louis Katz is executive vice president of medical affairs at Mississippi Valley Regional Blood Center, and he says a well-matched blood transfusion is the difference between life, disability and death for some patients.</p><p>Katz says 30 percent of sickle-cell patients develop antibodies that destroy transfused blood cells. The antibodies make it almost impossible to find compatible blood outside African-American donations.</p><p>Coalition president Ann McKanna says nationally African-Americans donate less than 1 percent of the country's blood supply.</p></p> Wed, 29 Feb 2012 16:46:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/state-black-caucus-makes-push-increase-african-american-blood-donations-96834 Dr. King comes to Marquette Park http://www.wbez.org/blog/john-r-schmidt/2011-08-05/dr-king-comes-marquette-park-89583 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//blog/photo/2011-August/2011-08-05/Dr. King_Flickr_Zol87.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was bringing the civil rights movement to the cities of the North. In January 1966 he'd rented an apartment on the West Side of Chicago. On this date 45 years ago, he met a violent reaction in his adopted city.</p><p>King was leading a series of protest marches against housing segregation. Chicago's white realtors often refused to show homes in white neighborhoods to African-Americans. This was a particular problem in the Marquette Park neighborhood, scene of that day's march.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/sites/default/files/blog/insert-image/2011-July/2011-07-25/King%20%28PD%29.jpg" title="" width="450" height="336"></p><p>The protesters planned to demonstrate at three realty offices along 63rd Street. Opponents of open housing were determined to demonstrate against the demonstrators. The police were deployed to keep the two groups separate and peaceful.</p><p>A few open housing advocates arrived on the scene early, and marched without serious incident. The thousand or so opponents stood on the sidewalk behind the police lines. They jeered and yelled insults, but did nothing more. Then the main body of 700 marchers drove up in a motorcade.</p><p>King's car pulled to the curb at 63rd and Sacramento. As he got out, a rock sailed through the air and hit him in the back of the neck. He fell to one knee. After a few seconds he got up, and prepared to lead his people.</p><p>"I have to do this--to expose myself--to bring this hate into the open," King told them. "I have seen many demonstrations in the South, but I have never seen anything so hostile and so hateful as I've seen here today."</p><p>The march began. Now the crowd behind the police lines hurled rocks, bottles, firecrackers, chunks of concrete, and anything else within reach. Someone threw a knife. From time to time, the people on the sidewak tried to push through to get at the marchers. The cops held firm.</p><p>The day ended with 30 people injured, including King and four policemen. Forty-one persons had been arrested, mostly whites who'd tried to block off Kedzie Avenue.</p><p>Later in the year an agreement was reached between the open housing advocates and the Chicago Real Estate Board. The first, faltering steps had been taken toward ending segregated housing in the city.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 05 Aug 2011 12:15:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/blog/john-r-schmidt/2011-08-05/dr-king-comes-marquette-park-89583 Venture: No jobs, no job skills for lots of black teens http://www.wbez.org/content/venture-no-jobs-no-job-skills-lots-black-teens <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-June/2011-06-17/photoedit.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><img alt="Young men participate in a Chicago Urban League mentoring program. " class="caption" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/insert-image/2011-June/2011-06-17/photoedit.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 270px; margin: 5px;" title="(WBEZ/Natalie Moore)"></p><p>Updated numbers on jobless claims come out this week, and they'll shed more light on the outlook for employment. It's clear one group continues to struggle in that area.<br> <br> Nearly half of black teenagers in Illinois are unemployed. In Chicago the number is even worse: 89 percent don't have work.&nbsp; A stagnant economy, under-resourced communities and lack of opportunities are all factors. Not getting work skills at an early age can be an economic disadvantage for a lifetime.<br> <br> Kenyatta Lockett is 19 and works in the stockroom at a small grocery store on East 79th Street.<br> <br> LOCKETT: I'm looking for a summer job. I'm trying to look for a summer job because this is only temporary.<br> <br> Lockett says it's hard to find a BETTER job because she dropped out of high school.<br> <br> But now she's enrolled in a GED and transitional job program to get back on track.<br> <br> The high unemployment numbers for her demographic disappoint Lockett.<br> <br> LOCKETT: I think it makes us look bad because we're supposed to set examples for other people. For people that are a younger generation than us.<br> <br> Lockett says she regrets dropping out of high school. She has friends in similar predicaments, products of Chicago's high dropout rate and vainly looking for work.<br> <br> Experts say that lack of education figures mightily. So do segregated communities with few job opportunities.<br> <br> Andrea Zopp is head of the Chicago Urban League.<br> <br> She contrasts her own stable, retail-thriving neighborhood of Beverly with other parts of the city.<br> <br> ZOPP: My kids when they went to look for jobs, could find a part-time job within a couple of miles of the house. You take a kid living in Englewood or kid living in Roseland, there's not that economic engine there.<br> <br> Zopp says part-time jobs allow young people to be involved in their communities- in a positive way. That's top of mind for those looking to help head off an uptick in youth crime when the weather is warm.<br> <br> Zopp's pushing local businesses to do summer hiring. A company may need a storeroom cleaned out or a landscaping company may need extra seasonal help. The message Zopp gives business owners is that it's relatively cheap to bring in some summer employees.<br> <br> And it's critical. Contrast 89 percent unemployment for black Chicago teens with 72 percent for white teens.<br> <br> ZOPP: The issue is our young people are sort of at the bottom of the food chain when it comes to getting jobs.<br> <br> William Rodgers agrees.<br> <br> He's a professor and economist at Rutgers University. He's looked at ways in which early work helps a teenager later on.<br> <br> RODGERS: In this day and age with our service economy, it's teaching you what we call the soft skills. It's teaching you about punctuality, it's teaching you about when you're interacting with someone, you're looking at them with a straight eye, it's teaching you about wearing those pants up around your waist with a belt.<br> <br> Research shows a&nbsp; lack of those soft skills…and other job experience…sets a young person up for a harder time getting into the job market after high school, as well as high teen pregnancy and a greater chance of involvement with the criminal justice system.<br> <br> And it appears that the disadvantages linger. &nbsp;<br> <br> A 1994&nbsp; labor journal study showed that high school seniors who worked 20 hours a week were earning 22 percent more than their peers six to nine years later.<br> <br> ambi: Those are olives<br> <br> It's a Friday afternoon and about 20 black male teens file into a room, stacking their plates with pizza. They are part of a mentoring program sponsored by the Chicago Urban League. They're also taught job readiness skills.<br> <br> JONES: My name is Romaro Jones. I attend Paul Robeson High School. I play sports: football, baseball, track.<br> <br> He's 18,&nbsp; and has yet to find a summer job.<br> <br> JONES: It seems like every time I go out for a job, it seems like I don't meet the criteria that they want That's what it seems like to me - I don't know why.<br> <br> He predicts what happens if his peers don't work.<br> <br> JONES:&nbsp; Everybody gonna be outside on the block doing illegal stuff cause they ain't got nothing else to do.<br> <br> Some of the guys are applying for a job through the City of Chicago, which expects to hire about 14,000 youth this summer. That's down from 18,000 jobs last year. &nbsp;<br> <br> Mike Moss sees the benefits to individuals and neighborhoods when kids work.<br> <br> He owns property in Englewood. When he started rehabbing, he began to worry about the all the young people around.<br> <br> MOSS: It was late in the evening and then I started hearing gunshots and I was like, 'Are you serious?' And so I told my wife, once we get through with the building and get the apartments ready, we're going to carve out these basements.<br> <br> In that basement, he's planning to start a job training program for about 50 youth.<br> <br> MOSS: I've been doing a survey with the parents, a lot of the parents don't have plans for their children this summer.<br> <br> The teens will punch in for six hours a day and learn some skills, like how to manage money and how to go out on painting jobs.<br> <br> He says he'll pay them out of his own pocket. Moss knows it's small, but he hopes it's an effective bridge in a larger economic divide.<br> <br> I'm Natalie Moore.<br> <br> And I'm Cate Cahan.</p><p><br> <br> <br> &nbsp;</p></p> Mon, 20 Jun 2011 10:43:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/content/venture-no-jobs-no-job-skills-lots-black-teens Practically Speaking http://www.wbez.org/story/african-americans/practically-speaking <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//Haiti_1.JPG" alt="" /><p><p><em>Practically Speaking </em>is an hour-long program that explores the views and experiences of Chicagoans whose stories may be familiar, but whose perspectives are rarely heard.</p><p>In this episode, hosts Audra Wilson and Ayana Contreras take us on a journey through education, language, culture, and identity.</p><p>It's a journey that spans from Englewood to Haiti - with stories about the intersection of language and culture, the history and meaning of African-American baby names, the dreams of the Haitian diaspora, and the special principles of a Chicago Public School principal.&nbsp; Click on the audio link at the top of the page to listen.</p><p><em>Practically Speaking </em>is produced by Ayana Contreras and presented by WBEZ Chicago.</p></p> Thu, 20 Jan 2011 18:37:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/african-americans/practically-speaking Moseley Braun, Davis to Bill Clinton: Stay out of town http://www.wbez.org/story/african-americans/moseley-braun-danny-davis-agree-bill-clinton-should-stay-out-mayors-race <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//IMG_6666.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>Another candidate for Chicago mayor is telling a former president to stay out of the campaign.</p><p>Former Illinois U.S. Senator Carol Moseley Braun is the latest candidate with harsh words for former President Bill Clinton. Mr. Clinton is expected to campaign for Rahm Emanuel, much to the chagrin of Moseley Braun.</p><p>&quot;I think that what we have is an outsider running for mayor and bringing outsiders in to help him,&quot;&nbsp;she said.</p><p>In the 1990s, Emanuel worked in the administration of then-President Bill Clinton. A spokesman for the Emanuel campaign said Mr. Clinton is expected to stump for his former advisor's mayoral campaign.</p><p>Moseley Braun said Emanuel is not a real Chicagoan since he lived in Washington, D.C. while working as White House chief of staff. She stopped short of bringing race into the issue.</p><p>Recently Congressman Danny Davis, an African-American candidate, like Moseley Braun, said Mr. Clinton should not get involved in the mayor's race. If he does, Davis said Mr. Clinton risks damaging the former president's relationship with the African-American community.</p><p>State Sen. James Meeks, an African-American, dropped out of the race last week. That leaves Congressman Davis and former Illinois U.S. Senator Carol Moseley Braun as the two major African-American candidates who are campaigning.</p></p> Wed, 29 Dec 2010 19:08:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/african-americans/moseley-braun-danny-davis-agree-bill-clinton-should-stay-out-mayors-race