WBEZ | race http://www.wbez.org/tags/race Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en StoryCorps Chicago: Rev. Jim Wallis talks about ‘America’s Original Sin’ http://www.wbez.org/series/storycorps/storycorps-chicago-rev-jim-wallis-talks-about-%E2%80%98america%E2%80%99s-original-sin%E2%80%99-114843 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/3f81706a-3284-4cab-b63e-b5b1c3fcac02.jpg" alt="" /><p><p dir="ltr">The Rev. Jim Wallis is the founder of Sojourners, a Christian community dedicated to social justice. He&#39;s also the author of twelve books on religion and politics. He stopped by the StoryCorps booth in Chicago recently to talk about his latest book, &quot;America&#39;s Original Sin: Racism, White Privilege, and the Bridge to a New America.&quot;</p><p dir="ltr">Wallis is white and had few black friends growing up. But one of the African-American friends he did have made a lasting impression on him.</p><p dir="ltr"><em>This story was produced through a partnership between StoryCorps and the Chicago Community Trust.</em></p><p dir="ltr"><em><a href="http://www,storycorps.org">StoryCorps&rsquo; </a>mission is to provide Americans of all backgrounds and beliefs with the opportunity to share, record and preserve their stories. These excerpts, edited by WBEZ, present some of our favorites from the current visit, as well as from previous trips.</em></p><div>&nbsp;</div></p> Fri, 12 Feb 2016 17:18:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/series/storycorps/storycorps-chicago-rev-jim-wallis-talks-about-%E2%80%98america%E2%80%99s-original-sin%E2%80%99-114843 Where Brunch And Housing Segregation Collide http://www.wbez.org/news/economy/where-brunch-and-housing-segregation-collide-114844 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Christopher Cornelius:Flickr Creative Commons.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>There&#39;s been a lot of conversation lately about people of color dealing with &quot;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/07/29/427190143/on-wyatt-cenac-key-peele-and-being-the-only-one-in-the-room">only one in the room</a>&quot; syndrome in the workplace. But in 2016, it&#39;s still remarkably easy to be the only person of color in any given social situation. My Code Switch teammate Gene Demby and I were talking about this yesterday. We&#39;ve both been to parties in D.C., Philadelphia, LA &mdash; all majority nonwhite cities &mdash; where we at some point looked up and realized we were &quot;the only one in the room.&quot; We live in Chocolate City, for goodness&#39; sake! How are we ending up at all these potlucks with nary another person of color around?</p><p>Turns out, it&#39;s pretty easy. As the&nbsp;Washington Post&#39;s Christopher Ingraham put it, writing about&nbsp;<a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/08/25/three-quarters-of-whites-dont-have-any-non-white-friends/">a study on race and social circles</a>&nbsp;released last year, &quot;the average black person&#39;s friend network is eight percent white, but the average white person&#39;s network is only one percent black. To put it another way: Blacks have ten times as many black friends as white friends. But white Americans have an astonishing&nbsp;91 times as manywhite friends as black friends.&quot;</p><p>On Friday, Rajini Vaidyanathan of BBC News&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-35255835">wrote about housing segregation in the United States</a>. According to the Brookings Institution study that he references, &quot;more than half of blacks would have to move to achieve complete integration.&quot; Predictably, housing segregation leads to racially distinct social spaces even in the nation&#39;s most ostensibly diverse cities, and not just when it comes to schools or offices:</p><blockquote><div><p>&quot;In my reporting across the United States I&#39;ve seen this first hand &mdash; from Louisiana to Kansas, Alabama to Wisconsin, Georgia to Nebraska. In so many of these places people of other races simply don&#39;t mix, not through choice but circumstance. And if there&#39;s no interaction between races, it&#39;s harder for conversations on how to solve race problems to even begin.&quot;</p></div></blockquote><p>This separation, Vaidyanathan says, isn&#39;t an accident; it&#39;s the end result of decades of governmental discrimination; from redlining, racial covenants and blockbusting. &quot;Decades on from the civil rights movement, many black and white Americans simply don&#39;t mix,&quot; he writes. &quot;And as the U.S. contends with race problems, getting to know each other better is one step in understanding and fixing some of those problems.&quot;</p><p>The consequences of housing segregation can be severe.&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/12/01/248039354/a-battle-for-fair-housing-still-raging-but-mostly-forgotten">Gene has written about</a>&nbsp;the effects segregation can have on life expectancy, education and incarceration rates.</p><p>They can also be intimate and nebulous, and pop up in the most unexpected places, like a holiday party or a Sunday brunch. Statistically speaking, this isn&#39;t that surprising.</p><p>Over at the Toast, Nicole Chung recently wrote about&nbsp;<a href="http://the-toast.net/2016/01/05/what-goes-through-your-mind-casual-racism/">what it feels like to encounter casual racism</a>&nbsp;in a room full of white friends and family members. Chung was at a post-Christmas dinner at her in-laws&#39; when an acquaintance leaned over the dinner table to share her observation that Chung looks &quot;just like everyone on that show&quot; &mdash;Fresh Off the Boat&nbsp;&mdash; leaving Chung grasping for words. She hoped that someone would step in and say something, and when no one did, she realized that the pressure to &quot;make sure everyone keeps having a good time&quot; was on her:</p><blockquote><div><p>&quot;The social pressure on people of color to keep the peace, not get mad, just make sure everyone keeps having&nbsp;a nice time&nbsp;&mdash; even when we hear these remarks in public, at our workplaces and schools, in our own homes and from our friends&#39; mouths &mdash; can be overwhelming, bearing down on us in so many situations we do not see coming and therefore cannot avoid. What does our dignity matter, what do our feelings amount to, when we could&nbsp;embarrass&nbsp;white people we care about? When our white relatives or friends or colleagues might experience a moment&#39;s discomfort, anxiety, or guilt?&quot;</p></div></blockquote><p>Reading Chung&#39;s piece reminded me of a potluck I was at in Philadelphia last summer with my then-boyfriend, who is white, and his crew of white friends. I had gotten back from the beach a few days earlier and was several shades darker than usual. Everyone was busy gossiping about their summer adventures when one guy turned to me and asked, &quot;So, did he realize you were black when he started dating you?&quot;</p><p>In that moment, my instinct was to say something snarky (&quot;Did he realize you were a doofus when he became your friend?&quot;). But like Chung, I didn&#39;t want to ruin a good time. So I laughed, poured myself a drink, and let everyone move on.</p><p>In the scheme of things, did I experience that socially awkward interaction as a trauma on the scale of white-flight-induced school budget shortages, or the redlining-driven concentration of poverty in black neighborhoods? Of course not. But if we&#39;re going to have conversations on the effects of housing segregation, it&#39;s worth understanding how the accumulation of decades of racially driven policy may have leached into every aspect of our lives, and how a thorough scrubbing may be in store.</p><p>&mdash;&nbsp;<em><a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/01/14/462901523/housing-segregation-in-everything-pt-244-where-brunch-and-redlining-collide">via NPR</a></em></p></p> Fri, 12 Feb 2016 17:13:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/economy/where-brunch-and-housing-segregation-collide-114844 Is It Time To Stop Using Race In Medical Research? http://www.wbez.org/news/it-time-stop-using-race-medical-research-114737 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/racemeds.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="storytext"><p><em>Genetics researchers often discover certain snips and pieces of the human genome that are important for health and development such as the genetic mutations that cause cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. And scientists noticed that genetic variants are more common in some races &ndash; which makes it seem like race is important in genetics research.</em></p><p><em>But some researchers say that we&#39;ve taken the concept too far. To find out what that means, we&#39;ve talked to two of the authors of an&nbsp;<a href="http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6273/564.full">article</a>&nbsp;published Thursday in the journal&nbsp;</em>Science<em>. </em></p><p><em>Sarah Tishkoff is a human population geneticist and a professor at the University of Pennsylvania. Dorothy Roberts is a legal scholar, sociologist, and a professor at the University of Pennsylvania&#39;s Africana Studies department.&nbsp;This interview has been edited for length and clarity.</em></p><hr /><p><strong>How do geneticists use race now, and how does </strong><strong>that cause problems</strong><strong> for science?</strong></p><p><strong>Sarah Tishkoff: </strong>We know people don&#39;t group according to so called races based purely on genetic data. Whenever the topic comes up, we have to address, how are we going to define race? I have never ever seen anybody come to a consensus at any of these human genetics meetings.</p><p><strong>Dorothy Roberts:</strong> That&#39;s because race is based on cultural, legal, social and political determinations, and those groupings have changed over time. As a social scientist, looking at biologists treating these groupings as if they were determined by innate genetic distinctions, I&#39;m dumbfounded. There&#39;s so much evidence that they&#39;re invented social categories. How you can say this is a biological race is just absurd. It&#39;s absurd. It violates the scientific evidence about human beings.</p><p><strong>ST: </strong>But I as a human geneticist wouldn&#39;t want to imply that there are no differences &mdash;but among different ethnic groups, not racial classifications. For example, I&#39;m Ashkenazi Jewish. I have a much higher risk of getting certain genetic diseases that are common in certain Ashkenazi Jewish populations. That was an important question when I was having children.</p><p>There was a drug, called BiDil, that somebody claimed is more effective with African Americans than other race &ndash; which was not true. But there are genes that play a role in drug metabolism. So if a doctor was prescribing drug treatment based on her identification of race she&#39;d say, &quot;You should use drug A because that&#39;s better for people of European descent.&quot; But the patient might not carry the right gene. That might have negative consequences. That might be the wrong treatment for her.</p><p><strong>DR:</strong> Race isn&#39;t a good category to use to understand those differences or the commonalities. It in many cases leads researchers down the wrong path and leads to harmful results for patients. For example black patients who have the symptoms of cystic fibrosis aren&#39;t diagnosed because doctors see it as a white disease.</p><p><strong>So part of the problem is that when we see a high frequency of a medically relevant gene in one racial population, we start to assume that all members of that race have that gene?</strong></p><p><strong>ST:</strong> Yeah, I think that&#39;s right.</p><p><strong>DR:</strong> People take what&#39;s a difference in [gene] frequency and turn it into a categorical difference that interprets it as if one race has one gene and another race doesn&#39;t have the gene. You can&#39;t reach the conclusion that because you know someone&#39;s race you know what their genes are. It&#39;s not the case that there are populations where 100 percent, everyone, has those genes&nbsp;and&nbsp;nobody in other populations have those genes. It&#39;s a crude way and unhelpful way of figuring out what the disease risk is.</p><p><strong>ST: </strong>That&#39;s not to say that genetic risk in disease isn&#39;t important. I do think geography is important, and I think that people historically during evolutionary history have adapted to different environments.</p><p><strong>Is it that the science of genetics and the science of human populations are racist? Or is it that the numbers are there and, as a society, we&#39;re interpreting these things in a racist way?</strong></p><p>DR: There is a long history of justifying the subordination of different groups and social groupings based on myths about their biologic or genetic predispositions. It&#39;s not only that there&#39;s scientific evidence that humans aren&#39;t divided into discrete biological categories we&#39;d call races. But there&#39;s also evidence of the harm these biological meanings of race have caused for centuries. It&#39;s one of the reasons why it&#39;s difficult for human geneticists today to grapple with the meaning of race. You can&#39;t talk about race without also considering the history of racism.</p><p><strong>ST:</strong> But modern human geneticists, we&#39;re not trying to say they have a racist agenda. It&#39;s a positive thing to try and increase studies of genetic diversity that may differ across different ethnicities or ancestries.</p><p><strong>DR:</strong> Yes. I&#39;m not trying to say anything about the motivations or what scientists are trying now to do. Our paper is a call for scientists to come up with better ways of understanding human genetic diversity without relying on this antiquated concept of race There is a failure of imagination for people to think, what is there something better that we can use? Let&#39;s develop that.</p><p><strong>Is it that difficult, though? What are the things holding scientists back from developing something better?</strong></p><p><strong>ST:</strong> If I want a grant from the National Institutes of Health, I am required to check off the racial classification according to the U.S. government&#39;s census categories. I study very diverse people from all over Africa, but I believe the classification is African American or Black. I always feel awkward.</p><p><strong>DR:</strong> The NIH guidelines require the use of race in recruiting research subjects. There&#39;s a history of advocating for that in order to increase the participation of minorities in clinical research. Then it gets confusing, because the researchers continue to use these categories in conducting the research. Scientists must conform their research to these admittedly social categories of race.</p><p>ST: One also has to take into account that you need a way to identify your study population. Ideally you want ethnically diverse populations, so obviously you have to have some way of identifying research subjects. And that&#39;s fine. But they don&#39;t need to say based on race. The language and terminology does matter.</p><p><strong>DR: </strong>Except if the research question has to do with investigating the effects of racism &ndash; race as a social category that does affect people&#39;s lives and health and future because of the impact of social inequality. I often get the justification from doctors that &#39;I know it&#39;s crude but it&#39;s the best we have given the limited resources.&#39;</p><p><strong>ST:</strong> To some extent I think that&#39;s true. If a doctor doesn&#39;t have a readily available genetic test to look at ancestry or to look at individual genotypes of that person, race will be their best proxy. But the language matters. We need to move away from racial terminology, particularly in the field of medical genetics. That should just be eliminated. It reinforces the notion that there&#39;s a genetic basis to this classification system. We as scientists have to set an example.</p><p><a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/02/05/465616472/is-it-time-to-stop-using-race-in-medical-research?ft=nprml&amp;f=465616472"><em>&mdash; via NPR</em></a></p></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 05 Feb 2016 15:18:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/it-time-stop-using-race-medical-research-114737 Suicide bombing in Indonesia http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-15/suicide-bombing-indonesia-114496 <p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Indonesia-3.jpg" style="height: 413px; width: 620px;" title="In this Thursday, Jan. 14, 2016, file photo, police officers are deployed near the site of an explosion in Jakarta, Indonesia. Counterterrorism forces apparently did not anticipate Thursday’s attack, though authorities announced last month that they knew of a credible threat. Security personnel, however, were able to respond rapidly. That was partly luck _ police happened to be in the area on other business _ but it still bolstered the image of security forces and government. (AP Photo/Dita Alangkara, File)​" /><br /><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/242166836&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe></div><p><span style="font-size:24px;">Indonesia&rsquo;s battle against extremism</span><br />Indonesia has conducted a series of raids and increased security around tourist sites, following yesterday&rsquo;s suicide bombings. The Islamic State has claimed responsibility for the attack in Jakarta. Several suspects were arrested and at least one suspected militant was killed . Indonesia has been battling extremists for at least a decade. We discuss the latest attack and what it means with Jeffrey Winters, the founding director of the Equality Development and Globalization Studies program at Northwestern University.</p><p><strong>Guest:</strong> Jeffrey Winters is the founding director of the Equality Development and Globalization Studies program at Northwestern University and a specialist on South Asia.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/22351463952_238a3300e2_k.jpg" style="height: 448px; width: 620px;" title="Ousmane Sembène on the set of Moolaade 2003. (Courtesy of the Sembene Estate " /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/242166205&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><br /><span style="font-size:24px;">Documentary recalls the life of &ldquo;father of African&rdquo; film</span><br />Senegalese writer and director Ousmane Sembène is often referred to as the &ldquo;father of African cinema.&rdquo; Sembène only had an elementary school education but became one of Africa&rsquo;s most celebrated directors. A new documentary, &lsquo;Sembene!&rsquo; tells the story of his life. Film contributor Milos Stehlik and filmmakers Samba Gadjigo and Jason Silverman, join us to talk about the film and the life of Ousmane Sembène. It&rsquo;s showing at the Gene Siskel Film Center.</p><p><strong>Guests:</strong> Milos Stehlik is the director of Facets Multimedia<br />Jason Silverman is the co-director of &lsquo;Sembene!&rsquo;<br />Samba Gadjigo is the co-director of &lsquo;Sembene!&rsquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Weekend%20Passport%20photo.jpg" style="height: 471px; width: 620px;" title="A 4H Club visits The Races of Mankind exhibition at The Field Museum in 1944. In the original exhibition The Races of Mankind¸ a large sculpture titled “Unity of Man” stood in the center, portraying the then-current concept of three “main races”. Sculptures in halls off the central area portrayed sub-categories of “racial types.” (Photo courtesy of The Field Museum)" /></div><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/242165988&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_comments=true&amp;show_user=true&amp;show_artwork=false" width="100%"></iframe><span style="font-size:24px;">Weekend Passport: Sculpture exhibit examines our views on race</span><br />Each week global citizen Nari Safavi helps listeners plan their international weekend. This week he&rsquo;ll tell us about an exhibit at the Field Museum that re-examines our conceptions about race- starting in the 1930&rsquo;s through today. He&rsquo;s joined by curator Alaka Wali.</p><p><strong>Guests:</strong> Nari Safavi is one of the founders of Pasfarda Arts and Cultural Exchange<br />Alaka Wali, is the curator of North American Anthropology at the Field Musuem. She is an urban anthropologist and curator of <em>Looking at Ourselves: Rethinking the Sculptures of Malvina Hoffman</em></p></p> Fri, 15 Jan 2016 16:46:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/worldview/2016-01-15/suicide-bombing-indonesia-114496 StoryCorps Chicago: Life After Hate http://www.wbez.org/series/storycorps/storycorps-chicago-life-after-hate-114495 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/sc.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>At 14 years old, Christian Picciolini got involved with a racist skinhead group in Chicago&#39;s south suburbs. For the next several years Picciolini promoted the idea of white supremacy. But in his early twenties he had a change of heart, and renounced his ties with the White Power movement. In December, Picciolini talked with Dan Cooper, from Adler University as part of our StoryCorps series. Picciolini talks about his own transformation and trying to help others through a non-profit he co-founded called Life After Hate.</p><div><p>This story was recorded through a partnership between StoryCorps and Adler University.</p></div><div><p dir="ltr"><em><a href="http://www.storycorps.org">StoryCorps&rsquo; </a>mission is to provide Americans of all backgrounds and beliefs with the opportunity to share, record and preserve their stories. These excerpts, edited by WBEZ, present some of our favorites from the current visit, as well as from previous trips.</em></p><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div></div><div><div><div>&nbsp;</div></div></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>&nbsp;</div></p> Fri, 15 Jan 2016 16:21:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/series/storycorps/storycorps-chicago-life-after-hate-114495 America's Unfinished Civil War Through the Eyes of Two U.S. Reporters in Africa http://www.wbez.org/programs/world/2015-12-23/americas-unfinished-civil-war-through-eyes-two-us-reporters-africa-114276 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/CROPNOLA.jpg" alt="" /><p><header><div><figure><div id="file-95420"><div style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="http://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/story_main/public/story/images/CROPNOLA.jpg?itok=phQ5XcVb" style="height: 349px; width: 620px;" title="New Orleans held emotional hearings over the summer about a plan to remove its Confederate monuments. Last week, the City Council voted to take four of them down. (PRI/Roopa Gogineni)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div><div>&nbsp;</div></div></figure></div></header><div><div><article about="/stories/2015-12-23/americas-unfinished-civil-war-through-eyes-two-us-reporters-africa" typeof="sioc:Item foaf:Document"><p>When it comes to race in America, this has been a year like no other in recent memory, and it can be hard to pull back and get perspective on it.</p><p>Sometimes you can do that by talking to outsiders looking at America&#39;s tortured history on slavery and race.</p><p>But what if you could get an&nbsp;insider&#39;s&nbsp;outside perspective on the issue?</p><p>That&#39;s what&nbsp;<a href="http://www.roopagogineni.com/" target="_blank">Roopa Gogineni</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://www.monyiego.com/" target="_blank">Mike Onyiego</a>&nbsp;set out to do. They are both American journalists based in Kenya who cover civil conflicts in places like Sudan and Somalia. And they decided to look at the lingering impact of America&#39;s Civil War in the South for the podcast&nbsp;Us and Them; the story is called &quot;<a href="http://usandthempodcast.com/podcast/a-confederate-reckoning/" target="_blank">A Confederate Reckoning</a>.&quot;</p><p>The idea, as Onyiego put it, was &quot;let&#39;s keep our foreign correspondents hats on and try to go do down there and see something different about it. Maybe an outside perspective might lend some insights.&quot;</p><p>Making it a little more complicated, Onyiego is an African American from Chicago, and Gogineni is Indian-American, from West Virginia. And they went to New Orleans to discuss some highly charged topics.&nbsp; &quot;Sometimes the conversations got awkward, uncomfortable,&quot; Onyiego says.</p><p>But they point out that many people were eager to talk to them.</p><p>At a rally of hosted by the Sons of Confederate Veterans, one man told them that slavery wasn&#39;t as bad as people make out now. &quot;My family owned slaves,&quot; he said. &quot;They stayed with my family until the 1950s, they took on my family&#39;s name. They loved the family, they were treated as family.&quot;</p><p>It&#39;s a perspective they heard more than once during the weeks they spent in Louisiana. &quot;For the most part, we just listened,&quot; Gogineni says. They spoke with people who viewed the Confederate flag as a cherished symbol of Southern heritage. And they spoke with people who saw it as an emblem of racism and hate.</p><p>One day, in the middle of a long conversation about race and slavery in a bar, a man from Mozambique joined in &mdash; and he had his own outside perspective.</p><p>When Gogineni asked him how people in Mozambique talked about&nbsp;their&nbsp;civil war, he said they don&#39;t, because it would bring up too much pain and sadness. Then he went on to say that black people in America need to let go of their resentment.</p><p>&quot;Most of the black people here, they&#39;re part of the problem because all they do just complain. It&#39;s like, OK, what&#39;s done wasn&#39;t fair. But what are you going to do? You&#39;re going to go back to the past and change it?&quot;</p><p>For Onyiego, it was a frustrating moment because he says it&#39;s rare to have a real discussion about the long-term impact of slavery here. &quot;So for someone from Africa to be given such instant credibility to allow people to move past some really unresolved issues, it wasn&#39;t fair,&quot; he says. &quot;It was traumatic to have that conversation end so abruptly.&quot;</p><p>It says something about how complicated these histories and symbols can be for outsiders, Gogineni says. She describes how her father, an immigrant from India who moved to the United States and settled in West Virginia, bought a Confederate flag vanity license plate for his car.</p><p>&quot;He had no idea what it meant,&quot; she says. &quot;He thought it looked really nice, that it was some take on the British flag. And then eventually a friend of his said why are you, a brown man, driving with this Confederate flag on your car? And he connected the dots for him.&quot;</p><p>But at least people are talking about all of this now, Onyiego says. People are starting to say, let&#39;s have the whole discussion about the Civil War.</p><p>&quot;The conversation is definitely happening, and it feels messy,&quot; Gogineni adds. &quot;But it feels like progress because people are in the same room.&quot;</p><p>Over the summer when she and Onyiego were in New Orleans, they attended contentious hearings on a proposal to remove some of New Orleans&#39; most prominent Confederate monuments &mdash; such as the statue of Robert E. Lee in Lee Circle.</p><p>Last week, the New Orleans City Council voted 6 to 1 to take down that statue and three other monuments. The decision is&nbsp;being challenged in court.</p></article></div><div><div><div><div><div>&mdash;<a href="http://www.pri.org/stories/2015-12-23/americas-unfinished-civil-war-through-eyes-two-us-reporters-africa" target="_blank"><em> via PRI&#39;s The World</em></a></div></div></div></div></div></div><p>&nbsp;</p></p> Wed, 23 Dec 2015 16:16:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/world/2015-12-23/americas-unfinished-civil-war-through-eyes-two-us-reporters-africa-114276 From NPR Music, Two Jazz Performances That Wrestle With Race And Policing http://www.wbez.org/news/npr-music-two-jazz-performances-wrestle-race-and-policing-114005 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/christianscott-85e9743e04f6e86efedb813a635f78bb60191e57-s700-c85.png" alt="" /><p><div id="res457904373" previewtitle="Christian Scott aTunde Adjuah plays a Tiny Desk Concert at NPR."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Christian Scott aTunde Adjuah plays a Tiny Desk Concert at NPR." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/30/christianscott-85e9743e04f6e86efedb813a635f78bb60191e57-s700-c85.png" title="Christian Scott aTunde Adjuah plays a Tiny Desk Concert at NPR." /></div><div><p>Hi Code Switch readers! I&#39;m here from NPR Music, where I mostly cover jazz. I thought you might be interested two big performances we recently featured in which the artists took a moment to talk about police intimidation and violence against African-Americans.</p><p>When Christian Scott aTunde Adjuah &mdash; a bold, new-school sort of trumpeter &mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/event/music/446930666/christian-scott-atunde-adjuah-tiny-desk-concert">played a Tiny Desk Concert</a>&nbsp;for us, he played &quot;Ku Klux Police Department,&quot; which he says stems from a time he was harassed by police officers in his hometown of New Orleans. The full story, and the song that emerged from it, can be heard around 15:40 in this video:</p><p><iframe frameborder="0" height="338" scrolling="no" src="http://www.npr.org/templates/event/embeddedVideo.php?storyId=452102867&amp;mediaId=452103457" width="600"></iframe></p></div></div><p>Many black jazz musicians have been vocal about this subject since (and well before) Ferguson. Terence Blanchard&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/event/music/429766653/terence-blanchard-feat-the-e-collective-tiny-desk-concert">told us recently</a>&nbsp;that his new record was a reaction to the Black Lives Matter campaign. And going further back, no less a superstar than Miles Davis was&nbsp;<a href="http://africasacountry.com/2015/03/whitehistorymonth-when-the-nypd-beat-up-miles-davis/">beaten in public</a>&nbsp;by New York City police officers for, in his telling, failing to &quot;move on&quot; outside a jazz club where he was performing.</p><p>The severe beating of pianist Bud Powell for disorderly conduct&nbsp;<a href="http://wailthelifeofbudpowell.com/powell-chronology/">directly led to&nbsp;</a>mental health issues that would trouble him throughout his career. Thelonious Monk was once refused service at a highway motel while traveling to a gig, leading to a heated exchange. Delaware state troopers showed up, and Monk was&nbsp;<a href="http://archive.delawareonline.com/article/20091207/OPINION03/912070308/Thelonious-Monk-Delaware-take-2">beaten, arrested</a>, and detained. In the fallout, he was hospitalized in a psychiatric ward, and his New York City cabaret license was revoked,&nbsp;meaning he couldn&#39;t play in nightclubs.</p><p>Monk&#39;s next performance in New York City took place half a year later at a theater called Town Hall (one of the few venues not under the purview of&nbsp;<a href="http://jazztimes.com/articles/30069-the-cabaret-card-and-jazz">cabaret card legislation</a>). The pianist Jason Moran has assembled&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/event/music/446866440/jason-moran-plays-thelonious-monks-town-hall-concert">a concert-length re-imagining</a>&nbsp;of that particular performance, which we filmed for the public media program&nbsp;Jazz Night In America. Jason sat down to reflect about Monk&#39;s experience &mdash; and how it relates to his own. Watch from 20:10 specifically:</p><p><iframe frameborder="0" height="338" scrolling="no" src="http://www.npr.org/templates/event/embeddedVideo.php?storyId=452102867&amp;mediaId=452103495" width="600"></iframe></p><p>We often think about jazz history as a stylistic narrative, a succession of great masters who contributed a series of new innovations. But that view has a way of omitting the day-to-day experiences of jazz&#39;s practitioners. These two moments are a reminder that this history has resonance in the present day as well.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/12/01/452102867/from-npr-music-two-jazz-performances-that-wrestle-with-race-and-policing?ft=nprml&amp;f=452102867" target="_blank"><em> via NPR&#39;s Code Switch</em></a></p></p> Tue, 01 Dec 2015 11:51:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/npr-music-two-jazz-performances-wrestle-race-and-policing-114005 Free speech vs. political correctness on college campuses http://www.wbez.org/programs/here-and-now/2015-11-11/free-speech-vs-political-correctness-college-campuses-113742 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/AP_977690620801.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="attachment_95939"><img alt="Members of black student protest group Concerned Student 1950 hold hands following the announcement that University of Missouri System President Tim Wolfe would resign Monday, Nov. 9, 2015, at the university in Columbia, Mo. Wolfe resigned Monday with the football team and others on campus in open revolt over his handling of racial tensions at the school. (Jeff Roberson/AP)" src="http://s3.amazonaws.com/media.wbur.org/wordpress/11/files/2015/11/1111_university-missouri-624x402.jpg" style="height: 399px; width: 620px;" title="Members of black student protest group Concerned Student 1950 hold hands following the announcement that University of Missouri System President Tim Wolfe would resign Monday, Nov. 9, 2015, at the university in Columbia, Mo. Wolfe resigned Monday with the football team and others on campus in open revolt over his handling of racial tensions at the school. (Jeff Roberson/AP)" /><p>&nbsp;</p></div><p>Its been a busy week for college protesters. On Tuesday, hundreds marched at Yale University, protesting alleged racial insensitivity on campus. This came after s<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IEFD_JVYd0" target="_blank">tudent anger was raised to the boiling point</a> when a sociology professor and his wife, both of whom oversee a student residence, emailed students saying it might be reasonable not to ban Halloween costumes that some consider offensive, but instead to use them as an <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gM-VE8r7MSI" target="_blank">opportunity for dialogue</a>.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><blockquote class="twitter-tweet" lang="en"><p dir="ltr" lang="en">That student&#39;s conduct was ridiculous and unacceptable. She violated his physical. Kudos to him <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/YaleHalloween?src=hash">#YaleHalloween</a> <a href="https://t.co/uGNMEkYB7H">https://t.co/uGNMEkYB7H</a></p>&mdash; Marc Christopher (@MCC1701) <a href="https://twitter.com/MCC1701/status/663852982556090368">November 9, 2015</a></blockquote><script async src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p>&nbsp;</p><p>At the University of Missouri, both Chancellor R. Brown Loftin and President Tim Wolfe&nbsp;<a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/mizzou-president-resigns-over-handling-racial-issues-113703" target="_blank">stepped down</a>&nbsp;as protests over alleged systemic racism and bias escalated to include a hunger strike and the football team refusing to play.</p><p>While many applaud the student actions, some are questioning whether the climate of sensitivity on college campuses has evolved into a climate of over-sensitivity, where students are considered fragile and unable to cope with opinions that make them even slightly uncomfortable.</p><p>Greg Lukianoff, president and CEO of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, wrote a recent piece in <em>The Atlantic </em>called &ldquo;<a href="http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/09/the-coddling-of-the-american-mind/399356/" target="_blank">The Coddling of the American Mind</a>.&rdquo; While Lukianoff recognizes and opposes racism, bullying and threats, he maintains that many students and administrators have taken the concept of &ldquo;student comfort&rdquo; too far.</p><p>Lukianoff joins&nbsp;<a href="http://hereandnow.wbur.org/2015/11/11/free-speech-political-correctness" target="_blank"><em>Here &amp; Now&rsquo;s</em></a> Jeremy Hobson to discuss the concept of college &ldquo;coddling,&rdquo; and how it&rsquo;s affecting students.</p></p> Wed, 11 Nov 2015 14:01:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/here-and-now/2015-11-11/free-speech-vs-political-correctness-college-campuses-113742 Graphic shows how much the 'race' question on the U.S. Census has changed http://www.wbez.org/news/graphic-shows-how-much-race-question-us-census-has-changed-113731 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/census screen2.JPG" alt="" /><p><div id="res455339824" previewtitle="A portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's interactive graphic shows the history of the race question on its survey."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://www.census.gov/population/race/data/MREAD_1790_2010.html" target="_blank"><img alt="A portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's interactive graphic shows the history of the race question on its survey." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/09/census-interactive-1-_custom-74bfa81273fcfaabbfb790a5c22c2b7e5cef0e42-s600-c85.jpg" style="height: 331px; width: 620px;" title="A portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's interactive graphic shows the history of the race question on its survey. (U.S. Census Bureau/Screenshot by NPR)" /></a></div><div><div><p>In 1890, a shoemaker from Louisiana named Homer Plessy identified himself as &quot;black&quot; on the decennial U.S. Census population survey. Plessy did this even though, as a Creole who was one-eighth black, he was light-skinned enough to pass for white.</p></div></div></div><p>A few years later, the fair-skinned Plessy climbed onto a railroad car set aside for whites, intentionally flouting a state law segregating riders by race. After sitting onboard for awhile, he informed the white conductor that he wasn&#39;t, in fact, &quot;white,&quot; at least not under the crude racial rubric of the late 19th century. The conductor had Plessy arrested, touching off a legal battle that turned into one of the Supreme Court&#39;s most infamous decisions,&nbsp;Plessy vs. Ferguson,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/163/537">which allowed states to constitutionally segregate their citizens by race</a>.</p><p>From there, the story of Homer Plessy and race gets even more tricky. An official from the U.S. Census Bureau tells me that in the 1910 survey &mdash; the first after the Supreme Court ruling&nbsp;&mdash; Plessy identified himself as &quot;<a href="http://www.buzzfeed.com/matjohnson/kiss-my-mulatto-ass#.div8o143L">mulatto</a>.&quot; By 1920, he was telling the Census Bureau that he was &quot;white.&quot; The man whose surname became a shorthand for de jure racial segregation wound up hopscotching across America&#39;s color line for much of his life.</p><div id="res455340404" previewtitle="The race question on the U.S. Census Bureau survey in 1850."><div data-crop-type="" style="text-align: center;"><img alt="The race question on the U.S. Census Bureau survey in 1850." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/09/1850-census_custom-10a0a06ffe8dda0f8c5e9c64d219839413a51167-s300-c85.jpg" style="height: 393px; width: 310px; float: right; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" title="The race question on the U.S. Census Bureau survey in 1850. (U.S. Census Bureau)" /></div><div><div><p>It&#39;s not clear why Plessy started identifying as a member of a different race later in his life, but his story is another example of how fluid race has always been in the United States, both personally and societywide. A&nbsp;<a href="https://www.census.gov/population/race/data/MREAD_1790_2010.html">new interactive graphic&nbsp;</a>released by the Census Bureau this month makes this point even clearer, illustrating how the survey&#39;s question on race has evolved over the years while giving us a glimpse of racial politics at different stages of American life.</p></div></div></div><p>It turns out that the race question has been worded differently every 10 years &mdash; since the first official survey in 1790, no two questionnaires have ever had the same options. More groups are slowly added over time, and the terms for those groups change as people begin to exert influence on how they choose to identify, and&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2014/11/07/362273449/why-we-have-so-many-terms-for-people-of-color">as outdated or contested terms fall out of favor.</a></p><p>According to the census graphic, the 1790 survey offered just three racial options for a household: &quot;free white females and males,&quot; &quot;slaves&quot; and &quot;all other free persons.&quot; By 1850, the available categories were &quot;black; mulatto&quot; or &quot;white.&quot; Native Americans do not show up on the form until 1860 &mdash; as &quot;Indians&quot; &mdash; the same year &quot;Chinese&quot; first appears. People whose ancestry traces to India don&#39;t have an option until 1920, when &quot;Hindu,&quot; a religious identity and not an ethnic one, appeared for the first and only time.</p><p>There are no Latino or Hispanic options on the questionnaire until 1930, when &quot;Mexican&quot; appears. But that option went away after that survey, and all Latino/Hispanic choices completely disappear from the form for the next several decades. They don&#39;t show up again until 1970.</p><p>The graphic underscores the political and social slipperiness of these identifiers, which we tend to think of as fixed, scientific truths in everyday life. As I wrote last year,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2014/06/09/319584793/what-is-your-race-for-millions-of-americans-a-shifting-answer">millions of people</a>&nbsp;who identified as Hispanic and &quot;some other race&quot; in the 2000 census &mdash; the first year the form allowed respondents to do so &mdash; chose to identify as Hispanicand&nbsp;white in 2010. That prompted&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/22/upshot/more-hispanics-declaring-themselves-white.html?_r=0">a whole bunch of chin-stroking about a potential mass exodus of Latinos into whiteness</a>, like the way German, Irish and Jewish immigrants were gradually subsumed into American whiteness in the first half of the 20th century.</p><p>(Though what many folks missed was that nearly the same number of respondents went the other direction, as well &mdash; identifying as &quot;Hispanic and white&quot; in 2000 but as &quot;Hispanic and some other race&quot; in 2010.)</p><p>As several census officials told us last year, all this messiness is a feature, not a bug. That is, they want respondents to have more nuance and precision in how they can answer. This summer,&nbsp;<a href="http://time.com/3927002/census-race-ethnicity/">the bureau sent out</a>&nbsp;a test questionnaire that drops the words &quot;race&quot; and &quot;nationality&quot; and instead asks respondents which &quot;category&quot; best represents them; depending on how people respond to the test questionnaire, some version of this wording may appear on the survey for 2020.</p><p>As the country&#39;s racial politics keep changing, so does the way we orient ourselves to it. It&#39;s worth remembering that the way we choose to identify is informed not only by how we engage with the world&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2014/06/16/321819185/on-the-census-who-checks-hispanic-who-checks-white-and-why">(and how we perceive the way we are treated in it)</a>&nbsp;but also, crucially, which designations are available to us at any given time.</p><p>&mdash;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/11/09/455331023/a-graphic-shows-how-much-the-race-question-on-the-census-and-america-has-changed?ft=nprml&amp;f=455331023" target="_blank"><em> NPR&#39;s Code Switch</em></a></p></p> Tue, 10 Nov 2015 16:25:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/graphic-shows-how-much-race-question-us-census-has-changed-113731 Mizzou president resigns over handling of racial issues http://www.wbez.org/news/mizzou-president-resigns-over-handling-racial-issues-113703 <p><p><img alt="" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/University%20of%20Missouri%20President%20Tim%20Wolfe.jpg" title="University of Missouri President Tim Wolfe. (Jeff Roberson/AP)" /></p><p>The president of the University of Missouri System says he is resigning amid student criticism of his handling of racial issues.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><blockquote class="twitter-tweet" lang="en"><p dir="ltr" lang="und"><a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/NeverForget?src=hash">#NeverForget</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/ConcernedStudent1950?src=hash">#ConcernedStudent1950</a> <a href="https://t.co/iq4zzFWTyS">pic.twitter.com/iq4zzFWTyS</a></p>&mdash; JB. (@_JonathanButler) <a href="https://twitter.com/_JonathanButler/status/663461444399341569">November 8, 2015</a></blockquote><script async src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Tim Wolfe says his resignation is effective immediately. The announcement came at a special meeting of the university system&rsquo;s governing body.</p><p>Black student groups<a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/two-personal-statements-help-explain-situation-mizzou-113696" target="_blank"> have been complaining for months</a> about racial slurs and other offensive incidents on the system&rsquo;s overwhelmingly white flagship campus in Columbia.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><blockquote class="twitter-tweet" lang="en"><p dir="ltr" lang="en">And here are the demands re: <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/ConcernedStudent1950?src=hash">#ConcernedStudent1950</a>. <a href="https://t.co/k7GXVL1DiA">pic.twitter.com/k7GXVL1DiA</a></p>&mdash; deray mckesson (@deray) <a href="https://twitter.com/deray/status/663418083189501953">November 8, 2015</a></blockquote><script async src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Their efforts got a boost over the weekend when 30 black football players announced they wouldn&rsquo;t participate in team activities until Wolfe was removed.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><blockquote class="twitter-tweet" lang="en"><p dir="ltr" lang="en">Here&#39;s how the <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Mizzou?src=hash">#Mizzou</a> protests grew on Twitter: <a href="https://t.co/ExDnrOEqEc">https://t.co/ExDnrOEqEc</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/ConcernedStudent1950?src=hash">#ConcernedStudent1950</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/MizzouHungerStrike?src=hash">#MizzouHungerStrike</a> <a href="https://t.co/DsveNr3d1n">pic.twitter.com/DsveNr3d1n</a></p>&mdash; Today in Blk (@todayinblk) <a href="https://twitter.com/todayinblk/status/663722029762387968">November 9, 2015</a></blockquote><script async src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p>&nbsp;</p><p><a href="https://blackstudies.missouri.edu/faculty-staff/core-faculty.html" target="_blank">Stephanie Shonekan</a>, chair of the Department of Black Studies at the University of Missouri, and an associate professor of ethnomusicology joins our discussion.</p><p><em>The Associated Press contributed to this report.</em></p></p> Mon, 09 Nov 2015 12:52:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/mizzou-president-resigns-over-handling-racial-issues-113703