WBEZ | Patrick Fitzgerald http://www.wbez.org/tags/patrick-fitzgerald Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Chicago's next prosecutor to be more of an insider http://www.wbez.org/news/chicagos-next-prosecutor-be-more-insider-104645 <p><p>The lanky, soft-spoken lawman from New York arrived in Chicago with a mandate to clean up corruption-plagued Illinois. And after a decade on the job, Patrick Fitzgerald had helped put two successive governors and a long procession of other public officials behind bars.</p><p>Months after the consummate outsider resigned as head of the U.S. attorney&#39;s office in Chicago to enter private practice, the White House is expected to name Fitzgerald&#39;s replacement soon from among four finalists &mdash; all of whom are comparative Chicago insiders.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/fitzgerald_file.jpg" style="float: right; height: 300px; width: 300px;" title="Patrick Fitzgerald (AP/File)" />Whoever is picked, the next U.S. attorney will step in to what is widely regarded as Chicago&#39;s second-most powerful job, next only to the mayor. The chief prosecutor and around 170 assistant attorneys also have an impact beyond Chicago and Illinois, including by handling major terrorism cases.</div><p>&quot;The fantastic thing about Fitzgerald was that he maintained his independence,&quot; said Kathleen Zellner, a Chicago-based defense attorney. &quot;I&#39;m not saying these candidates won&#39;t be independent, but it&#39;s hard to decide to prosecute when you have (such close) connections to a town.&quot;</p><p>The list of four finalists &mdash; Lori Lightfoot, Zachary Fardon, Jonathan Bunge and Gil Soffer &mdash; was recently forwarded to the Obama administration by Illinois&#39; two U.S. senators, who set-up a screening committee to vet a longer list of prospective candidates over several months.</p><p>All four know their way around the federal prosecutor&#39;s office in Chicago &mdash; one of the nation&#39;s busiest &mdash; each having worked there as assistant attorneys at some point. Fardon, for instance, was a member of Fitzgerald&#39;s trial team that convicted former Illinois Gov. George Ryan on corruption charges in 2006.</p><p>If Lightfoot is named, she would make history as the first African-American and first woman to head the office.</p><p>But what stands out about the four, as a group, is that none could be described as an outsider. All four, who are little known outside legal circles, are currently partners in big-name law offices in Chicago. All have spent at least several years of their legal careers in the city.</p><p>At the time of his surprise pick in 2001, Fitzgerald was co-chief of the organized crime and terrorism unit for the U.S. attorney&#39;s office in the Southern District of New York. The thinking was that he&#39;d be more willing to go after Illinois politicians because he had no ties to them.</p><p>It seemed to work, Zellner said. Ryan, a Republican, and former Gov. Rod Blagojevich, a Democrat, are both in prison on corruption convictions after investigations spearheaded by Fitzgerald. He helped send dozens of other city and state officials to prison.</p><p>Appointing someone with Chicago ties may convey confidence that Chicago is no longer as corrupt as it was, said Gal Pissetzky, another Chicago attorney. He said it could signal a desire to shift focus away from corruption and on to other persistent Chicago crime, such as drug trafficking or gang-related murders.</p><p>&quot;If you want to tackle these issues, it might make sense to have someone from Chicago,&quot; he said. &quot;They know the inner workings of Chicago. And law enforcement will be more cooperative when you bring someone from the inside, from Chicago.&quot;</p><p>The finalists haven&#39;t spoken publicly about their candidacy, or about whether they would change in office priorities.</p><p>In a letter to the U.S. senators describing interviews with the four, however, the co-chairs of the screen committee wrote that, &quot;All share the belief &mdash; though with slightly differing ordering &mdash; that the primary subject matter concerns of the office should be: 1. Violence and drugs; 2. Public corruption; 3. Financial crimes, and 4. Terrorism.&quot;</p><p>Lightfoot seems to have especially strong connections to city government, heading the Chicago police Office of Professional Standards between 2002 and 2005. Other candidates have also held administrative posts, including Fardon when he served as the No. 2 in the U.S. attorney&#39;s office in Nashville.</p><p>&quot;What you see is that this seems to be a selection of people who are more administrators,&quot; said Zellner. &quot;It is almost a retreat from a Pat Fitzgerald-type of prosecutor.&quot;</p><p>That, she added, didn&#39;t mean any one of the candidates wouldn&#39;t excel.</p><p>&quot;You don&#39;t get nominated without having really good credentials,&quot; she said. &quot;But it is difficult to know what philosophy someone will have until after a year or so. That transition will take time.&quot;</p><p>Federal investigations can take years before they result in indictments or go to trial, so any shift in direction under new leadership is likely to be incremental and happen over years.</p><p>A change in style is more likely, said Pissetzky.</p><p>As he racked up flashy convictions &mdash; including of reputed mobsters and terrorists &mdash; Fitzgerald gained a reputation as a no-nonsense prosecutor who erred on the side of secrecy and typically eschewed banter with reporters. He could be tenacious to a fault, defense attorneys said. Over the years, many complained that Fitzgerald pursued their clients with too much fervor, loading indictments up with as many charges as he could muster.</p><p>It&#39;s a style that his successor won&#39;t necessarily emulate.</p><p>Said Pissetzky, &quot;I think they will try to make their own mark rather than trying to follow in his footsteps.&quot;</p></p> Wed, 02 Jan 2013 08:44:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/chicagos-next-prosecutor-be-more-insider-104645 Prosecutor: Cellini's verdict should stand http://www.wbez.org/story/prosecutor-cellinis-verdict-should-stand-94173 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/photo/2011-November/2011-11-01/RS4490_P1030967.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>A federal prosecutor said Springfield power broker William Cellini should not be getting a new trial. This comes despite revelations a juror in his case lied about her criminal record.</p><p>Late Thursday night, U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald filed a legal response saying Cellini's conviction should stand. Fitzgerald argued the juror had her full civil rights because she completed probation for her convictions. He also said even if she were ruled ineligible to serve, Cellini's attorneys would have to prove she deliberately concealed convictions.</p><p>Cellini's attorneys contend she was dishonest, making her a biased juror.</p><p>The decision on whether or not Cellini gets a new trial is now in the hands of Federal Judge James Zagel.</p><p>Cellini this month was convicted of joining a conspiracy to trade state contracts for campaign contributions for former Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich.<br> <br> &nbsp;</p></p> Fri, 18 Nov 2011 12:49:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/prosecutor-cellinis-verdict-should-stand-94173 Cheney offers cautious criticism of U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald http://www.wbez.org/story/cheney-offers-cautious-criticism-us-attorney-patrick-fitzgerald-92191 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/photo/2011-September/2011-09-19/Cheney - AP MSG.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>In town to plug his new book, former Vice President Dick Cheney had some careful criticism Monday about the U.S. attorney in Chicago, Patrick Fitzgerald.</p><p>Fitzgerald served as special prosecutor investigating a leak during the Bush Administration. He ended up charging Cheney's chief of staff, Scooter Libby, with perjury and obstruction of justice.</p><p>At the Union League Club of Chicago, Cheney was asked if he had anything to say to Fitzgerald, whose offices were just a block away. The vice president paused for nine seconds.</p><p>"I obviously had some fundamental disagreements with him at one point in the past," Cheney said.</p><p>Cheney called Scooter Libby a "very good man" who served his country well.</p><p>"For his trouble, he ended up the target of a particular prosecution," Cheney said. "He did not deserve what happened to him."</p><p>Also during his hour-long appearance in front of more than 400 people, Cheney defended interrogation techniques used on terrorism suspects. And he declined to say whether he thought President George H.W. Bush or George W. Bush was the better president.</p></p> Mon, 19 Sep 2011 21:44:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/cheney-offers-cautious-criticism-us-attorney-patrick-fitzgerald-92191 U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald offers rare comments on terrorism prosecutions http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-09-13/us-attorney-patrick-fitzgerald-offers-rare-comments-terrorism-prosecutio <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/segment/photo/2011-September/2011-09-13/patfitz2.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>Yesterday, in a rare <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/fitzgerald-patriot-act-and-information-sharing-critical-war-terror-91894" target="_blank">speech</a> to the City Club of Chicago, U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald said the Patriot Act was a crucial force in forging a new era of collaboration between intelligence and law enforcement across the country.</p><p>As one of the nation’s leading federal prosecutors of terrorism-related charges, Patrick Fitzgerald is a central player in the national security establishment. He’s handled numerous high-profile cases, including two against Muslim charities in Chicago, the 2007 case against a suburban Bridgeview resident accused of supporting Hamas, and, most recently, the terrorism case involving David Headley and Tawahurr Rana.</p><p>Today, we listen to excerpts from Fitzgerald's speech and get analysis from <a href="http://www.law.columbia.edu/fac/Scott_Horton" target="_blank">Scott Horton</a>, a human rights lawyer in New York. Scott recently led several studies examining abuse in the conduct of the war on terror for the New York City Bar Association. He is a legal affairs and national security contributor for <em>Harper's Magazine</em>.</p><p style="margin-left: 1in;">&nbsp;</p></p> Tue, 13 Sep 2011 16:20:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-09-13/us-attorney-patrick-fitzgerald-offers-rare-comments-terrorism-prosecutio Worldview 9.13.11 http://www.wbez.org/episode/worldview-91311 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/episode/images/2011-september/2011-09-13/patfitz.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Yesterday, in <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/fitzgerald-patriot-act-and-information-sharing-critical-war-terror-91894" target="_blank">a major speech</a>, U.S. attorney <a href="http://www.justice.gov/usao/iln/aboutus/patrickjfitzgerald.html">Patrick Fitzgerald</a> defended the Patriot Act and said the most important shift in fighting terror over the past decade has been the new level of cooperation between intelligence and law enforcement. We get reaction and analysis from human rights lawyer <a href="http://www.law.columbia.edu/fac/Scott_Horton" target="_blank">Scott Horton</a> from Columbia Law School. Later in the hour, we turn our eyes to Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, a city that gained international notoriety in the 1990s for its epidemic of female abductions. In the next installment of our series <a href="http://www.wbez.org/series/ground-shifters-stories-women-changing-unseen-worlds" target="_self"><em>Ground Shifters</em></a>, reporter Jean Friedman-Rudovsky profiles Marisela Ortiz, an activist who has spent years fighting for the families of “femicide.”</p></p> Tue, 13 Sep 2011 14:46:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode/worldview-91311 Fitzgerald: Patriot Act and information-sharing critical to war on terror http://www.wbez.org/story/fitzgerald-patriot-act-and-information-sharing-critical-war-terror-91894 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/photo/2011-September/2011-09-12/RS2587_AP070713024159-fitzgerald CP Dave Chidley.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald says the most important change in fighting terrorism over the past 10 years has been a new cooperation between the intelligence and law-enforcement communities. The cooperation is a result of the Patriot Act.</p><p>Prior to 9/11, there was a wall between the law enforcement and intelligence communities, he says. The wall arose largely as an effort to prevent domestic spying on U.S. citizens, but Fitzgerald says it meant there were two teams of people protecting the United States, and those teams weren't helping each other. He says he could get more information from an Al Qaida operative than he could get from some people in his own government.</p><p>"It used to be, 'Why should I share something with you?&nbsp; What is your need to know?&nbsp; And if someone finds out I shared it, how am I going to justify myself to my boss that I gave out that information?'&nbsp; That's been reversed.&nbsp; People now think, 'What is my duty to share?&nbsp; And if it's found out that I have information that I didn't share with someone, how am I going to justify to myself that I sat on it?'" said Fitzgerald.</p><p>Fitzgerald says now law enforcement regularly meets with the intelligence community, and he says that's been a key tool that wasn't available before 9/11.</p><p>He focused his comments in a speech Monday on assessing the war on terror, but Fitzgerald also took questions from the audience of business and civic leaders.&nbsp; One of the questions involved public corruption and former Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich.</p><p>Fitzgerald wouldn't comment on Blagojevich's case, but he says too many people think corruption is a problem just for law enforcement.&nbsp; "And if I could have a dollar for everyone who's ever come up to me after we've convicted someone to say, 'Yes, we knew he or she was doing it all the time and we wondered when someone was going to get around to do something about it,' and I bite my lip, but I want to just smack them up side the head and say, 'Well the person you wanted to do something about it was you,'" says Fitzgerald.<br> <br> Fitzgerald has been the U.S. Attorney in Chicago for 10 years.&nbsp; That's an unusually long tenure, but he says Chicago is his home and he loves his job and he has no plans to leave it.</p></p> Mon, 12 Sep 2011 23:22:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/fitzgerald-patriot-act-and-information-sharing-critical-war-terror-91894 Joliet lashes back at federal prosecutors over housing suit http://www.wbez.org/story/joliet-lashes-back-federal-prosecutors-over-housing-suit-90203 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/photo/2011-August/2011-08-05/Thanas.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>A top Joliet official is lashing back at federal prosecutors for suing his city to block condemnation of a low-income housing complex called Evergreen Terrace.<br> <br> The suit, a civil complaint filed Thursday in U.S. District Court in Chicago, accuses Joliet of violating the Fair Housing Act, trying to “perpetuate segregation,” and attempting to “limit or reduce the number of Black or African-American residents residing within the city.”<br> <br> City Manager Tom Thanas called the suit a legal maneuver to “wear us down” by lengthening Joliet’s six-year legal battle for authority to condemn the complex. “This is at a time when Joliet doesn’t have the financial resources to take on big litigation,” Thanas said Friday afternoon. “We, like other municipalities around the country, are suffering with declining revenues and increasing expenses.”<br> <br> Thanas stuck by the city’s claim that Evergreen Terrace, a privately owned 356-unit development, has too many police and fire calls. But whether to keep fighting for condemnation authority is up to Joliet elected officials, Thanas added. “That’s something we’ll be reviewing with the mayor and city council,” he said.<br> <br> The complex houses about 765 low-income residents, nearly all African-American, and abuts the Des Plaines River across from downtown Joliet.<br> <br> Joliet’s attempts to close Evergreen Terrace stretch back more than a decade. The city tried to block refinancing for the complex but the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development sunk in millions of dollars.<br> <br> In 2005, Joliet asked a state court for condemnation authority. The HUD stake sent the condemnation bid into the federal court system, where it remains.<br> <br> The property’s owners, New West Limited Partnership and New Bluff Limited Partnership, filed a federal suit against the condemnation. A group of residents filed another federal suit against it. One of those residents, Teresa Davis, also filed a complaint with HUD, which led to Thursday’s U.S. Department of Justice suit.<br> <br> Joliet officials say the city for years has planned to redevelop the site for affordable housing and help relocate the residents.<br> <br> But Thursday’s suit claims “the city has no meaningful plan” for those aims.<br> <br> Patrick Johnson, an assistant U.S. attorney for the Northern District of Illinois, said Friday afternoon that prosecutors held discussions with Joliet officials before filing the suit. Johnson called those talks unsuccessful and said the sides have scheduled no other settlement negotiations. Next week, he added, the government will motion for its suit to be joined with the other federal suits aimed at preserving Evergreen Terrace. Johnson said the case’s discovery phase could last at least a year.<br> <br> Asked whether the government was just trying to wear down Joliet, a spokesman for U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald said prosecutors would have no further comment.<br> <br> An Evergreen Terrace resident, for his part, said the federal suit was already having an effect — bringing some positive attention to the complex. “I don’t see much wrong with the place,” said Elvis Foster, 53, who lives in a one-bedroom apartment and serves on the tenant council. “You’re close to downtown. You got the Joliet Junior College just two blocks away. And [the complex] is not feared as much as people would say.”</p></p> Fri, 05 Aug 2011 21:38:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/joliet-lashes-back-federal-prosecutors-over-housing-suit-90203 Jurors don't explain reasoning behind verdict in terror trial http://www.wbez.org/story/jurors-dont-explain-reasoning-behind-verdict-terror-trial-87678 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/photo/2011-June/2011-06-10/AP110607163612.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>A jury has acquitted a Chicago man of helping plan the 2008 attacks in Mumbai, India that claimed at least 164 lives. But his attorneys are vowing to fight the two counts on which he was found guilty, including helping a terrorist organization. The split verdict caused some confusion about how the jury reached its decision.</p><p>Tahawwur Rana's jury will remain anonymous. That's pretty rare. After the verdict, jurors weren't seen. They left court through a back way out of the media's eye. They convicted Rana of helping a Pakistan-based terrorist group and of helping plan an attack against a Danish newspaper that never happened. But they acquitted him of the most serious charge: helping his friend plot the Mumbai attacks which rocked India's largest city.</p><p>Rana's defense attorney, Patrick Blegen, didn't have an answer for how the jury reached its conclusions.</p><p>"It's always difficult when you have separate charges that are tried together because you're always worried that something is going to spill over onto another count or that the jury just decided to split the baby in half, as they say," Blegen told reporters after the verdict.</p><p>The not guilty verdict could've been because the defense argued Rana wanted to take a trip to Mumbai with his wife right around the time of the 2008 attacks. Or it could've been because Rana was warned not to go to Mumbai. Defense attorneys asked why would he need to be warned if he were involved in the plot.</p><p>As for the guilty verdicts, maybe the jurors were persuaded by the fake business cards Rana made for his friend, David Headley, so Headley could pretend to put an ad in a Danish newspaper he said he was planning to attack. Or maybe it was the secretly-recorded conversation between Rana and Headley in which the two discussed potential attacks and mentioned Denmark.</p><p>A room was set up for jurors to talk to reporters, but none of the jury members showed up. Federal prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald made it simple: prosecutors failed to prove Rana knew about the Mumbai plot before it happened.</p><p>"I'm not disappointed overall," Fitzgerald said. "I'm disappointed in one charge being an acquittal but very gratified overall because the other two charges were very serious."</p><p>Fitzgerald said investigators prevented one attack from happening: the Danish newspaper attack, but also many more. He said they did that by arresting David Headley, Rana's friend, and flipping him. Headley testified against Rana and told the FBI about dozens of other potential plots.</p><p>"We would be crazy if we would sit around and say, 'You know what? It's all about Mr. Headley. And all we want to do is put him in jail and sit around and let attacks happen,'" Fitzgerald said.</p><p>Rana's defense attorneys say Headley got a sweetheart deal from prosecutors. By testifying against Rana,&nbsp; Headley is avoiding the death penalty and extradition to India. Fitzgerald said Headley's not going anywhere for quite a while and the investigation into these plots is ongoing. That's because six other people were indicted with Rana, but they aren't thought to be in U.S. custody. One of them, Ilyas Kashmiri,&nbsp; was reportedly killed in a drone attack last week, but the U.S. government has not confirmed that.</p><p>As for Rana, he sat expressionless as the judge read the verdicts. His attorney, Charles Swift, said there was more behind that blank face.</p><p>"I think he's in shock," Swift said.</p><p>Swift said an appeal of the two convictions is likely. Rana's other attorney, Patrick Blegen, hinted at the possible strategy. He told reporters the split decision may suggest the verdicts contradict each other. But Patrick Fitzgerald seemed to downplay that angle.</p><p>"Jurors don't have to be entirely consistent, but I don't see an inconsistency here," Fitzgerald said.</p><p>Rana will be sentenced in a few months. Of the two guilty counts, each carries a maximum of 15 years in prison. Defense attorneys and prosecutors will likely argue whether the 50-year-old Rana will serve those 15 years at the same time or back-to-back for a total of 30.</p></p> Fri, 10 Jun 2011 10:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/jurors-dont-explain-reasoning-behind-verdict-terror-trial-87678 Bank closes Arab-American leader’s accounts, won’t say why http://www.wbez.org/story/bank-closes-arab-american-leader%E2%80%99s-accounts-won%E2%80%99t-say-why-86355 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/story/photo/2011-May/2011-05-10/Hatem2.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>An Arab-American leader whose Chicago home the FBI raided last fall now has a problem with his bank — make that his former bank.<br> <br> Hatem Abudayyeh, 40, executive director of a city-funded group called the Arab American Action Network, is among <a href="http://www.wbez.org/story/andersonville/activists-defy-orders-testify">almost two dozen Midwest activists</a> who have refused orders since September to testify before a federal grand jury in Chicago.<br> <br> Abudayyeh’s subpoena came during a raid that month on the Jefferson Park condo he shares with his wife and their 5-year-old daughter. The search warrant named the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a secular group the U.S. government calls a terrorist organization.<br> <br> Abudayyeh, a lifelong Chicagoan, got another jolt last Friday. TCF Bank, part of Minnesota-based TCF Financial Corp., had frozen his family’s checking and savings accounts.<br> <br> TCF spokesman Jason Korstange won’t say why. “There’s privacy issues,” he said Tuesday. “They will be getting their money back, and that’s about all I can tell you.”<br> <br> A spokesman for U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald declined to comment about the accounts. A spokesman of the FBI’s Chicago office said he didn’t know anything about them.<br> <br> But Abudayyeh attorney Michael Deutsch said the feds must have subpoenaed TCF for records on the accounts. “The bank is probably saying, ‘Oh, God, we don’t want this person as a customer,’ ” Deutsch said.<br> <br> Officials haven’t charged Abudayyeh or any of the other activists.</p></p> Wed, 11 May 2011 10:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/bank-closes-arab-american-leader%E2%80%99s-accounts-won%E2%80%99t-say-why-86355 Activists defy orders to testify http://www.wbez.org/story/andersonville/activists-defy-orders-testify <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/Maureen_Murphy.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Some Palestine solidarity activists are defying orders to appear before a grand jury in Chicago.<br /><br />The FBI delivered subpoenas last month to at least nine Chicago-area residents. But their spokespersons say none showed up to testify Tuesday.<br /><br />The nine include Maureen Murphy, 28, an Andersonville resident who volunteers with the <a href="http://psgchicago.org/">Palestine Solidarity Group&ndash;Chicago</a> and edits <a href="http://electronicintifada.net/">Electronic Intifada</a>, an online journal about the Israeli occupation.<br /><br />&ldquo;There&rsquo;s been no crime committed here,&rdquo; Murphy said Tuesday. &ldquo;This investigation is all about obtaining associational information that infringes on our First Amendment rights to organize.&rdquo;<br /><br />In September the FBI raided homes and an office of several organizers in Chicago and Minneapolis. They were among 14 activists in Illinois, Minnesota and Michigan who refused to appear before a grand jury in Chicago in October. <br /><br />Some of the September subpoenas suggest the government is investigating foreign groups it calls terrorist.<br /><br />Officials haven&rsquo;t charged any of the activists or confirmed that the September and December subpoenas are part of the same investigation. Randall Samborn, a spokesman for U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald, said officials could not comment on the proceedings. <br /><br />Attorneys for the Chicago-area activists say they&rsquo;ve written Fitzgerald&rsquo;s office, asserting Fifth Amendment rights against self-incrimination.<br /><br />Prosecutors could offer immunity from charges and issue new subpoenas. The activists could eventually face jail time if found in contempt of court.</p></p> Tue, 25 Jan 2011 22:34:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/andersonville/activists-defy-orders-testify