WBEZ | Fresh Air Interviews http://www.wbez.org/tags/fresh-air-interviews Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en How Some Made Millions Betting Against The Market http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-04-29/how-some-made-millions-betting-against-market-85939 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-May/2011-05-02/cdo-panel-5.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>In 2006 and 2007, several banks and hedge funds realized what was happening to the U.S. economy while it was happening — and then made vast fortunes by betting against the markets.</p><p>"Lots of bankers knew that things were in trouble, and they went on — they did it anyway," says ProPublica reporter Jesse Eisenger. "Some of them did it because they could bet against it. Some of them did it because they could make fees by helping clients who were betting against it. And some of them did it just to keep the machine do it and make huge bonuses."</p><p>Eisinger and his colleague Jake Bernstein recently received the 2011 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting for a series of stories about the banks and hedge funds engaged in questionable financial practices that contributed to the near-collapse of the nation's financial system.</p><p>On Monday's <em>Fresh Air</em>, Bernstein and Eisinger talk to Dave Davies about their Pulitzer Prize-winning series of stories on Wall Street's short-sighted greed — which counteracted the popular notion that no one foresaw the financial crisis coming.</p><p><strong>Magnetar</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>In 2007, a suburban Chicago hedge fund named Magnetar seemed to outsmart the rest of the financial industry. As the U.S. economy tanked, Bernstein and Eisinger discovered that the hedge fund made a vast fortune by betting against the market.</p><p>In 2006 and 2007, Magnetar created and repackaged a series of complicated and risky financial securities — called collateralized debt obligations (CDOs). The securities were made up of subprime mortgage-based bonds bundled with mortgage securities — and banks were more than happy to get rid of them.</p><p>At the same time, Magnetar pushed for risky investments to go inside those CDOs. They also secretly placed even larger bets against the CDOs using an instrument called a "credit default swap" — essentially insurance on a corporate loan.</p><p>"If it failed, they would make many times what they had put into it," explains Bernstein.</p><p>After the housing bubble burst, the pools of loans underneath the CDOs started to default and Magnetar began to profit. Bernstein and Eisinger reported that many of the bankers who worked on the securities deals at Magnetar pocked millions of dollars in bonuses. And the firm did "spectacularly well."</p><p>"[Their main fund was] up 76 percent in 2006," says Bernstein. "Their main fund made hundreds of thousands of dollars on this. But quantifying exactly how much they made is very hard to do because hedge funds are fairly opaque and they don't have to report great detail about their performance."</p><p>At least nine banks helped Magnetar with their deals, including Merrill Lynch, Citibank, UBS and JPMorgan Chase. By propping up the CDOs, says Bernstein, the banks and Magnetar helped prolong the financial crisis by masking a problem with the risky investments.</p><p>"The incredible damage to the economy, in large degree, was because it went on for several more years than it should have and Wall Street really just inflated the heck out of it," he says. "So Magentar had a big role in that."</p><p>Bernstein and Eisinger had extensive conversations with Magnetar and have published all of their written correspondence on the ProPublica website.</p><p>"From what we've learned, there was nothing illegal in what Magnetar did; it was playing by the rules in place at that time," they wrote last April. " And the hedge fund didn't cause the housing bubble or the financial crisis. But the Magnetar trade does illustrate the perverse incentives and reckless behavior that characterized the last days of the boom."</p><p><strong>Creating Fake Demand</strong></p><p>Bernstein and Eisinger also discovered that Wall Street banks created fake demand for CDOs in order to preserve their quarterly earnings and executive bonuses.</p><p>"What we found was that the banks were orchestrating sales [and] swapping sales [with other banks,] says Bernstein. "They were doing 'You buy mine and I buy yours' type of deals. They were essentially having this kind of daisy chain of demand."</p><p>Though there weren't real buyers, the banks could profit by keeping the artificial demand for CDOs up — because each bank received fees for orchestrating purchases of the CDOs.</p><p>"A typical CDO could net the bank that created it between $5 and $10 million — about half of which usually ended up as employee bonuses," wrote Bernstein and Edelstein. "But the strategy of speeding up the assembly line had devastating consequences for homeowners, the banks themselves and, ultimately, the global economy."</p><p>Eisinger explains that the entire business model was "extraordinarily fake."</p><p>"It was based on demand that wasn't there and promises that couldn't be kept," he says. "So when we came out of meetings [and we were] starting to get glimmers of understanding about this — that this business that had been worth supposedly hundreds of billions of dollars was really on a edifice of tissue — we were astonished. It was scary. But there were all deals that largely had no substance behind them."</p><p>Jesse Eisinger is a veteran business reporter who wrote for <em>The Wall Street Journal</em>. He is also the former Wall Street editor of the <em>Conde Nast</em> Portfolio. Jake Bernstein is a former writer and executive editor for the investigative bi-weekly, <em>The Texas Observer</em>.</p><p><strong><br /></strong> Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1304356331?&gn=How+Some+Made+Millions+Betting+Against+The+Market&ev=event2&ch=130729880&h1=Crisis+In+The+Housing+Market,Fresh+Air+Interviews,Economy,Business,U.S.,Home+Page+Top+StHome+Pageories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=135846486&c7=1017&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1017&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110429&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=13&v21=D%3Dc2&c31=130729880,125637934&v31=D%3Dc31&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></p></p> Fri, 29 Apr 2011 15:24:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-04-29/how-some-made-millions-betting-against-market-85939 Rotherham: Don't Discount Charter School Model http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-04-28/rotherham-dont-discount-charter-school-model-85798 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//0" alt="" /><p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>The best schools — whether they're charter schools, public schools or private schools — are intentional about everything they do, says educational consultant Andrew Rotherham.</p><p>"They are intentional about who is the building, who is teaching, how they use data, what's happening for students, the support for students, the curriculum, how progress is assessed," he says. "Everything is intentional and nothing is left to chance."</p><p>On Thursday's <em>Fresh Air</em>, Rotherham explains why he supports strategies that will redesign American public education with the help of charter schools, public sector choices and teacher accountability.</p><p>Rotherham is a partner at Bellwether Education, a non-profit organization working to improve educational outcomes for low-income students. Bellwether advises grant-making organizations like The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, educational non-profits and charter school networks like the KIPP Foundation and Perspectives Charter Schools on their operational and public policy issues.</p><p>Rotherham, who served in the Clinton administration as a special assistant of Domestic Policy, now spends his days thinking about how to make public and charter schools work for more kids. The public school system worked for him, he says, but only because he grew up in a nice suburb outside of Washington, D.C.</p><p>"If I had been born just a few miles away, I would have had a very different public education experience," he tells <em>Fresh Air</em>'s Terry Gross. "So that's the challenge. It's not about giving up on public schools but it is about acknowledging that right now, when you step back, [only] 8 percent of low-income kids can expect to get a bachelor degree by the time they're 24....[and] when you have a system that produces 8 percent of the low-income kids getting out of college by the time they're 24, something is wrong."</p><p>Rotherham cites several character schools he'd like to see used as models around the country, including The Match School in Boston, which focuses on getting kids into college, and the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP), a network of 99 schools in 20 states and Washington, D.C., whose students consistently perform well on state assessments.</p><p>"But more than anything else, what I would like to see replicated — is that sense of possibility," he says. "These are good schools — there are technical things they do whether it's the way they hire teachers, evaluate performance [or] use data. But I think more than anything else that I'd like to see replicated is that ethos of possibility and thinking differently about what's possible for kids who have been failed by public schools for a very long time."</p><p><strong>How The United States Can Improve Education</strong></p><p>If the United States is going to get serious about improving academic achievements, Rotterdam says, schools need to be intentional about everything they do.</p><p>"They can be intentional about making sure the kids who come to the school with the least are getting the most," he says. "So they're getting the most effective teachers, they're getting a rich, high-quality curriculum [and] they are supported in school."</p><p>But that model, he says, is often the exact opposite of what happens today in most schools.</p><p>"From everything like how much money is spent on these schools to staff, these kids tend to get the least and that's why we see the outcomes that we see," he says "And underneath all of the rhetoric about these various things, that's the problem that we need to solve if we're serious about improving equity."</p><p><hr /></p><p><h3>Interview Highlights</h3></p><p><strong>On charter schools that have been successful</strong></p><p>"The Match School in Boston is a really terrific school focused on getting kids into college. There's networks of schools like Achievement First, Uncommon Schools, obviously KIPP is sort of a household name in the debate. And then there's a school here in Washington, D.C. called the Seed School. It's a public boarding school where the kids come in on Sunday nights and they leave on Fridays. ... It's been operating in Washington, they're opening a new one in Maryland and thinking about expanding elsewhere. And that's what I would like to see replicated — the ethos of possibility about what's possible for kids failed by public schools; that sense of thinking big and really doing things differently."</p><p><strong>On educational testing</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>"What we're seeing [is] that a lot of schools struggle to produce a really powerful instructional program for kids and they struggled to do that before No Child Left Behind. Educational history in this country didn't start in 2001. So what you see is a lot of anxiety about the test, you see a lot of counterproductive strategies like drilling kids, cutting out subjects like social studies to focus on reading when research actually shows that the best way to really teach kids in a rich way is to teach kids in a rich way. The schools that don't worry about the test — that actually focus on delivering a powerful curriculum and a powerful instruction to kids — it shows up in the test scores and they do okay."</p><p><strong>On teacher unions</strong></p><p>"Teacher unions get blamed for a lot of things that aren't their fault. It's not the fault of the teachers' unions that funding is so inequitable within states, for instance. In many ways, it would be worse without them. I think if you really want to lay blame at their feet today, it would be 'Are they doing enough to help us address this challenge and are they out in front enough to address this challenge?' And I would say right now the answer is no, but I would say they get blamed disproportionately to their influence and I think if they were to go away tomorrow, there would be a lot of people disappointed in the changes that would actually bring."</p><p><strong>On teacher salaries</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>"We have pursued a strategy in education over the last 30 years or more. We've hired more and more teachers rather than thinking do you potentially think of hiring fewer and paying more. So we're in somewhat of a box of our own creation. Teachers do need to be paid more. They also need to be paid differently. We have to start differentiating salary much more and performance-pay sort of takes on this outsized-placed in this debate. When we talk about differentiation, it's about 'what subjects do you teach?' It is easier to find teachers in some subjects than others — we have acute shortages in math, science, special education, foreign languages. ... Some schools are harder to staff than other schools. How can we differentiate and reward that? ... Professionals are rewarded in other fields in non-monetary ways too — opportunities for professional growth, different opportunities for training and so forth. We don't do any of those things at any scale for teachers." Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1304008342?&gn=Rotherham%3A+Don%27t+Discount+Charter+School+Model&ev=event2&ch=1013&h1=Fresh+Air+Interviews,Education,U.S.,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=135802562&c7=1013&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1013&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110428&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=13&v21=D%3Dc2&c31=125637934&v31=D%3Dc31&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></p></p> Thu, 28 Apr 2011 09:31:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-04-28/rotherham-dont-discount-charter-school-model-85798 Remembering Hazel Dickens: A Feminist Bluegrass Voice http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-04-25/remembering-hazel-dickens-feminist-bluegrass-voice-85676 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-April/2011-04-26/gettyimages_86105925.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Folksinger Hazel Dickens, a pioneer for women in bluegrass who influenced the likes of <a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=130588636">Naomi Judd</a> and <a href="http://www.npr.org/artists/14874232/emmylou-harris">Emmylou Harris</a>, died Friday. She was 75.</p><p>In 1987, Dickens spoke with Terry Gross about her appearance in <em>Matewan</em>, John Sayles' film about a rural coal-mining strike in 1920s West Virginia. The film was shot near the coal town where Dickens grew up, in Mercer County, W.V., and featured Dickens singing the kind of songs she sang in real life: a cappella ballads about the mining life and the struggles of the poor, women and other workers.</p><p>One of 11 children, Dickens grew up in a coal-mining family. She listened to Grand Ole Opry broadcasts on the radio and sang in her church. When she was 16, she left her large family and headed north to Baltimore to work in a factory.</p><p>"I didn't intentionally reject that part of my life," Dickens told Terry Gross. "Since some of the mines closed down there, there wasn't a lot of work, which meant there was even less work for women, because women usually did ... factory or waitress work."</p><p>In the 1960s, Dickens began to perform her own compositions on the bluegrass and folk circuits with Alice Gerrard. Known as Hazel and Alice, the duo performed songs steeped in Americana about the struggles of everyday life, particularly for women.</p><p>"There did seem to be a large space there that women like me and other women that were coming along could fill," Dickens said. "And that was to give other women that didn't want to sing the old traditional songs — to give them something that they could identify with and something that they could sing. I've had many women tell me that I was the only woman who came along that was writing songs that they could sing within the tradition."</p><p>Hazel Dickens received a National Heritage Award from the National Endowment for the Arts in 2008. She was also a member of the International Bluegrass Music Association's Hall of Honor. <br>Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. </p> Mon, 25 Apr 2011 11:29:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-04-25/remembering-hazel-dickens-feminist-bluegrass-voice-85676 You Won't Feel A Thing: Your Brain On Anesthesia http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-04-25/you-wont-feel-thing-your-brain-anesthesia-85658 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-April/2011-04-25/mit_spectrum_04_14_11.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>If you've gone in for surgery, it's likely that your anesthesiologist has told you to count backward from 100 — and that you'll wake up after a nice deep sleep.</p><p>But that's not exactly true.</p><p>"Sleep is not the state you're going in, nor would it be the state in which someone could perform an operation on you," explains Dr. Emery Brown. "What we need to do in order to be able to operate on you — to perform a procedure which is, indeed, very invasive — is to put you in a state which is effectively a coma which we can readily reverse."</p><p>Brown, a professor of anesthesia at Harvard Medical School and a practicing anesthesiologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, recently co-authored a study in <em>The New England Journal of Medicine</em> outlining what scientists know and don't know about anesthesia. Unlocking its many mysteries, he says, will help scientists better understand consciousness and sleep — and could lead to new treatments for pain, depression and sleep disorders.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Anesthesia And The Brain</strong></p><p>One of medicine's biggest questions is how anesthesia — which knocks patients unconscious, renders them immune to pain and keeps them immobile during procedures — actually works in the brain. Brown's team has been conducting imaging studies on volunteers under anesthesia to see how different parts of the brains change activity levels as the volunteers lose and then regain consciousness.</p><p>"We would like to understand, when the drugs are given, what areas are turned off and turned on in what sequence to get some sense of how the drugs work," Brown tells <em>Fresh Air</em>'s Terry Gross. "We know a lot about the properties of the drugs — in terms of how they're metabolized by the body and certain behavioral effects they might have. We also know a lot about certain receptors they bind to, but these receptors are all over the brain and central nervous system. But the state of anesthesia is this very complex behavioral state. So to decipher it, we are at first order using the imaging where it is happening. Then, from there, we can start asking other questions: Is this the way we want to do it? Are there other ways to achieve the same state which might be better for our patients?"</p><p>So far, researchers have learned that different drugs create different patterns in the brain, Brown says. For example, propofol — one of the most widely used anesthetics — is a very potent drug and initially puts the brain into a state of excitation.</p><p>"It doesn't really cause a state of sedation or anesthesia [initially]," Brown says. "Then what we actually see next is the brain start to slow. [So first you see] a period where the brain is active, and then [when you give] a higher dose, the brain starts to slow."</p><p>In contrast, the drug ketamine — which is used in conjunction with anesthesia to make certain drugs work better — puts the brain into a state of excitation even at higher doses.</p><p>"The state of unconsciousness you get with ketamine is created by making the brain active," Brown says. "As you transition through this active state, you very frequently hallucinate. It's this hallucination or sense of euphoria or dissociative state that people who are using it as a drug of abuse are seeking."</p><p><strong>Depression And The Brain</strong></p><p>Recent studies conducted by scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health have indicated that administering extremely low doses of ketamine can help treat patients with chronic depression. Brown says he is excited by these findings.</p><p>"If this turns out to be reproducible, it could change tremendously how chronic depression is managed," Brown says. "For 70 to 80 percent of patients [in the study who received low doses of ketamine], they felt better almost immediately. This is an exciting finding, because right now there is no way to make a chronically depressed patient feel better immediately. So this is an exciting finding, and if it's shown to hold, I think it may change tremendously the way chronic depression is treated."</p><p><hr /></p><p><h3>Interview Highlights</h3></p><p><strong>Defining general anesthesia</strong></p><p>"It has five components. You're supposed to be unconscious. You're not supposed to have pain. You're not supposed to remember. And we want you to not move while someone is operating on you. And we want you to be stable physiologically — stable heart rate, stable blood pressure, temperature, breathing. The anesthesiologist takes over the physiology of the patient and controls it for the duration of the time that the patient is having surgery. Then by titrating very carefully the way the medications are given, when the surgery is over, we can reverse the coma."</p><p><strong>On waking up during surgery</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>"Does it happen, despite our best efforts sometimes? Yes, I think that's the case. What typically happens more predictably is usually in emergency settings — someone who is coming in to have an emergency cesarean section, and there is concern about how to titrate the level of anesthesia so you can take care of mother as well as the baby. Or another case is someone comes in with massive trauma from a car accident, maybe a gunshot wound. And again, you're trying to balance the side effects of the anesthetic on the heart and lungs against trying to give the person appropriate levels of anesthetic so he or she can tolerate the surgery that's necessary. There's one situation historically where there had been a fair amount of recall or awareness under anesthesia, and that was with heart surgery, because up until a few years ago, it was done primarily using large doses of opioids. Even though patients were quite comfortable and there was no evidence of stress overtly, they'd report having recall or having been aware of parts of the surgery."</p><p><strong>On having his patients count down from 100 before surgery</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>"I've been using it to demonstrate to the residents how quickly people lose consciousness under anesthesia and to give them a sense of how profoundly it occurs. So it sounds like something you see in the movies, but I actually do it because it's fairly impressive. People rarely get beyond 90. ... You get a sense of how the drugs are affecting the brain. Some people start counting 100, 99, 98, 97 um, um, 95, 94, 90. So they'll stop remembering. If you think about it, we think of counting as a very simple process, but it's actually fairly complex because you have to remember what you just said and then remember what the next number in sequence is." </p> Mon, 25 Apr 2011 07:57:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-04-25/you-wont-feel-thing-your-brain-anesthesia-85658 How The 'Pox' Epidemic Changed Vaccination Rules http://www.wbez.org/story/arts-amp-life/2011-04-05/how-pox-epidemic-changed-vaccination-rules-84930 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-April/2011-04-08/pox_300dpi_custom.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Historian Michael Willrich was planning to write a book about civil liberties in the aftermath of Sept. 11 when he stumbled across an article from <em>The New York Times</em> archives. It was about a 1901 smallpox vaccination raid in New York — when 250 men arrived at a Little Italy tenement house in the middle of the night and set about vaccinating everyone they could find.</p><p>"There were scenes of policemen holding down men in their night robes while vaccinators began their work on their arms," Willrich tells <em>Fresh</em> <em>Air</em>'s Terry Gross. "Inspectors were going room to room looking for children with smallpox. And when they found them, they were literally tearing babes from their mothers' arms to take them to the city pesthouse [which housed smallpox victims.]"</p><p>The vaccination raid was not an isolated incident. As the smallpox epidemic swept across the country, New York and Boston policemen conducted several raids and health officials across the country ordered mandatory vaccinations in schools, factories and on railroads. In <em>Pox: An American History</em>, Willrich details how the smallpox epidemic of 1898-1904 had far-reaching implications for public health officials — as well as Americans concerned about their own civil liberties.</p><p>"110 years ago, vaccination was compelled by the state," he says. "But there no effort taken by the government to ensure that vaccines on the market were safe and effective. We live in a very different environment today where there are extensive regulations governing the entire vaccine industry."</p><p>At the turn of the 20th century, explains Willrich, there were little to no regulations governing the pharmaceutical industry. Many people were forced to receive the vaccine — most of the time against their will.</p><p>"There was one episode in Middlesboro, Ky., where the police and a group of vaccinators went into this African-American section of town, rounded up people outside this home, handcuffed the men and women and vaccinated them at gunpoint," says Willrich. "It's a shocking scene and very much at odds with our daily-held notions of American liberty."</p><p>People infected with small pox would also be quarantined against their will in large isolation hospitals called pest houses.</p><p>"People would literally dragged there against their will," he says. "Some of the most poignant scenes are when mothers are fighting with health officials to keep their children in their own homes rather than have them be taken off to a pesthouse. People at the time rightly associated pest houses with death. That's where someone was taken to die."</p><p><strong>Resistance To Vaccinations</strong></p><p>From the very start of the organized vaccination campaign against smallpox, there was public resistance, says Willrich. The battle between the government and the vocal anti-vaccinators came to a head in a landmark 1902 Supreme Court decision, where the Supreme Court upheld the right of a state to order a vaccination for its population during an epidemic to protect the people from a devastating disease.</p><p>"But at the same time, the Court recognized certain limitations on that power — that this power of health policing was no absolute and was not total and there was a sphere of individual liberty that needed to be recognized," says Willrich. "Measures like this needed to be reasonable and someone who could make a legitimate claim that a vaccine posed a particular risk to them because of their family history or medical history [would not have to be vaccinated.]"</p><p>In addition, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts stipulated that a state couldn't forcibly vaccinate its population.</p><p>"[They said,] 'Of course, it would be unconstitutional and go beyond the pale for health officials to forcibly vaccinate anyone because that's not within their power,'" says Willrich. "And I think that's really a shoutout to the Boston health authorities who were employing forcible vaccination all the time in the poorest neighborhoods in the city."</p><p>Because so many refused to get vaccinated, there were isolated incidents of smallpox outbreaks in the United States until 1949, says Willrich. It wasn't until 1972 that the U.S. government decided to stop mandatory vaccination against smallpox, in part because the disease had been largely eradicated.</p><p><strong>The Current Anti-Vaccine Controversy</strong></p><p>In 1998, the British medical journal <em>The Lancet </em>published a report by Dr. Andrew Wakefield that suggested that there might be a link between autism and the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine.</p><p>"This paper was thoroughly discredited and debunked but the idea that vaccines might somehow be the cause of autism stuck," says Willrich. "And so, according to some of the most recent studies, something like one-fifth of all American parents believe that vaccines cause autism. This is simply not true. But it's a powerful association in the public mind."</p><p>Wakefield is no longer allowed to practice medicine in England and <em>The Lancet </em>withdrew the study in 2010. In January, 2011, the <em>British Medical Journal</em> said that the study wasn't just wrong — it was "a deliberate fraud" that altered key facts to support the link between vaccinations and autism.</p><p>Even though the study was discredited, many people continue to believe the link between vaccinations and autism, says Willrich.</p><p>"[In 2003,] according to the CDC, there was something like 22 percent of American parents of young children were refusing one or more vaccines for their children," he says. "Five years later, that percentage had nearly doubled to about 40 percent of all Americans. So the vaccine controversy today is one of the most important public health crises we face in America."</p><p>And, he says, public health officials can and should do more to inform the public that the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Medical Association and the CDC all believe that vaccines are safe.</p><p>"I think this is the time for doubling their efforts to spread the good word about vaccines and also have a candid public discussion about the risks and benefits," he says. "There's no more opportune moment than the present to launch a new publicity campaign around vaccines. ... Viruses spread in human populations from person to person and if you have a vast majority of a community vaccinated against that virus, the virus will simply never have a toehold in that community." Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. </p> Tue, 05 Apr 2011 10:23:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/arts-amp-life/2011-04-05/how-pox-epidemic-changed-vaccination-rules-84930 Explaining Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood http://www.wbez.org/story/anti-government-protests-roil-egypt/2011-02-08/explaining-egypts-muslim-brotherhood-81991 <p><p>Lawrence Wright is the author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning book <em>The Looming Tower</em>, which examines the history of al-Qaida. The founding members of al-Qaida are former members of the Muslim Brotherhood, a group banned in Egypt by the regime of President Hosni Mubarak that could play an important role in the future of the country.</p><p>On today's Fresh Air, Wright talks about the history of the Brotherhood, why al-Qaida considers the group an enemy, and what the future may hold for the organization. He says that the Brotherhood's decision not to field a presidential candidate in Egypt is remarkable and, in some ways, unsurprising.</p><p>"They have an opportunity to put forward their own candidate but they recognize that the West is terrified of seeing Egypt turn into an Islamist state. And they also recognize that the Mubarak administration has used the Muslim Brotherhood as a kind of scapegoat," he says. "I think, very wisely, they declared they are not going to run a candidate, which [destroys] that whole argument that after Mubarak, comes the deluge. That decision alone could be the turning point in what happens in these next several days."</p><p>And if the Muslim Brotherhood plays a part in a new Egyptian government, Wright says, it will finally find its proper place and size within Egyptian civil society.</p><p>"We don't really know what size of a constituency they have," he says. "Other organized opposition parties [have] been so crippled by the Mubarak administration — and haven't been allowed to function and organize — so they simply haven't had a chance to get their roots out among the people. If the Mubarak regime comes down, which seems likely, there needs to be a period of time where people actually have the time to organize new parties with new candidates. One of the real problems is Egypt is just there aren't very many democrats. They haven't had that experience and they're going to have to have it in an extremely compressed period of time." Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1297193847?&gn=Explaining+Egypt%27s+Muslim+Brotherhood&ev=event2&ch=133370727&h1=Anti-Government+Protests+Roil+Egypt,Fresh+Air+Interviews,World,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=133590304&c19=20110208&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=13&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></p></p> Tue, 08 Feb 2011 13:11:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/anti-government-protests-roil-egypt/2011-02-08/explaining-egypts-muslim-brotherhood-81991 A physicist explains why parallel universes may exist http://www.wbez.org/story/arts-amp-life/physicist-explains-why-parallel-universes-may-exist <p><p>Our universe might be really, really big — but finite. Or it might be infinitely big.</p><p>Both cases, says physicist Brian Greene, are possibilities, but if the latter is true, so is another posit: There are only so many ways matter can arrange itself within that infinite universe. Eventually, matter has to repeat itself and arrange itself in similar ways. So if the universe is infinitely large, it is also home to infinite parallel universes.</p><p>Does that sound confusing? Try this:</p><p>Think of the universe like a deck of cards.</p><p>"Now, if you shuffle that deck, there's just so many orderings that can happen," Greene says. "If you shuffle that deck enough times, the orders will have to repeat. Similarly, with an infinite universe and only a finite number of complexions of matter, the way in which matter arranges itself has to repeat."</p><p>Greene, the author of <em>The Elegant Universe </em>and <em>The Fabric of the Cosmos</em>, tackles the existence of multiple universes in his latest book, <em>The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos</em>.</p><p>Recent discoveries in physics and astronomy, he says, point to the idea that our universe may be one of many universes populating a grander multiverse.</p><p>"You almost can't avoid having some version of the multiverse in your studies if you push deeply enough in the mathematical descriptions of the physical universe," he says. "There are many of us thinking of one version of parallel universe theory or another. If it's all a lot of nonsense, then it's a lot of wasted effort going into this far-out idea. But if this idea is correct, it is a fantastic upheaval in our understanding."</p><p><strong>How Quantum Mechanics And General Relativity Play A Part</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>Greene thinks the key to understanding these multiverses comes from string theory, the area of physics he has studied for the past 25 years.</p><p>In a nutshell, string theory attempts to reconcile a mathematical conflict between two already accepted ideas in physics: quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity.</p><p>"Einstein's theory of relativity does a fantastic job for explaining big things," Greene says. "Quantum mechanics is fantastic for the other end of the spectrum — for small things. The big problem is that each theory is great for each realm, but when they confront each other, they are ferocious antagonists, and the mathematics falls apart."</p><p>String theory smooths out the mathematical inconsistencies that currently exist between quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. It posits that the entire universe can be explained in terms of really, really small strings that vibrate in 10 or 11 dimensions — meaning dimensions we can't see. If it exists, it could explain literally everything in the universe — from subatomic particles to the laws of speed and gravity.</p><p>So what does this have to do with the possibility that a multiverse exists?</p><p>"There are a couple of multiverses that come out of our study of string theory," Greene says. "Within string theory, the strings that we're talking about are not the only entities that this theory allows. It also allows objects that look like large flying carpets, or membranes, which are two dimensional surfaces. And what that means, within string theory, is that we may be living on one of those gigantic surfaces, and there can be other surfaces floating out there in space."</p><p>That theory, he says, might be testable in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research.</p><p>"If we are living on one of these giant membranes, then the following can happen: When you slam particles together — which is what happens at the LHC — some debris from those collisions can be ejected off of our membrane and be ejected into the greater cosmos in which our membrane floats," he says. "If that happens, that debris will take away some energy. So if we measure the amount of energy just before the protons collide and compare it with the amount of energy just after they collide, if there's a little less after — and it's less in just the right way — it would indicate that some had flown off, indicating that this membrane picture is correct."</p><p>Greene explains that when he began studying string theory and parallel universes, it wasn't because he could one day measure energy at CERN or develop new mathematical equations. He simply liked the idea, he says, of studying something on such a large scale.</p><p>"We're trying to talk about not just the universe but perhaps other universes — but all within a logical framework that allows us to make some definitive statements," he says. "To me, that's enormously exciting, to step outside the everyday and really look at the universe, within these mathematical terms, on its grandest scales." Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1295976409?&gn=A+Physicist+Explains+Why+Parallel+Universes+May+Exist&ev=event2&ch=1026&h1=Fresh+Air+Interviews,Brain+Candy,Commentary,Opinion,Nonfiction,Author+Interviews,Books,Space,Interviews,Arts+%26+Life,Science&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=132932268&c7=1026&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1026&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110124&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=13&v21=D%3Dc2&c31=125637934&v31=D%3Dc31&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></p></p> Mon, 24 Jan 2011 09:47:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/arts-amp-life/physicist-explains-why-parallel-universes-may-exist Brain injuries haunt football players years later http://www.wbez.org/story/fresh-air-interviews/brain-injuries-haunt-football-players-years-later <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//ed yourdon.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>A 2000 study that surveyed 1,090 former NFL players found that more than 60 percent had suffered at least one concussion during their career.</p><p>Concussions, a type of traumatic brain injury, generally occur when the head either spins rapidly or accelerates quickly and then stops — like when a player tackles another player on the field. The NFL and Congress have both held hearings on the head injuries, which can cause memory loss, confusion, nausea, blurred vision and long-term neurological effects, including symptoms of dementia, headaches and concentration problems.</p><p>A study commissioned by the NFL in 2009 reported that former NFL players have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or other memory problems 19 times more than the normal rate for men between 30 and 49-years-old. And pathologists who have examined the brains of ex-athletes have found signs of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (C.T.E.), a progressive neurological disease that patients get after sustaining repeated head injuries.</p><p>On <em>Fresh Air</em> today, Chris Nowinski, who runs a non-profit organization which raises awareness about concussions, will explain how the head injuries continue to damage players years after they've left the field.</p><p>Nowinski knows this first hand. After playing football at Harvard, he became a professional wrestler with World Wrestling Entertainment (W.W.E.) His over-the-top personality and penchant for referencing his Ivy pedigree made him a superstar in the ring. In 2002, he was named the "Newcomer of the Year" by RAW Magazine and became the youngest male Hardcore Champion in WWE history.</p><p>But Nowicki's wrestling career was cut short in 2003, after he suffered at least six concussions.</p><p>"[After one] I remember looking up at the ceiling and I had no idea where I was," Nowinski tells <em>Fresh Air's</em> Dave Davies. "I had no idea what we were doing and I couldn't remember what was supposed to happen next. It's scary to be with 5000 fans and become completely distracted."</p><p>Nowinski started reading everything he could about head injuries. He soon realized concussions were a far bigger crisis than anyone realized. In 2006, his book <em>Head Games: Football's Concussion Crisis</em>, helped put the concussion crisis on the NFL's radar, after he profiled several players who exhibited symptoms of neurological damage after their playing careers ended.</p><p>"Football did not react well at the beginning," he says. "The commissioner of the N.F.L. saw this as a threat to the game. They did not want to have this conversation."</p><p>More cases changed their mind. Ted Johnson, a linebacker who helped lead the New England Patriots to three Super Bowl victories, suffered two concussions in four days in August 2002. When he returned to play, he received several more concussions before his playing career ended in 2005. His neurologist told The New York Times in 2007 that the 34-year-old was already "show[ing] the minor cognitive impairment that is characteristic of early Alzheimer's disease."</p><p>In 2009, Congress held hearings on the subject of brain injuries in football. After those hearings, the NFL changed some of their policies on when players could return to games after an injury and how players were allowed to hit each other on the field. But, Nowinski says, there's still more to be done.</p><p>"We can prevent them with rule changes, recognize them better and treat them better," he says. "But the bigger change in dramatically reducing how we practice the game. 75 percent of hits happen in practice when no one is keeping score. If this is bad for you, we should eliminate them from practice and save hits for the game. If we did that, we would lower everyone's exposure by 50 percent." Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1295564961?&gn=Brain+Injuries+Haunt+Football+Players+Years+Later&ev=event2&ch=1128&h1=Fresh+Air+Interviews,Health,Your+Health,Sports,Mental+Health,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=133053436&c7=1128&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1128&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110120&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=13&v21=D%3Dc2&c31=125637934&v31=D%3Dc31&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></p></p> Thu, 20 Jan 2011 23:49:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/fresh-air-interviews/brain-injuries-haunt-football-players-years-later 'Dream' Speech Writer Jones Reflects On King Jr. http://www.wbez.org/story/arts-amp-life/dream-speech-writer-jones-reflects-king-jr <p><p>The most enduring images and sounds of Martin Luther King Jr.'s life come from his "I Have A Dream" speech, delivered at the Lincoln Memorial on Aug. 28, 1963.</p><p>Clarence Jones helped draft the speech that day, and he was standing a few feet away when King spoke.</p><p>He was a young attorney and part of King's inner circle when the March on Washington was planned. He tells his story in his new book <em>Behind the Dream: The Making of the Speech that Transformed a Nation</em>.</p><p>But it almost wasn't to be.</p><p>As Jones recalls in a conversation with <em>Fresh Air</em>'s Dave Davies, he initially turned down the opportunity to meet King, because it would have meant moving from his home in California, where he was a newly married lawyer, to Alabama, where a legal team was preparing to defend King on charges of tax evasion and perjury.</p><p>But a visit by King to his home in the winter of 1960 changed his life.</p><p>"To put it in historical context, he was then a celebrity," Jones says. "At least, he was regarded as such by my wife, who thought when Martin Luther King Jr. was coming to our home, it was a combination of Moses, Jesus, George Clooney, Sidney Poitier and Michael Jackson. So in he comes and we have some pleasantries and he gets down right to the point. He said, 'You know, Mr. Jones, we have lots of white lawyers who help us in the movement. But what we need are more young Negro professionals because every time we embark on something, we are being hit with some form of legal action.' "</p><p>Jones turned him down -- until King left the house and Jones' wife stepped in.</p><p>"Soon after he left, she turned to me and said, 'What are you doing that's so important that you can't help this man?' She was angry at me and then I began to be angry at Martin King. Because I thought to myself that like all young couples, we were living in domestic tranquility, and here this total stranger comes into my house and gets my wife angry at me over something I had nothing to do with."</p><p>The following morning, Jones received a phone call inviting him to be the special guest of King at a speech he was giving in a California church.</p><p>"My wife was standing nearby and I told her verbatim the conversation I just had. And she said, 'Well, you may not be going to Montgomery, Ala., but you're going to that church,' " he says. "So I go to the church. ... And I had never heard anyone speak with such extraordinary eloquence and power."</p><p>By the end of the sermon, Jones had made up his mind.</p><p>"I walked over to him and put my hand in his hand and I said, 'Dr. King, when do you want me to go to Montgomery, Ala.?' Since then, that transformed my life."</p><p>Clarence Jones is currently a scholar in residence and visiting professor at Stanford University's Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. He also writes regularly for the Huffington Post and is the author of <em>What Would Martin Say?</em> Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1295281633?&gn=%27Dream%27+Speech+Writer+Jones+Reflects+On+King+Jr.&ev=event2&ch=4283063&h1=Fresh+Air+Interviews,Martin+Luther+King+Jr.+Day,History,Nonfiction,Author+Interviews,Books,Interviews,Arts+%26+Life,U.S.&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=132905796&c7=1001&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1001&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110113&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c21=13&v21=D%3Dc2&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></p></p> Thu, 13 Jan 2011 13:42:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/story/arts-amp-life/dream-speech-writer-jones-reflects-king-jr Timberlake On 'N Sync, Acting And Bringing Sexy Back http://www.wbez.org/story/arts-amp-life/timberlake-n-sync-acting-and-bringing-sexy-back <p><p><a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123572896">Justin Timberlake</a> has come a long way from the first time he stepped on a stage at the age of 8.</p> <p>&quot;My mother sort of makes this joke that she's surprised that I know what she looks like, because up until I ... first stepped onto a stage, all I did was look down at my feet,&quot; Timberlake explains. &quot;As soon as I discovered the stage, it brought out a lot in me that I didn't know I had. And it did it at a very young age, and it was one of the most fun things that I could ever do.&quot;</p> <p>The versatile performer has since proven that he can sing -- he has produced several hit solo albums, including <em>Justified</em> and <em>FutureSex/LoveSounds</em> -- after leading the 1990s boy band 'N Sync to become the third-highest selling boy band of all time. And he has demonstrated his acting chops, performing in both comedic and dramatic roles.</p> <p>Several digital shorts from his appearances on <em>Saturday Night Live,</em> including &quot;<a href="http://www.hulu.com/watch/1596/saturday-night-live-dick-in-a-box-uncensored">Dick in a Box</a>&quot; and &quot;<a href="http://www.hulu.com/watch/73123/saturday-night-live-digital-short-motherlover-uncensored">Motherlover</a>,&quot; have become viral Internet sensations, while his recent performance as Napster founder Sean Parker in David Fincher's <em>The Social Network</em> was lauded by both <em>The New York Times</em> and <em>The New Yorker</em>; in the latter, David Denby wrote that Timberlake's &quot;charm and physical dynamism ... torque the movie even higher.&quot;</p> <p>Timberlake's success on the stage started when he was just 11 years old. He appeared on <em>Star Search</em>, then successfully auditioned for a part on the Disney Channel series <em>The New Mickey Mouse Club</em> alongside future stars <a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16353081">Britney Spears</a>, Christina Aguilera and JC Chasez, who would become his bandmate in 'N Sync.</p> <p>&quot;When you're a kid and things like that happen, and it happens so fast, you can't help but feel like something great was happening for you,&quot; he tells <em>Fresh Air</em>'s Terry Gross. &quot;But I look back on it and I think it was more of a fluke than anything.&quot;</p> <p>From <em>The New Mickey Mouse Club,</em> Timberlake went to 'N Sync, eventually performing at the Oscars, the World Series, the Super Bowl and the Olympics -- and recording with <a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129085773">Aerosmith</a>, <a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16782748">Michael Jackson</a>, <a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15396953">Elton John</a> and Celine Dion, among others. From there he launched a solo career, releasing hits &quot;Rock Your Body,&quot; &quot;My Love&quot; and &quot;SexyBack,&quot; which became his first No. 1 single on the Billboard Hot 100 and won Best Dance Recording at the 2007 Grammy Awards.</p> <p>Timberlake tells Terry Gross that he isn't exactly sure where the lyric &quot;I'm bringing sexy back&quot; came from -- and that he occasionally regrets writing it that way.</p> <p>&quot;People feel like it's an extension of who I am, but ... when I get the opportunity to tell them I was playing a character, sometimes they get it and sometimes they don't,&quot; he says. &quot;For whatever reason, when we started recording it, I wanted the vocal to almost slap you in the face. I wanted it to sound distorted. ... Originally the song wasn't going to be called that. ... I thought that was too on the nose. [But] the more I played it for people around me, that's what they called it.&quot;</p> <p>Timberlake says that in spite of his achievements -- he has earned six Grammys and two Emmys, among other accolades -- he still attributes the bulk of his success to his mother, who made sure he was comfortable and aware of his place in the world.</p> <p>&quot;I remember her saying, 'If you have the ability to do something, one or two things great, it doesn't mean that you're a better person than anyone else.' And I think I've held onto that,&quot; he says.</p> <p>What matters more to him than trophies, he says, are &quot;comments from people who say, 'You've helped me through a rough time,' or [people] saying that you made them laugh or something -- that something you did was great, rather than materialistic awards or things like that.&quot;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <hr /> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3>Interview Highlights</h3> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>On playing Sean Parker, the founder of Napster</strong></p> <p>&quot;All of the actors in the film, we didn't know much about any of these guys. We came to these people as characters. Our first introduction to these people was the really layered and well-researched and specific characterization of them by [screenwriter] Aaron Sorkin. I know he had done a lot of research, but there was a book [called <em>The Accidental Billionaires</em>] that was being written by Ben Mezrich at the same time that Aaron was doing his research for the film, and I know that [Ben] did speak to a lot of people. Their only condition was they got to keep their anonymity. So none of us really asked questions about who or what he talked to, or about, with anyone -- but he was very adamant about a lot of the research, even details about what they may have been drinking in a certain scene. ... [It] was all accounted for by his research.&quot;</p> <p><strong>On doing comedy</strong></p> <p>&quot;I've always thought that there was humor everywhere. As a kid, I grew up an only child, and nothing made me happier than to make my parents laugh. ... I had a Jackson 5 wig that I would wear around, and I would do the dances from the Jackson 5, and my mother thought that was hysterical. Of course, that seed got planted very early, the physicality of comedy. When I was a kid, I would impersonate anything that I would hear. [That's] why I was able to become a musician and a singer. What I was more talented at, more than anything -- because I don't think I'm a great singer -- I grew up imitating different voices that I heard, and when I was young my mother used to listen to a lot of a Southern rock station in Memphis, and I grew up imitating all of those voices that I heard when I was young.&quot;</p> <p><strong>On the song &quot;Dick in a Box&quot; from <em>Saturday Night Live</em></strong></p> <p>&quot;The weird thing about the digital shorts that I've done with Andy [Samberg] and the Lonely Island guys is that we wrote this song in a delirium of no sleep on a Wednesday or Thursday of the week. We recorded it that night, and we were laughing so hysterically -- and probably through the delirium of trying to write something so funny, this came out of it. We knew it would be funny on some level, because we were laughing with each other on the Friday we filmed the video. And then on Saturday they edited it, and Saturday night it was put out on television. ... We weren't parodying anyone in particular. I think the style in which we were doing the song was early-'90s R&amp;B, so when we had that as a basis, we said, 'How ridiculous can we make this?' Because then at that point, it's just about making it as funny as possible.&quot;</p> <p><strong>On <em>The New Mickey Mouse Club</em></strong></p> <p>&quot;I got a callback and went to a casting camp, where all the kids who were sort of spawned out of that show, we met for the first time. Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera and Ryan Gosling -- there were 21 kids who were whittled down from 20,000 [kids] that they had done auditions with all over the country. Out of those 21 kids, seven of us were picked to be the new part of the cast.&quot;</p> <p><strong>On 'N Sync<br /> </strong></p> <p>&quot;Everything that we did was based around a cappella harmonies. That's what we wanted to be in the beginning -- an a cappella group. So that is why we put five guys in the group. When we were forming the group, there wasn't a boy-band phenomenon. <a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15446165">Nirvana</a> and <a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15664595">Pearl Jam</a> were probably the top two acts in the world at the time, so we never knew at what capacity everything was going to work out for us. I don't think we thought it was going to be as big as it became. Copyright 2010 National Public Radio. To see more, visit <a href="http://www.npr.org/">http://www.npr.org/</a>.<img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1286920016?&amp;gn=Timberlake+On+%27N+Sync%2C+Acting+And+Bringing+Sexy+Back&amp;ev=event2&amp;ch=1137&amp;h1=Fresh+Air+Interviews,NPR+Music+Mobile,Featured+Music+Stories,Rock%2FPop%2FFolk,Movie+Interviews,Music+Interviews,Pop+Culture,Movies,Interviews,Arts+%26+Life&amp;c3=D%3Dgn&amp;v3=D%3Dgn&amp;c4=130356030&amp;c7=1105&amp;v7=D%3Dc7&amp;c18=1105&amp;v18=D%3Dc18&amp;c19=20101006&amp;v19=D%3Dc19&amp;c20=1&amp;v20=D%3Dc20&amp;c21=13&amp;v21=D%3Dc2&amp;c31=125637934,124289519,100920965,10001&amp;v31=D%3Dc31&amp;c32=123572896&amp;v32=D%3Dc32&amp;c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001" alt="" /></p></p> Wed, 06 Oct 2010 11:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/arts-amp-life/timberlake-n-sync-acting-and-bringing-sexy-back