WBEZ | technology http://www.wbez.org/tags/technology Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Cook County to join cameras-in-court program http://www.wbez.org/news/cook-county-join-cameras-court-program-111240 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Illinois_Supreme_Court wikimedia.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>The Illinois Supreme Court has allowed the use of cameras and audio recording devices in Cook County courts on an experimental basis starting next month.</p><p>Illinois Supreme Court Chief Justice Rita Garman and Cook County Chief Judge Timothy Evans made the announcement Tuesday morning. Cook County is the largest and latest of dozens of counties in Illinois that have joined a state high court camera pilot program that launched in 2012.</p><p>Court officials say the program will begin Jan. 5 in the felony courtrooms at the Leighton Criminal Court Building in Chicago. It&#39;s been the site of many high-profile trials. Bond hearings are excluded from the pilot project.</p><p>Illinois has allowed cameras to be present during Supreme Court and Appellate Court hearings since 1983.</p></p> Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:17:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/cook-county-join-cameras-court-program-111240 Cab, livery companies sue city over rideshare companies http://www.wbez.org/news/cab-livery-companies-sue-city-over-rideshare-companies-109655 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Rideshare lawsuit.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>A group of mostly taxi and livery companies have filed suit against the City of Chicago, claiming that the city has tolerated, and even promoted, &ldquo;unlawful transportation providers&rdquo; to undermine their industries. Their case focuses on technology companies Uber, Lyft and Sidecar, which offer smartphone apps that allow people who need rides to find people with cars, for a fare. The suit claims that the city has denied the plaintiffs equal protection under the law, by forcing them to abide by rules and regulations that have not been applied to the technology companies.</p><p>At the heart of their complaint is the assertion that the companies, which call their services &ldquo;ridesharing,&rdquo; are de facto cab companies.</p><p>&ldquo;This isn&rsquo;t ridesharing,&rdquo; said Michael Shakman, an attorney representing the plaintiffs. &ldquo;They sell services 24/7 to the general public, they charge by time and distance, and they&rsquo;re an on-demand service. They&rsquo;re exactly a taxi service, not a rideshare.&rdquo;</p><p>At a press conference Thursday, Shakman accused the city of allowing a taxi &ldquo;caste&rdquo; system to emerge, whereby Uber, Lyft and Sidecar are allowed to focus only on passengers who have credit cards, smartphones, and live in high-income neighborhoods.</p><p>&ldquo;They are not available at all to the disabled or to people who pay with cash,&rdquo; Shakman said. &ldquo;This taxi &lsquo;caste&rsquo; system excludes large portions of the population on racial, economic and disability grounds, and it thereby violates the Illinois Civil Rights Act.&rdquo;</p><p>Also joining the lawsuit is Brad Saul, President of Chicago Disability Transit, a non-profit that provides paratransit options for people with special needs. Saul said on the occasions he attempted to get a car from ridesharing companies, they did not have any that were able to accommodate his wheelchair.</p><p>&ldquo;As a platform, we don&rsquo;t force drivers to use it a certain way,&rdquo; said John Zimmer, co-founder of Lyft, &ldquo;but as a broad platform there&rsquo;s drivers who do support that.&rdquo; Zimmer said in many of the 20 markets where Lyft now operates, there are people who drive wheelchair-accessible vehicles.</p><p>But while Saul and other plaintiffs argue that the companies should have to serve people in all neighborhoods, and with disabilities, the lawsuit also dwells heavily on the economic injury they say they are suffering. Lyft, Sidecar, and Uber&rsquo;s ridesharing service, called uberX, typically are cheaper than taxis, although when demand is high, they use a surge-pricing model that can lead to steeper charges.</p><p>Additionally, there is a relatively low cost of entry for their drivers. Cabbies must have city-issued medallions, currently priced at roughly $350,000 each, as well as mandated insurance, worker&rsquo;s compensation, and vehicles that are no more than four years old. Taxi and livery drivers are also required to attend school and be licensed as public chauffeurs, neither of which are necessary for rideshare drivers.</p><p>Representatives from Lyft and Uber dispute the underlying characterization of their service as a taxi service &mdash; and argue that&rsquo;s why they shouldn&rsquo;t be regulated as cab and livery vehicles.</p><p>&ldquo;A taxi can hail someone from the street, and when you have something like a street hail, it creates different dynamics and different safety requirements,&rdquo; said Zimmer. &ldquo;You don&rsquo;t have choice over the company, you don&rsquo;t have information on the driver, you haven&rsquo;t agreed to a terms of service, and you have a lot less information. And with a service like Lyft, you&rsquo;re choosing to use Lyft, you see information about the driver, about the car, and there&rsquo;s many more differences.&rdquo;</p><p>The lawsuit comes a day after lines of disagreement surfaced at City Hall. Mayor Rahm Emanuel&rsquo;s office <a href="http://www.wbez.org/news/city-moves-regulate-rideshare-companies-109639">introduced an ordinance to create regulations</a> for the industry, designating a new category of transportation called &ldquo;Transportation Network Providers.&rdquo; The proposal would allow the ridesharing services to continue many of their operations, but would require them to register annually with the city, maintain minimum standards of general commercial and commercial vehicle liability insurance, pay the city&rsquo;s Ground Transportation Tax, and have drivers&rsquo; cars inspected annually.</p><p>Plaintiffs in the lawsuit say the proposal falls short, and they don&rsquo;t like the idea of a separate set of rules.</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s bad public policy to create a second taxi system designed for the elite who happen to be fortunate enough to live in neighborhoods where taxi drivers are willing to take them,&rdquo; said Shakman.</p><p>At the same City Council meeting, Aldermen Anthony Beale (9th) and Edward Burke (14th) proposed a <a href="https://chicago.legistar.com/View.ashx?M=F&amp;ID=2902650&amp;GUID=AE467792-6BF2-425E-85C7-6C05D0CFBD3C">resolution </a>calling for the Police Superintendent and Commissioner of Business Affairs and Consumer Protection to immediately apply the existing taxicab rules to the ridesharing services.</p><p>&ldquo;We need to make sure that the consumers are protected,&rdquo; said Beale, &ldquo;and so we need to take the steps on shutting them down and then work towards a solution to make sure they&rsquo;re regulated.&rdquo;</p><p>The resolution is not binding, but will go to a joint committee on Transportation and Finance, of which Beale and Burke are chairs, respectively. As such, they may ask enforcement officials to offer testimony as to why the city has not applied its rules on taxicabs and livery to the ridesharing services.</p><p>Representatives of Uber and Lyft say they expect there will be regulation of their service, and that they are in favor of measures to promote safety. But they say the push by cab and livery companies to have them adhere to the same rules that they do will stifle technological innovation.</p><p>&ldquo;Hundreds of thousands of Chicagoans rely on uberX precisely because it is a faster, safer, and cheaper way of getting around their city,&rdquo; wrote Andrew MacDonald, Midwest Regional Manager for Uber, in an e-mail. &ldquo;After years of neglecting Chicago drivers and passengers alike, the taxi industry has resorted to name-calling and frivolous lawsuits. While they spend time in court, we&#39;ll be working with Mayor Emmanuel (sic) to design a forward-looking regulatory regime that creates economic opportunity, prioritizes safety, and ensures access to the best, cheapest rides ever available in the city.&rdquo;</p><p><em>Odette Yousef is WBEZ&rsquo;s North Side Bureau reporter. Follow her <a href="https://twitter.com/oyousef">@oyousef</a> and <a href="https://twitter.com/WBEZoutloud">@WBEZoutloud</a>.</em></p></p> Thu, 06 Feb 2014 20:05:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/cab-livery-companies-sue-city-over-rideshare-companies-109655 City moves to regulate rideshare companies http://www.wbez.org/news/city-moves-regulate-rideshare-companies-109639 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Screen Shot 2014-02-05 at 10.02.40 AM.png" alt="" /><p><p>The days of Chicago&rsquo;s Wild West of ridesharing services may be numbered, if the city has its way. The Mayor&rsquo;s office introduced new rules at Wednesday&rsquo;s City Council meeting, aimed at bringing the technology companies into the regulatory fold. But the move is already angering some who say the city should use its existing regulations for taxicabs and livery vehicles, rather than create a new set of rules.</p><p>&ldquo;This is a new industry that&rsquo;s still in the early stages and we wanted to step in, create some requirements that provide for public safety and consumer protection, but do that without essentially regulating the industry out of existence,&rdquo; said Michael Negron, Chief of Policy to the Mayor.</p><p>The proposed ordinance creates a new category of commercial vehicle transportation, called &ldquo;Transportation Network Providers,&rdquo; meant for technology companies that connect people who need rides, to people who have cars. Currently, this would include companies like Lyft, Uber and Sidecar, which have operations in Chicago. Unlike taxi drivers, people offering rides with these services use their personal cars, which do not have to be registered with or inspected by the city. The drivers also do not have to undergo training or licensing as public chauffeurs.</p><p>&ldquo;Now that the industry&rsquo;s been up and running for a bit, we want to be able to step in and impose what we think are ultimately some common sense requirements,&rdquo; said Negron, &ldquo;that ensure that when people step into a rideshare vehicle they know that the driver has gotten a background check and the driver&rsquo;s been drug tested and that the vehicle has been inspected and that they&rsquo;re getting the fare disclosed to them.&rdquo;</p><p>The ordinance would require the companies to register with the city and pay an annual $25,000 licensing fee, as well as $25 per driver with their service. It would also subject the companies to the city&rsquo;s ground transportation tax &mdash; $3.50 per day, per vehicle, for each day that the vehicle is used in Chicago for ground transportation. Additionally, the vehicles would have to display signage or an emblem that identifies their ridesharing service, and would have to be inspected annually by the city.</p><p>But perhaps the most significant cost that the rules would require are general commercial liability insurance and commercial automobile liability insurance policies of $1 million per occurrence.</p><p>&ldquo;Uber&rsquo;s existing policy meets that requirement,&rdquo; said Andrew MacDonald, Regional Manager for Uber Midwest. &ldquo;The basic premise is our insurance policy, as designed with our carrier, does cover a driver on an Uber trip regardless of the personal insurance policy.&rdquo; The company, however, declined to share a copy of that policy with WBEZ.</p><p>Several drivers, some of whom asked not to be named because they still drive for&nbsp; UberX and Lyft, told WBEZ that they were offered little or no detailed information about the companies&rsquo; insurance policies when they went through their orientation sessions.</p><p>&ldquo;People asked about what to do if there were problems,&rdquo; one said, &ldquo;but the answer was always to call Lyft Support,&rdquo; a hotline that the service provides for its drivers. &ldquo;They verified my insurance,&rdquo; said another driver for UberX, &ldquo;but never explained anything about what would happen in the case of a very bad accident.&rdquo;</p><p>Lyft, too, claims to carry an insurance policy of $1 million per occurrence, but it is an &ldquo;excess policy&rdquo; that kicks in after the driver&rsquo;s personal insurance has been used. The proposed ordinance would no longer allow this.</p><p>&ldquo;For us, it&rsquo;s like we are completely on board with provisions that increase consumer safety,&rdquo; said MacDonald, referring to the idea of new regulations. &ldquo;But beyond safety issues, I think controls on pricing, overreach on information, limitations on where cars could operate &mdash; all of that stuff starts to be not about safety, but starts to be about protectionism, and doesn&rsquo;t benefit the consumer, and doesn&rsquo;t create jobs, so that&rsquo;s where I get really concerned,&rdquo; he said.</p><p>The ordinance proposes that drivers with the services may collect fares determined by distance or time, or that are predetermined, or that are suggested donations. It would no longer allow the companies to apply formulas that calculate fares as a combination of time and distance. It also does not address &ldquo;price-surging&rdquo; or &ldquo;prime time tipping&rdquo; &mdash; a practice where Uber and Lyft hikes their fares when demand is high.</p><p>&ldquo;This ordinance is simply enabling an illegal activity which is a cab-like activity to take place,&rdquo; said Pat Corrigan, owner of The Yellow Group LLC, which operates Yellow Cab in Chicago. &ldquo;So this is not something the cab industry can stand by and see.&rdquo;</p><p>Corrigan and others from Chicago&rsquo;s cab and livery industries say they are prepared to file a federal lawsuit against the City of Chicago to compel the city to regulate ridesharing services the same way as their industries.</p><p>&ldquo;The public transportation system, which is the taxi system as you know it, has all these rules and regulations,&rdquo; he continued, &ldquo;including it can&rsquo;t charge more than the meter. UberX, Sidecar and Lyft, can charge basically anything they want.&rdquo;</p><p>Corrigan noted that cab companies must offer worker&rsquo;s compensation, use vehicles that are less than four years old, accept forms of payment other than credit card, and service all neighborhoods of the city &mdash; requirements that are not part of the proposed rules for ridesharing companies.</p><p>The arrival of ridesharing companies has certainly complicated the city&rsquo;s position. Under Mayor Rahm Emanuel, the city has touted itself as technology-friendly, and appears to have dropped early objections to Uber&rsquo;s taxi operations in the city. But at the same time, Chicago brings in tens of millions of dollars each year in taxes and fees from taxis &mdash; an industry whose value rests largely on maintaining the value of the medallions.</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s certainly not good for the medallion system,&rdquo; added Corrigan, &ldquo;because you have another system that&rsquo;s competing &mdash; a private system of transportation &mdash; for some of the people in the city that can afford it, competing against the public system.&rdquo;</p><p>Taxicab medallion owners and lenders have been nervously watching the growth of ridesharing in the city, worried that it may undermine the value of their investments. Medallions, which the city issues in limited number to license taxis, are valued at roughly $350,000 apiece.</p><p><em>Odette Yousef is WBEZ&rsquo;s North Side Bureau reporter. Follow her <a href="https://twitter.com/oyousef">@oyousef</a> and <a href="https://twitter.com/WBEZoutloud">@WBEZoutloud</a>.</em></p></p> Wed, 05 Feb 2014 09:55:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/city-moves-regulate-rideshare-companies-109639 Morning Shift: Artists work overtime to follow their dreams http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift-tony-sarabia/2014-01-22/morning-shift-artists-work-overtime-follow-their <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Flickr Muffet.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>We take a look at the social barriers to accessing reproductive health services. And, we talk to the director of a film following people following their passions.&nbsp;</p><div class="storify"><iframe allowtransparency="true" frameborder="no" height="750" src="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-artists-in-the-workforce-work-overti/embed?header=false" width="100%"></iframe><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-artists-in-the-workforce-work-overti.js?header=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-artists-in-the-workforce-work-overti" target="_blank">View the story "Morning Shift: Artists work overtime to follow their dreams" on Storify</a>]</noscript></div></p> Wed, 22 Jan 2014 08:39:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift-tony-sarabia/2014-01-22/morning-shift-artists-work-overtime-follow-their Morning Shift: Does interfaith dialogue do more than preach to the choir? http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift-tony-sarabia/2013-12-30/morning-shift-does-interfaith-dialogue-do-more-preach <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Cover Flickr 1yen.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Religious leaders from around the city join us to discuss the state of interfaith relations in Chicago. We take a look at tech trends past and present. And, Chicago Mag&#39;s Dennis Rodkin checks in with the latest in housing issues.&nbsp;</p><div class="storify"><iframe src="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-does-interfaith-dialogue-do-more-tha/embed?header=false" width="100%" height=750 frameborder=no allowtransparency=true></iframe><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-does-interfaith-dialogue-do-more-tha.js?header=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-does-interfaith-dialogue-do-more-tha" target="_blank">View the story "Morning Shift: Does interfaith dialogue do more than preach to the choir?" on Storify</a>]</noscript></div></p> Mon, 30 Dec 2013 08:28:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift-tony-sarabia/2013-12-30/morning-shift-does-interfaith-dialogue-do-more-preach Morning Shift: To code or not to code http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift-tony-sarabia/2013-12-20/morning-shift-code-or-not-code-109418 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/main-images/Code cover Flickr QualityFrog.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Wired editor Brendan Koerner and tech writer Jathan Sadowski debate the merits of teaching computer science in public school. We examine Americans&#39; shifting belief in a higher power. And, Vic Miguel &amp; Friends bring their ukes down to Studio 6.</p><div class="storify"><iframe src="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-to-code-or-not-to-code/embed?header=false" width="100%" height=750 frameborder=no allowtransparency=true></iframe><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-to-code-or-not-to-code.js?header=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-to-code-or-not-to-code" target="_blank">View the story "Morning Shift: To code or not to code" on Storify</a>]</noscript></div></p> Fri, 20 Dec 2013 08:34:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift-tony-sarabia/2013-12-20/morning-shift-code-or-not-code-109418 The 311 on Chicago's early phone numbers http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/311-chicagos-early-phone-numbers-109135 <p><p><iframe frameborder="no" height="166" scrolling="no" src="https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/151751087&amp;color=ff5500&amp;auto_play=false&amp;hide_related=false&amp;show_artwork=true" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>Phone numbers weren&rsquo;t always just numbers.</p><p>Jeffrey Osman of Chicago&rsquo;s Bucktown neighborhood is sure of it. He remembers calling his friend Richie, a Humboldt Park resident, by dialing HUmboldt 6-5127. Translation on the telephone keypad: 486-5127.</p><p>Before 1977, Chicago phone numbers were often listed as Jeffrey remembers. The letters, which signified longer words, had once stood for exchanges &mdash; places where operators directed calls by plugging cords into switchboards with electric jacks that corresponded to individual telephone numbers.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/osmun.jpg" style="height: 133px; width: 200px; margin: 5px; float: right;" title="Jeffrey Osman had a hunch that old Chicago phone numbers were somehow tied to geography. (WBEZ/Chris Bentley)" />Jeffrey&rsquo;s recollection was strong, but the backstory nagged him &mdash; enough that he sent Curious City this question:</p><p style="text-align: center;"><em>&ldquo;What is the history behind the old telephone exchanges? For example, how did they get names like HUmboldt 6?&rdquo;</em></p><p>What did we find after we dialed up the history of numbers and phone technology? Two big points. The first is that today&rsquo;s smartphone users &mdash; the most savvy of which rarely even use phone numbers &mdash; may not realize there was a time when dialing pals required a working list of phone numbers and perhaps letters. It was also best to have a mental map of where contacts were physically located!</p><p>The other takeaway is that Chicago&rsquo;s exchange names are more than interesting relics of an earlier time: They&rsquo;re part of the city&rsquo;s identity as a collection of neighborhoods.</p><p><strong>Operator, please</strong></p><p>Let&rsquo;s go back to the beginning. Chicago&rsquo;s first telephone exchange opened in 1878. Then, you actually told the operator the name and address you were trying to reach. Chicago&rsquo;s first switchboards were at the telephone company&rsquo;s central office downtown, and in two branches at Halsted Street and Canal Street.</p><p>Here&rsquo;re a few significant dates in the evolution of telephone numbers:</p><ul><li dir="ltr"><p>Until <strong>1923</strong>, a dialer would call an operator and ask for the person they wanted to reach by giving their exchange name or number. Phone numbers were just three or four digits, <a href="http://phone.net46.net/chicago/index.html" target="_blank">with an exchange name tacked onto the front</a>. Names were sometimes selected to be memorable or easily understood over the phone. &ldquo;CALUMET-555,&rdquo; for example, could be taken from local Chicago geography.</p></li><li dir="ltr"><p>From <strong>1921-1948</strong>, dialers used three letters and four numbers. Operator-free dialing had also become common (<a href="http://99percentinvisible.org/episode/strowger-switch-purple-reign-redux/" target="_blank">the unlikely origins of the first automatic, operator-free dialing is the subject of an episode of 99 Percent Invisible</a>). Exchanges were given three-digit numbers and names that could be signified by the letters located on phone dials. CALUMET, for example, was 225 (CAL).</p></li><li dir="ltr"><p>Area codes were introduced in <strong>1947</strong>.</p></li><li dir="ltr"><p>In <strong>1948 </strong>local exchange name codes shrunk to just two letters, making room for a fifth digit that would allow phone companies to meet growing demand for new numbers. When possible, the old exchange names were preserved &mdash; to continue the example above, Calumet became CAlumet 5. Some number combinations didn&rsquo;t spell much at all, let alone a name that happened to have local significance. AT&amp;T had national lists of recommended exchange names, so <a href="http://forgottenchicago.com/articles/old-telephone-numbers/" target="_blank">some of Chicago&rsquo;s old exchange prefixes have nothing to do with the region</a>.</p></li><li dir="ltr"><p>In <strong>1958 </strong>Wichita Falls, Texas, <a href="http://www.privateline.com/TelephoneHistory3A/numbers.html" target="_blank">became the first U.S. city to institute &quot;true number calling&quot;</a> &mdash; seven numerical digits without letters or names.</p></li><li dir="ltr"><p>But in Chicago, many subscribers were loath to give up their exchange names. It took until <strong>1977 </strong>to fully phase out the system, and exchange names showed up in some Chicago phonebooks into the 1980s.</p></li></ul><p><strong>Local calls only</strong></p><p>It&rsquo;s probably no surprise that history buffs are interested in anything having to do with changing technology, but you may not realize that some small groups are dedicated enough to maintain databases of the names. One group &mdash; <a href="http://rcrowe.brinkster.net/tensearch.aspx" target="_blank">The Telephone EXchange Name Project</a> &mdash; continues to accept new entries.</p><p><a href="http://llnw.wbez.org/insert-images/1959 Cover Chicago Exchange Names_0.jpg" target="_blank"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/1959%20Cover%20Chicago%20Exchange%20Names.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: left; height: 263px; width: 350px;" title="A Chicago phone book cover shows exchange names. Click for a larger size. " /></a>Exchange names are also of interest to pop culture mavens. <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaCLxyvcKiU" target="_blank">Glenn Miller&#39;s 1940 hit &quot;Pennsylvania 6-5000&quot;</a> got its name from the phone number for The Hotel Pennsylvania in New York &mdash; 212-736-5000 &mdash; supposedly the city&rsquo;s longest continuously operational phone number. <a href="http://www.youtube.com/channel/HCIXOcLtgicWQ" target="_blank">Elizabeth Taylor won her first Oscar for the 1960 movie &quot;BUtterfield 8,&quot;</a> The film was named for the telephone exchange used by its main character.</p><p>But for our questioner, Jeffrey Osman, exchanges&rsquo; local relevance is paramount.</p><p>&ldquo;It created an awareness, I think, of where you were,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;There are 77 distinct neighborhoods [in Chicago], and pretty much we&rsquo;re a very parochial people.&rdquo;</p><p>He still remembers several old numbers:&nbsp;&ldquo;I banked at Chicago Federal Savings, and that was&nbsp;Financial&nbsp;6-5000. We used to ride the Rock Island Railroad. The LaSalle Street station was&nbsp;Wabash&nbsp;2-3200.&rdquo;</p><p>So, in the sense that they were easy to remember, the geographical names worked.</p><p>The exchange names are gone, Jeffrey says, but Chicago&rsquo;s local pride endures.</p><p>&ldquo;There&rsquo;s still that sense of neighborhood identity and awareness here.&rdquo;</p><p style=" margin: 12px auto 6px auto; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,Sans-serif; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-size: 14px; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal; -x-system-font: none; display: block;"><a href="http://www.scribd.com/doc/183687346/Chicago-Telephone-Exchanges" name="scribd" style="text-decoration: underline;" title="View Chicago Telephone Exchanges on Scribd">Chicago Telephone Exchanges</a></p><p><iframe class="scribd_iframe_embed" data-aspect-ratio="undefined" data-auto-height="false" frameborder="0" height="600" id="doc_18822" scrolling="no" src="//www.scribd.com/embeds/183687346/content?start_page=1&amp;view_mode=scroll&amp;show_recommendations=true" width="100%"></iframe></p></p> Tue, 12 Nov 2013 13:21:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/series/curious-city/311-chicagos-early-phone-numbers-109135 Is Internet Addiction Disorder real? http://www.wbez.org/blogs/leah-pickett/2013-10/internet-addiction-disorder-real-108930 <p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Flickr%3AEbaynik.jpg" style="height: 404px; width: 610px; " title="(Flickr/Ebayink)" /></p><p>In a society fueled by the rapid-fire connectivity of personal computers, tablets, and smartphones,&nbsp;obsessive Internet behavior has become a cultural norm.&nbsp;However, when does an overreliance on WiFi&mdash;and the rabid need to distract oneself with online gaming, shopping, tweeting, scrolling, &quot;liking,&quot; and microblogging at all hours of the day and night&mdash;morph into an addiction?</p><p><a href="http://abcnews.go.com/Health/hospital-opens-internet-addiction-treatment-program/story?id=20146923" target="_blank">ABC News</a> reports that a Pennsylvania hospital, Bradford Regional Medical Center, has become the first in the U.S. to treat severe Internet addiction through a 10-day inpatient program. Patients admitted to the voluntary behavorial health treatment center must first undergo a &quot;digital detox&quot; that prohibits Internet use for at least 72 hours, followed by therapy sessions and educational seminars to &quot;help them get their Internet compulsion under control.&quot;</p><p>Dr. Kimberly S. Young, a psychologist and founder of the new program, defines Internet addiction by how a person&#39;s online habits impair their ability to function normally in everyday life.&nbsp;</p><p>&quot;Like any other addiction, we look at whether it has jeopardized their career, whether they lie about their usage, or whether it inteferes with relationships,&quot; Young explained.</p><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_addiction_disorder" target="_blank">Internet Addiction Disorder</a> (IAD) was first coined as a joke by Dr. Ivan Goldberg in 1995; and to this day, remains absent from the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). However, the more specific &quot;Internet gaming disorder&quot; did make it into 2013&#39;s DSM-V as a &quot;condition for further study,&quot; signaling a slow but steady change in how psychologists are defining variants of addictive behavior in recent years.</p><p>Accoding to <a href="http://www.helpguide.org/mental/internet_cybersex_addiction.htm" target="_blank">HelpGuide.org</a>, signs and symptoms of Internet addiction may include:</p><ul><li>Frequently losing track of time online.</li><li>Having trouble completing tasks at work or home.</li><li>Isolation from family and friends.</li><li>Feeling a sense of euphoria while involved in Internet activies.&nbsp;&nbsp;</li><li>Feeling guilty or defensive about Internet use.</li></ul><p>Similar to those who dispute the validity of sex addiction, naysayers of IAD argue that logging off is simply a matter of &quot;willpower,&quot; and that the inability to do so is not nearly as physically harmful or self-destructive as succumbing to alcoholism, substance abuse and eating disorders like anorexia or bulimia. Still,&nbsp;when 60 percent of U.S. adults spend&nbsp;<a href="http://www.whoishostingthis.com/blog/2013/08/21/incredible-growth-web-usage-infographic/#." target="_blank">at least three hours</a> a day online, with teens clocking in at <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/20/education/20wired.html" target="_blank">over seven hours</a>&nbsp;of daily Internet use, real and painful addictions are bound to form.&nbsp;</p><p>Unfortunately, addictive behaviors of any kind are far too easily dismissed in our mental health-avoidant&nbsp;culture&mdash; even the ones deemed more severe than most. Alcoholics are constantly told to &quot;just stop drinking&quot; and anorectics urged to &quot;just eat already,&quot; as if it were that easy. Presumably non-life-threatening addictions such as online gaming are even more misunderstood, because how is playing video games for 24 hours straight in any way comparable to destroying one&#39;s body with narcotics or an eating disorder?</p><p>What many people fail to realize is that using the Internet as a drug can be just as fatal as any addiction in the long run. Dr. Young notes that prior research links IAD with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_addiction_disorder" target="_blank">existing mental health issues</a>&nbsp;(most commonly depression) and that over half of her patients also struggle with alcoholism, chemical dependency, compulsive gambling, and chronic overeating.&nbsp;</p><p>Numerous other studies have proved that excessive Internet use continually makes people&nbsp;<a href="http://www.theverge.com/2013/8/22/4647916/facebook-isnt-making-you-depressed-the-internet-is" target="_blank">feel bad about themselves</a>; but for people already suffering from depression, anxiety, or a co-occurring disorder like OCD or bipolar, that feeling is amplified.</p><p>A 2012 research study highlighted in <em><a href="http://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2012/01/17/internet-addiction-shows-up-in-the-brain/" target="_blank">Forbes</a>&nbsp;</em>shows that people with Internet addiction exhibit demonstrable changes in their brains, similar to what happens in the brains of people addicted to cocaine, heroin, special K, and other substances. The article also mentions a <a href="http://rt.com/news/internet-use-mental-illness-389/" target="_blank">smattering of horror stories</a>&nbsp;about Internet and gaming addiction, including accounts of many people keeling over and dying after playing video games for hours on end.&nbsp;These addictions are as real as any other, and they deserve to be taken just as seriously.</p><p>Of course, not every person who spends hours surfing the web each day suffers from an Internet addiction. But if we&#39;re being completely honest with ourselves, we might discover that many of our online habits have more of a negative than positive effect on our lives. After all, what good comes from checking one&#39;s Facebook page 15 times a day, or avoiding the outside world to live in a virtual one?</p><p>Maybe we could all use some &quot;digital detox&quot; every once and a while. Try putting down the phone, powering off the computer, and making some real memories without the aid of an electronic device. You might be surprised by how much, or how little, you miss it.</p><p><em>Leah Pickett writes about popular culture for WBEZ. <a href="https://twitter.com/leahkpickett" target="_blank">@leahkpickett</a></em></p></p> Thu, 17 Oct 2013 08:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/blogs/leah-pickett/2013-10/internet-addiction-disorder-real-108930 The Digital Sabbath: Finding balance online and offline http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/digital-sabbath-finding-balance-online-and-offline-108045 <p><p>The writer, comedian and most-connected-man-in-the-world, Baratunde Thurston, took a 25 day sabbatical from his digital existence a few months ago.</p><p><a href="http://www.fastcompany.com/3012521/unplug/baratunde-thurston-leaves-the-internet">He documents it here</a>, and in fact, the world did not come to an end.</p><p>I am no Baratunde Thurston. In fact, in the digital realm, in the media universe, I&rsquo;m but a speck of spacedust to his quasar. I&rsquo;m a digital editor, known to most in the newsrooms I&rsquo;ve occupied as &ldquo;the digital guy,&rdquo; &ldquo;web guy,&rdquo; &ldquo;tech guy&rdquo; or &ldquo;social media guru.&rdquo;</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="Courtesy Wikimedia Commons" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Bhumananda.jpg" style="float: right; width: 213px; height: 292px;" title="Guru Bhumananda" /></div><p>I hate the last title, so lets get something straight here right off the bat. A guru, while technically, by definition, a decent description of someone who teaches others, has become synonymous with the image of a long-bearded, white-haired old man atop a mountain dispensing deep spiritual wisdom to others.</p><p>The other definitions are that of a cult leader preying on the naivete of others or a snarky, know-it-all, self-promotional tech evangelist.</p><p>I am just a journalist who took an early interest in digital technology and the way in which it could be utilized to tell stories better and to distribute those stories to as many people as possible.</p><p>I&rsquo;m on all the social networks, though I&rsquo;m not active on all of them all of the time.</p><p>And I&rsquo;m a manager of a web department at a large Chicago radio station, so I spend a lot of time on email, in meetings, using Google Docs and monitoring social media, among other duties. I do teach others how to improve their use of social media. I do teach people how to shoot and edit video on their phones and tablets, and I do try to model good social media use for others around me.</p><p>But a guru these do not make me.</p><p>I use a MacBook Air at work, because it makes web production twice as fast as on my PC. But I&rsquo;m realistic enough to know that this is just my personal preference from having used Macs for a long, long time. My colleagues seem to do very well with their PCs. I have an iPad so I can edit, return emails or do research on my train commute to and from the Southwest suburbs of Chicago and from meetings.</p><p>The center of my digital universe is my iPhone. I also carry a Nexus 7 tablet with me for reading and making sure I&rsquo;m up-to-date on Android&rsquo;s mobile platform.</p><p>My workflow centers around email, which is probably the biggest time-suck in my day. I cannot afford to do a 25-day sabbatical from anything digital, so I recently instituted a very personal weekend email sabbath to help me achieve a better work/life balance.</p><p>I do not check my email from Saturday night until Monday morning. I&rsquo;ve instructed those who depend on me to call me or text me in an emergency, at which point I can turn my attention to email if necessary.</p><p><strong>These are my personal rules for email management:</strong></p><ul><li>I try to reply as soon as possible, if I&rsquo;m able to. For these very quick responses, I often try to re-program my staff or colleagues to send me a message in Google Chat instead of using email.</li><li>I clean out my inbox every Friday. I cannot stand to have leftover emails in there from the week before. And I try never to let my in-box get over 100 emails deep before I delete unnecessary ones. This cuts down on my stress levels a lot.</li><li>I keep a miscellaneous file in Outlook to dump emails I want to hold on to, and then I go through and clean that out or redistribute those emails each month.</li><li>If I have to write a sternly worded email, of if I&rsquo;m responding to something with emotional overtones, I try to stop and walk away from the email for an hour before re-reading it and then sending it.</li><li>Emails are a good indication of your professionalism. I try to remember this when I&rsquo;m tempted to shorthand an answer or get something off quick without copy editing it.</li></ul><p><strong>On the Road: When Cold Turkey Doesn&rsquo;t Cut it</strong></p><p><img class="alwaysThinglink" src="//cdn.thinglink.me/api/image/408719249872257717/1024/10/scaletowidth#tl-408719249872257717;626328886" width="640" /><script async charset="utf-8" src="//cdn.thinglink.me/jse/embed.js"></script></p><p>I recently took a two-week vacation. At least that&rsquo;s what I&rsquo;m telling myself. My wife and I, along with our three kids, took a road trip to Oregon so I could teach at a writing workshop at a university in our home town of Salem, while they spent time with cousins, aunts, uncles and grandmas and grandpas.</p><p>I mistakenly thought this would be a good opportunity to take a digital sabbatical. I took an old iPhone 4 and loaded it up with songs from Spotify, and I plugged my own phone into a suction cup on my windshield to use as a navigational device.</p><p>For the next 32 hours, I would be disconnected from my world. And it would be good.&nbsp;</p><p>Just an hour down Interstate 80, I saw the first email notification come across featured on a small info bar at the top of my phone&rsquo;s screen. Then came a Facebook notification and some retweets on Twitter.</p><p>I forgot to turn my notifications off.</p><p>I told myself I would go dark tomorrow, and at the first gas stop, I had my head angled down staring at my screen and furiously trying to reply to the questions from work, while my wife smiled that knowing smile she has reserved for when my promises go slightly astray.</p><p>I managed to turn off a few updates the next day, and my phone was quiet as it plotted the miles we would drive through Nebraska, Wyoming and to Utah, where we would spend the night.</p><p>But when I went to my phone&rsquo;s browser to look for a good place for lunch in Cheyenne, I happened to notice the little red number above my Facebook app said 10.</p><p>This little red number is like crack. No matter how hard I try, I cannot ignore it. If it does not go away, I will remove that app from my home screen, which is why all my bill-paying apps are on the second screen of my phone.</p><p>It wasn&rsquo;t until we arrived at the home of my in-laws, where there is no Wi-Fi, and where even getting a signal some days makes it impossible to refresh any social media that loads pictures, that I was finally able to unplug for a while.</p><p>Teaching at the workshop also helped me unplug.</p><p>The rest of the vacation became a concentrated effort to do something I&rsquo;ve been trying to do for a long time.</p><p>When I met with people, I did not put my phone on the table in front of me, as I would in most work meetings. I turned it to silent, and I only looked at it if I received a text message, and then only after apologizing to the person I was talking to.</p><p>Because I did not take out my phone, I assume others did not take their phones out. When you announce to someone that this device takes precedence over them by putting it on the table in front of you with the screen up, they will often do the same thing. And soon you have invited your work and social lives into the conversation as well.</p><p>On the way home, I tried to be better about stopping to take pictures instead of trying to snap them through the sunroof of our car.</p><p>And I even left the phone dark instead of using the GPS features on our way home, because, well, I already knew the way, and who really wants to get home from vacation any faster, right?</p><p><strong>The Kids Aren&rsquo;t Alright: When Technology Replaces Game Night</strong></p><p>Several years ago I was laid off from a newspaper in Montana and forced to look for work out of state. The problem was that our kids, unbeknownst to us, had put down roots in the little mountain berg of Missoula.</p><p>When it came time to tell them that dad got a job at a television station in Alaska, they nearly staged a revolt.</p><p>To ease the pain of separation, I bought them each an iPod Touch, and we weren&rsquo;t on the road for two hours before I got a request to stop at a rest stop with Wi-Fi so they could Facetime their friends.</p><p>These little devices certainly helped them overcome their separation anxiety by providing a conduit to their friends as well as a source of entertainment for the driving and flying parts of our move.</p><p>But they also ushered in a new age for us where our kids became expert digital consumers. They were quickly sucked into the trap, requesting Facebook accounts and adding me on Twitter and Instagram.</p><p>Initially we used their new dependence on technology as a powerful behavioral modification tool. If they misbehaved, they were grounded from digital technology for a weekend and sometimes as long as a week.</p><p>In the past year I&rsquo;ve realized that the behavior I model at home is what they view as acceptable. Never mind that my job requires me to be on Facebook and Twitter often.</p><p>But rather than just impose a smartphone-free zone in the house, I decided to try and take a strategic stab at managing it.</p><p>My kids are like a Buzzfeed for YouTube videos. They consume hours of YouTube every week, in fact it&rsquo;s quickly replacing cartoons as the favorite form of entertainment on Saturday mornings.</p><p>Instead of banning YouTube in the house, we have co-opted it into our lives as the new family game night.</p><div class="image-insert-image "><img alt="Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/240px-Apple_TV_2nd_Generation.jpg" style="float: left;" title="Apple TV" /></div><p>We like to set up the Apple TV, and each person lines up their favorite new funny videos, Ted Talks or music videos. This works alright until about the third Taylor Swift video on my daughter&rsquo;s iPod Touch. But we&rsquo;re working on finding balance there too.</p><p>We also like to play a game at the dinner table that requires the kids, as well as my wife and I, to attempt to answer questions without resorting to Google on our devices. This exercises our memories a little, and it stirs good conversation.</p><p>It&rsquo;s when the kids go to bed that the real trouble starts. This time is often the only time in my day where I can go check in on my own Facebook friends or write up a personal blog post.</p><p>I haven&rsquo;t achieved much balance in this part of my day yet, much to my wife&rsquo;s chagrin.</p><p>But on Friday date nights, I&rsquo;m learning to be in the moment more, so I&rsquo;m trying to leave my phone in my pocket and jogging my memory to find great discussion items from the past week instead of playing show &amp; tell with our phones.</p><p>But in a screen-dominated world, it might not always be your smartphone screen keeping you from engaging with others. In fact, I&rsquo;m this close to asking to be seated in a different part of our favorite martini bar, away from the television screens blasting Chicago sports 24/7. Now that the Blackhawks have won the Stanley Cup, of course.</p><p>How do you balance your digital life?</p><br /><p><a href="http://www.wbez.org/users/takimoff" rel="author">Tim Akimoff</a> is the Digital Content Editor at WBEZ. <a href="mailto:takimoff@wbez.org">You can email him here</a> and follow him on <a href="https://twitter.com/timakimoff">Twitter</a>.</p><p>Photos courtesy of Wikimedia Commons</p></p> Sat, 13 Jul 2013 10:33:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/culture/digital-sabbath-finding-balance-online-and-offline-108045 Not all suburban libraries are created equal http://www.wbez.org/news/not-all-suburban-libraries-are-created-equal-107923 <p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Cicero%203.JPG" style="height: 347px; width: 620px;" title="In trying to meet the needs of its booming Latino population, Cicero Public Library offers English language classes to patrons. (WBEZ/Adriana Cardona) " /></p><p>The American Library Association just wrapped up its annual conference in Chicago this week. High on the agenda was new technology, creative programming, and helping libraries do more with less. That last one is especially important for towns in Greater Chicago that rely on them for additional services like job training.</p><p>But not all suburban libraries have equal amounts of revenue coming in. WBEZ visited two suburban libraries serving roughly the same amount of people, but with vastly different resources.</p><p>The first is <a href="http://ahml.info/" target="_blank">Arlington Heights Memorial Library</a>. When you walk inside the newly remodeled library the first thing you notice is the light...streaming through large windows and skylights above.</p><p>The space looks less like a library and more like a sleek new Apple store, which is appropriate since patrons can check out iPads from the front desk.</p><p>Jason Kuhl, the library&rsquo;s executive director, gave me a personal tour shortly before the library completed its remodeling last winter.</p><p>&ldquo;Everyone at Arlington Heights really does love the library,&rdquo; Kuhl said. &ldquo;We had 900 thousand visitors last year and I would like to say that&#39;s more than the Blackhawks had, that&rsquo;s more than the Bears drew and that&rsquo;s more than the Bulls drew.&rdquo;</p><p>The library has three different editing suites each with audio and video production software. Local businesses can book conference rooms with projectors. Then there&rsquo;s the fireplace and a fancy coffee bar.</p><p>A few miles south, at the <a href="http://www.cicerolibrary.org/" target="_blank">Cicero Public Library</a> things are a little different. Jane Schoen is the director there and also gave me a tour.&nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;We have a job board here and people are checking it all the time,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;We have our public computers that people use to complete resumes.</p><p>Cicero had its own renovation about ten years ago when it was merged with a former warehouse next door. And it&rsquo;s also fairly spacious like the library in Arlington Heights.</p><p>But, that&rsquo;s where the similarities end.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/Cicero%2011.JPG" style="float: right; height: 196px; width: 350px;" title="Jane Schoen is the director of the Cicero Public Library. Comparing her funding with libraries in wealthier suburbs like Arlington Heights she says, 'No, it’s not fair but it just is.' (WBEZ/Adriana Cardona)" />While Arlington Heights offers patrons personalized tech help for their gadgets, not to mention in-house iPads, Cicero struggles to maintain basic services (a quick glance at each library&rsquo;s websites is telling).</p><p>&ldquo;We would like to keep up a little bit more with technology,&rdquo; Schoen said. &ldquo;We don&rsquo;t yet have wireless printing for instance.&rdquo;</p><p>On paper these libraries don&rsquo;t look that different. Both serve around 80 thousand people but their spending per capita is wildly different. As of 2011, the Arlington Heights library had $177.29 to spend per person. In Cicero they had $20.97 per person &ndash; nearly nine times less. [see table below]</p><p>&ldquo;No, it&rsquo;s not fair but it just is,&rdquo; Schoen said. &ldquo;If you live in a poor community you don&#39;t get as many property taxes as communities that have million dollar homes and pay a lot of taxes on their properties.&rdquo;</p><p>Unlike Chicago Public Libraries which have a centralized funding system, nearly 90 percent of the money for suburban libraries comes from their local property tax dollars. The rest comes from public and private grants.</p><p>&ldquo;Some libraries have people that do nothing but look for grants, or that&rsquo;s a big part of their job, and we don&rsquo;t have that resource here,&rdquo; Schoen said.&nbsp;</p><p>Mary Johnson is the executive director of Corazon Community Services, a group that offers programs for youth and adults in Cicero.&nbsp; She said there&rsquo;s little anyone can do about the way funding is allocated to public services, but she feels foundations too often place their priorities in Cicero&rsquo;s next door neighbor, Chicago.</p><p>&ldquo;I think neighborhoods like Cicero and Melrose Park and some others in the South Side have kind of become like the forgotten step children of Chicago,&rdquo; Johnson said.&nbsp;</p><p>She said the library makes an effort to reach out to people, but Cicero&rsquo;s increasingly large Hispanic population needs more services.</p><p>&ldquo;I would love to see the library offer late night study cafe hours, we&rsquo;ll love to see more opportunities for parents, so book clubs in Spanish,&rdquo; she said.</p><p>She said the lack of access to technology is also a pressing issue, considering how patrons use libraries nowadays.</p><p><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/arlingtonlibrary.jpg" style="height: 261px; width: 350px; float: left;" title="Library administrators demonstrate an interactive dollhouse in the children's area. (WBEZ/Andrew Gill)" /></p><p>Mary Witt agrees. She&rsquo;s with Reaching Across Illinois Library System, a state program that helps libraries with services like book delivery and technology support. According to Witt, libraries could do more for job-seekers.</p><p>&ldquo;That&rsquo;s something that&rsquo;s in huge demand, that again a smaller library might not be able to afford,&rdquo; Witt said. &ldquo;And that&rsquo;s kind of ironic in that some of the libraries that are hardest hit financially are needed the most because they serve areas [with] the highest unemployment.&rdquo;</p><p>In April Cicero&rsquo;s unemployment rate was 12 percent &ndash; nearly double that of Arlington Heights.</p><p>Witt said other libraries in Chicago&rsquo;s suburbs have even more urgent worries. They don&rsquo;t have enough space to hold community events and their old buildings need major maintenance.</p><p>But she said, even the neediest libraries are figuring out how to best serve their patrons.&nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;Libraries aren&rsquo;t just sitting there,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;Everyone is trying to find out what their communities need so they are looking for creative ways that they can adapt those technologies and those other trends to serve their customers.&rdquo;&nbsp;</p><p>Which, according to Jason Kuhl, is all Arlington Heights Memorial Library is trying to do too.</p><p>&ldquo;You can&rsquo;t be sort of a cookie cutter library anymore,&rdquo; Kuhl said. &ldquo;We are looking to be nimble; we are looking to adjust to whatever our community needs.&rdquo;</p><p>Every library wants to keep up with community needs, the question is, do they have the resources to do so?</p><h2><strong>A tale of two libraries</strong></h2><p>&nbsp;</p><script type="text/javascript" src="//ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/static/modules/gviz/1.0/chart.js"> {"dataSourceUrl":"//docs.google.com/a/chicagopublicradio.org/spreadsheet/tq?key=0Am5Rt8H_U2b1dElVemY3Y0VtZERZeWpRZ212MzRuR2c&transpose=0&headers=1&range=A1%3AC11&gid=0&pub=1","options":{"vAxes":[{"useFormatFromData":true,"minValue":null,"viewWindow":{"min":null,"max":null},"maxValue":null},{"useFormatFromData":true,"minValue":null,"viewWindow":{"min":null,"max":null},"maxValue":null}],"titleTextStyle":{"fontSize":16},"booleanRole":"certainty","title":"Chart title","legend":"right","hAxis":{"useFormatFromData":true,"minValue":null,"viewWindow":{"min":null,"max":null},"maxValue":null},"width":610,"height":400},"state":{},"view":{},"isDefaultVisualization":true,"chartType":"Table","chartName":"Chart 2"} </script><p>Source: <a href="https://harvester.census.gov/imls/search/index.asp?&amp;LibraryName=Cicero%20Public%20Library&amp;LibraryID=&amp;Address=&amp;City=&amp;State=&amp;Zip=&amp;Distance=&amp;County=&amp;PhoneAreaCode=&amp;Phone=&amp;LibraryType=&amp;LibTypes=LS%2CCE%2CBR%2CBS%2CBM&amp;StateSelectedIndex=0&amp;ResultSetNumber=1&amp;procqstr=1" target="_blank">Census data</a><span id="cke_bm_483E" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span><span id="cke_bm_482E" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span><span id="cke_bm_481E" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span><span id="cke_bm_480E" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span><span id="cke_bm_479E" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span><span id="cke_bm_478E" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span><span id="cke_bm_477E" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></p></p> Tue, 02 Jul 2013 08:46:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/not-all-suburban-libraries-are-created-equal-107923