WBEZ | Illinois nuclear power http://www.wbez.org/tags/illinois-nuclear-power Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Exelon delays closure decision on 2 Illinois nuclear plants http://www.wbez.org/news/exelon-delays-closure-decision-2-illinois-nuclear-plants-112893 <p><p>Exelon Corp., which owns Illinois&#39; 11 nuclear reactors, said Thursday that it is delaying for a year its decision about whether to close nuclear plants in the Quad Cities and Byron.</p><p>The Chicago-based company previously said its generating stations in the Quad Cities, Byron and Clinton were in danger of closing.</p><p>However in a news release, the company said it plans to continue operating its Quad Cities plant through at least May 2018 and the Byron plant through May 2019. The Clinton station remains &quot;economically challenged&quot; and could be closed if conditions don&#39;t improve, Exelon said.</p><p>The move to delay the decision on closings came after &quot;rigorous analysis of the present and future economics of the plants,&quot; the company said.</p><p>&quot;Today&#39;s decision is only a short-term reprieve,&quot; Exelon president and CEO Chris Crane said. &quot;Policy reforms are still needed to level the playing field for all forms of clean energy and best position the state of Illinois to meet EPA&#39;s new carbon reduction rules.&quot;</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/ExelonPlant-Byron%2CIL.jpg" style="text-align: center; height: 450px; width: 600px;" title="In this March 16, 2011 photo, steam escapes from Exelon Corp.'s nuclear plant in Byron, Ill. Regulators in the District of Columbia rejected the proposed merger of power companies Exelon and Pepco on Tuesday, Aug. 25, 2015 saying the deal would not benefit ratepayers. The three-member D.C. Public Service Commission voted unanimously to reject the merger. It had already been approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and by Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey and Virginia, leaving the District as the final regulatory hurdle. (AP/Robert Ray)" /></p><p>Exelon has said it should be rewarded for producing reliable, carbon-free electricity that will help Illinois meet an Obama administration mandate to reduce greenhouse gases. It said in the news release that it would &quot;continue its dialogue with Illinois policymakers about market and policy reforms that properly value nuclear power for the economic and environmental benefits it provides.&quot;</p><p>Rob Karr, president and CEO of the Illinois Retail Merchants Association called the announcement a &quot;step in the right direction.&quot;</p><p>&quot;The possible loss of the Quad Cities and Byron stations in Illinois would have seriously jeopardized reliability and impacted costs for retailers,&quot; he said in a statement.</p><p>Exelon wants lawmakers to approve a monthly surcharge on consumers&#39; electricity bills that would generate about $300 million a year to reward generators that produce carbon-free electricity. Lawmakers didn&#39;t act on Exelon&#39;s bill in the spring session, and it&#39;s unclear whether it will get a hearing this fall amid a state budget crisis.</p><p>Opponents have said Exelon, which made $1.6 billion last year, doesn&#39;t need a bailout.</p><p>&mdash;&nbsp;<em>The Associated Press</em></p></p> Thu, 10 Sep 2015 13:15:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/exelon-delays-closure-decision-2-illinois-nuclear-plants-112893 U of I wins nuclear safety research grant http://www.wbez.org/story/u-i-wins-nuclear-safety-research-grant-90509 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-August/2011-08-12/nuclear plants_Flickr_Michal Brcak.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>A $538,000 research grant will help the University of Illinois find ways to make nuclear power plants safer and more efficient.</p><p>The Champaign <em>News-Gazette</em> reports that the U.S. Department of Energy grant focuses on developing new technology and educating the next generation of leaders in the U.S. nuclear industry.</p><p>There are currently seven nuclear power plants in Illinois, six of which are operational, as well as an additional three plants in the nearby regions of Wisconsin and southwest Michigan. &nbsp;</p><p>In May, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission demanded that operators of the 104 U.S. nuclear reactors, including those in Illinois, submit detailed information about how they planned to respond to extreme emergency situations, including a possible terrorist attack.</p><p>James Stubbins, head of nuclear, plasma and radiological engineering at the University of Illinois, says researchers will study materials that can withstand extraordinarily high temperatures and resist corrosion.</p><p>Stubbins says that would make nuclear energy more efficient and make plant equipment less likely to leak.</p><p>The university's research project could start by Oct. 1.</p></p> Fri, 12 Aug 2011 15:50:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/u-i-wins-nuclear-safety-research-grant-90509 Tritium leaks found at Illinois nuclear sites http://www.wbez.org/story/tritium-leaks-found-illinois-nuclear-sites-88386 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-June/2011-06-27/56873321.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Radioactive tritium has leaked from three-quarters of U.S. commercial nuclear power sites, often into groundwater from corroded, buried piping, an Associated Press investigation shows.</p><div><p>The number and severity of the leaks has been escalating, even as federal regulators extend the licenses of more and more reactors across the nation.</p><p>Tritium, which is a radioactive form of hydrogen, has leaked from at least 48 of 65 sites, according to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission records reviewed as part of the AP's yearlong examination of safety issues at aging nuclear power plants. Leaks from at least 37 of those facilities contained concentrations exceeding the federal drinking water standard — sometimes at hundreds of times the limit.</p><p>While most leaks have been found within plant boundaries, some have migrated offsite. But none is known to have reached public water supplies.</p><p>At three sites — two in Illinois and one in Minnesota — leaks have contaminated drinking wells of nearby homes, the records show, but not at levels violating the drinking water standard. At a fourth site, in New Jersey, tritium has leaked into an aquifer and a discharge canal feeding picturesque Barnegat Bay off the Atlantic Ocean.</p><p>In response to the AP's investigation, two congressman — Edward J. Markey of Massachusetts and Peter Welsh of Vermont, both Democrats — on Tuesday released a study by independent federal analysts who had identified problems with the regulation of underground piping.</p><p>The report by the U.S. Government Accountability Office noted that while the industry has a voluntary initiative to monitor leaks into underground water sources, the NRC hasn't evaluated how promptly that system detects such leaks. "Absent such an assessment, we continue to believe that NRC has no assurance that the Groundwater Protection Initiative will lead to prompt detection of underground piping system leaks as nuclear power plants age," the report's authors concluded.</p><p>Any exposure to radioactivity, no matter how slight, boosts cancer risk, according to the National Academy of Sciences. Federal regulators set a limit for how much tritium is allowed in drinking water, where this contaminant poses its main health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says tritium should measure no more than 20,000 picocuries per liter in drinking water. The agency estimates seven of 200,000 people who drink such water for decades would develop cancer.</p><p>The tritium leaks also have spurred doubts among independent engineers about the reliability of emergency safety systems at the 104 nuclear reactors situated on the 65 sites. That's partly because some of the leaky underground pipes carry water meant to cool a reactor in an emergency shutdown and to prevent a meltdown. Fast moving, tritium can indicate the presence of more powerful radioactive isotopes, like cesium-137 and strontium-90.</p><p>So far, federal and industry officials say, the tritium leaks pose no health or safety threat. Tony Pietrangelo, chief nuclear officer of the industry's Nuclear Energy Institute, said impacts are "next to zero."</p><p>___</p><p><strong>LEAKS ARE PROLIFIC</strong></p><p>Like rust under a car, corrosion has propagated for decades along the hard-to-reach, wet underbellies of the reactors — generally built in a burst of construction during the 1960s and 1970s.</p><p>There were 38 leaks from underground piping between 2000 and 2009, according to an industry document presented at a tritium conference. Nearly two-thirds of the leaks were reported over the latest five years.</p><p>For example, at the three-unit Browns Ferry complex in Alabama, a valve was mistakenly left open in a storage tank during modifications over the years. When the tank was filled in April 2010, about 1,000 gallons of tritium-laden water poured onto the ground at a concentration of 2 million picocuries per liter. In drinking water, that would be 100 times higher than the EPA health standard.</p><p>And in 2008, 7.5 million picocuries per liter leaked from underground piping at Quad Cities in western Illinois — 375 times the EPA limit.</p><p>Subsurface water not only rusts underground pipes, it attacks other buried components, including electrical cables that carry signals to control operations.</p><p>A 2008 NRC staff memo reported industry data showing 83 failed cables between 21 and 30 years of service — but only 40 within their first 10 years of service. Underground cabling set in concrete can be extraordinarily difficult to replace.</p><p>Under NRC rules, tiny concentrations of tritium and other contaminants are routinely released in monitored increments from nuclear plants; leaks from corroded pipes are not permitted.</p><p>The leaks sometimes go undiscovered for years, the AP found. Many of the pipes or tanks have been patched, and contaminated soil and water have been removed in some places. But leaks are often discovered later from other nearby piping, tanks or vaults. Mistakes and defective material have contributed to some leaks. However, corrosion — from decades of use and deterioration — is the main cause. And, safety engineers say, the rash of leaks suggest nuclear operators are hard put to maintain the decades-old systems.</p><p>Over the history of the U.S. industry, more than 400 known radioactive leaks of all kinds of substances have occurred, the activist Union of Concerned Scientists reported in September.</p><p>Nuclear engineer Bill Corcoran, an industry consultant who has taught NRC personnel how to analyze the cause of accidents, said that since much of the piping is inaccessible and carries cooling water, the worry is if the pipes leak there could be a meltdown.</p><p>"Any leak is a problem because you have the leak itself — but it also says something about the piping," said Mario V. Bonaca, a former member of the NRC's Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. "Evidently something has to be done."</p><p>However, even with the best probes, it is hard to pinpoint partial cracks or damage in skinny pipes or bends. The industry tends to inspect piping when it must be dug up for some other reason. Even when leaks are detected, repairs may be postponed for up to two years with the NRC's blessing.</p><p>"You got pipes that have been buried underground for 30 or 40 years, and they've never been inspected, and the NRC is looking the other way," said engineer Paul Blanch, who has worked for the industry and later became a whistleblower. "They could have corrosion all over the place."</p><p>___</p><p><strong>EAST COAST ISSUES</strong></p><p>One of the highest known tritium readings was discovered in 2002 at the Salem nuclear plant in Lower Alloways Creek Township, N.J. Tritium leaks from the spent fuel pool contaminated groundwater under the facility — located on an island in Delaware Bay — at a concentration of 15 million picocuries per liter. That's 750 times the EPA drinking water limit. According to NRC records, the tritium readings last year still exceeded EPA drinking water standards.</p><p>And tritium found separately in an onsite storm drain system measured 1 million picocuries per liter in April 2010.</p><p>Also last year, the operator, PSEG Nuclear, discovered 680 feet of corroded, buried pipe that is supposed to carry cooling water to Salem Unit 1 in an accident, according to an NRC report. Some had worn down to a quarter of its minimum required thickness, though no leaks were found. The piping was dug up and replaced.</p><p>The operator had not visually inspected the piping — the surest way to find corrosion— since the reactor went on line in 1977, according to the NRC. PSEG Nuclear was found to be in violation of NRC rules because it hadn't even tested the piping since 1988.</p><p>Last year, the Vermont Senate was so troubled by tritium leaks as high as 2.5 million picocuries per liter at the Vermont Yankee reactor in southern Vermont (125 times the EPA drinking-water standard) that it voted to block relicensing — a power that the Legislature holds in that state.</p><p>In March, the NRC granted the plant a 20-year license extension, despite the state opposition. Weeks ago, operator Entergy sued Vermont in federal court, challenging its authority to force the plant to close.</p><p>At 41-year-old Oyster Creek in southern New Jersey, the country's oldest operating reactor, the latest tritium troubles started in April 2009, a week after it was relicensed for 20 more years. That's when plant workers discovered tritium by chance in about 3,000 gallons of water that had leaked into a concrete vault housing electrical lines.</p><p>Since then, workers have found leaking tritium three more times at concentrations up to 10.8 million picocuries per liter — 540 times the EPA's drinking water limit — according to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. None has been directly measured in drinking water, but it has been found in an aquifer and in a canal discharging into nearby Barnegat Bay, a popular spot for swimming, boating and fishing.</p><p>___</p><p><strong>EXELON'S PIPING PROBLEMS</strong></p><p>To Oyster Creek owner Exelon — the country's biggest nuclear operator, with 17 units — piping problems are just a fact of life. At a meeting with regulators in 2009, representatives of Exelon acknowledged that "100 percent verification of piping integrity is not practical," according to a copy of its presentation.</p><p>Of course, the company could dig up the pipes and check them out. But that would be costly.</p><p>"Excavations have significant impact on plant operations," the company said.</p><p>Exelon has had some major leaks. At the company's two-reactor Dresden site west of Chicago, tritium has leaked into the ground at up to 9 million picocuries per liter — 450 times the federal limit for drinking water. Leaks from Dresden also have contaminated offsite drinking water wells, but below the EPA drinking water limit.</p><p>There's also been contamination of offsite drinking water wells near the two-unit Prairie Island plant southeast of Minneapolis, then operated by Nuclear Management Co. and now by Xcel Energy, and at Exelon's two-unit Braidwood nuclear facility, 10 miles from Dresden. The offsite tritium concentrations from both facilities also were below the EPA level.</p><p>The Prairie Island leak was found in the well of a nearby home in 1989. It was traced to a canal where radioactive waste was discharged.</p><p>Braidwood has leaked more than six million gallons of tritium-laden water in repeated leaks dating back to the 1990s — but not publicly reported until 2005. The leaks were traced to pipes that carried limited, monitored discharges of tritium into the river.</p><p>"They weren't properly maintained, and some of them had corrosion," said Exelon spokeswoman Krista Lopykinski.</p><p>Last year, Exelon, which has acknowledged violating Illinois state groundwater standards, agreed to pay $1.2 million to settle state and county complaints over the tritium leaks at Braidwood and nearby Dresden and Byron sites. The NRC also sanctioned Exelon.</p><p>Tritium measuring 1,500 picocuries per liter turned up in an offsite drinking well at a home near Braidwood. Though company and industry officials did not view any of the Braidwood concentrations as dangerous, unnerved residents took to bottled water and sued over feared loss of property value. A consolidated lawsuit was dismissed, but Exelon ultimately bought some homes so residents could leave.</p><p>___</p><p><strong>PUBLIC RELATIONS EFFORT</strong></p><p>An NRC task force on tritium leaks last year dismissed the danger to public health. Instead, its report called the leaks "a challenging issue from the perspective of communications around environmental protection." The task force noted ruefully that the rampant leaking had "impacted public confidence."</p><p>For sure, the industry also is trying to stop the leaks. For several years now, plant owners around the country have been drilling more monitoring wells and taking a more aggressive approach in replacing old piping when leaks are suspected or discovered.</p><p>But such measures have yet to stop widespread leaking.</p><p>Meantime, the reactors keep getting older — 66 have been approved for 20-year extensions to their original 40-year licenses, with 16 more extensions pending. And, as the AP has been reporting in its ongoing series, Aging Nukes, regulators and industry have worked in concert to loosen safety standards to keep the plants operating.</p><p>In an initiative started last year, NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko asked his staff to examine regulations on buried piping to evaluate if stricter standards or more inspections were needed.</p><p>The staff report, issued in June, openly acknowledged that the NRC "has not placed an emphasis on preventing" the leaks.</p><p>And they predicted even more.</p></div></p> Mon, 27 Jun 2011 14:59:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/tritium-leaks-found-illinois-nuclear-sites-88386 Illinois nuclear power plants must submit emergency response plans http://www.wbez.org/story/illinois-nuclear-power-plants-must-submit-emergency-response-plans-86394 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-May/2011-05-11/Byron Nuclear Power Plant_Flickr_Keith 011764.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is demanding that operators of the 104 U.S. nuclear reactors, including those in northeast Illinois, submit detailed information about how they plan to respond to extreme emergency situtations, including a possible terrorist attack.</p><p>NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko said Wednesday the agency will require operators to submit by June 10 details about plans, equipment and personnel in place to respond to such vents.</p><p>Illinois is home to more nuclear reactors than any other state in the nation.&nbsp; Add in nearby facilities in Wisconsin and southwest Michigan, and the total number of nuclear power plants is 10. Click<a href="http://www.wbez.org/blog/city-room-blog/2011-03-16/map-chicago-area-nuclear-power-plants-glance-83819"> here</a> for a map of the region's nuclear power plants.</p><p>"We’ll review the plants’ responses to see if they need to take any additional actions to meet our existing requirements, along with seeing what the NRC might need to do to enhance those requirements and continue to protect public health and safety,” said Jaczko.</p><p>The agency has required nuclear power plants to prove their ability to respond to terrorism since the 2001 attacks on New York and Washington, but officials began updating emergency response requirements following the March 11 earthquake and tsunami that triggered a nuclear crisis in Japan.</p><p>“Our task force examining information from the Japan quake will also go over the Bulletin responses as part of its ongoing review of our requirements,” said Jaczko.</p><p>Jaczko said officials want to ensure those strategies still work and that employees at nuclear plants know how to carry them out.&nbsp;</p><p>Operators will be required to provide more detailed information by mid-July.</p></p> Wed, 11 May 2011 15:18:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/illinois-nuclear-power-plants-must-submit-emergency-response-plans-86394 The fate of Illinois' nuclear economy http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-03-17/fate-illinois-nuclear-economy-83856 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//segment/photo/2011-March/2011-03-17/Illinois nukes Scott Olson Getty.JPG" alt="" /><p><p>Worries about nuclear power are rippling across the world as Japan struggles to stave off a potential nuclear meltdown. Earlier in the week, German Chancellor Angela Merkel announced the temporary closure of some of the country&rsquo;s nuclear plants. And China has suspended the approval of new nuclear plants until safety standards are revised.<br /><br />Illinois has had a moratorium on new nuclear plants since 1987 but nuclear energy still has a vital presence in the state's economy. Illinois has more reactors than any other state and about half of the its electricity is powered by nuclear plants.<br /><br />So as governments here and abroad start to weigh the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, <em>Eight Forty-Eight</em> spoke to <em>Chicago Tribune's</em><a target="_blank" href="http://bio.tribune.com/michaelhawthorne"> Michael Hawthorne</a> about the future of nuclear energy in the state.</p></p> Thu, 17 Mar 2011 13:56:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/2011-03-17/fate-illinois-nuclear-economy-83856