WBEZ | nutrition http://www.wbez.org/tags/nutrition Latest from WBEZ Chicago Public Radio en Say yes to downward dog: More yoga poses are safe during pregnancy http://www.wbez.org/news/say-yes-downward-dog-more-yoga-poses-are-safe-during-pregnancy-113807 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/pregnant-yoga_custom-5687a8c47ca8703dbb1f86dc025c93ac0a4dc661-s800-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res455937530" previewtitle="Four pregnant women sit in lotus position."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Four pregnant women sit in lotus position." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/13/pregnant-yoga_custom-5687a8c47ca8703dbb1f86dc025c93ac0a4dc661-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 412px; width: 620px;" title="Four pregnant women sit in lotus position. (Thomas Northcut/Getty Images)" /></div><div><div><p>Lots of studies have looked at the health benefits of prenatal yoga for the mother to be. There&#39;s even some evidence that yoga can be potentially helpful in reducing complications in high-risk pregnancies.</p></div></div></div><p>But does yoga have any impact on the fetus?</p><p>&quot;I wasn&#39;t able to find any evidence-based studies&quot; to answer this question, says&nbsp;<a href="https://kosairchildrenshospital.com/provider/rachael-polis-do-gynecology?Directions=403">Dr. Rachael Polis</a>, who practices gynecology at Kosair Children&#39;s Hospital in Louisville, Ky. So she and a group of collaborators decided to conduct their own study. Their findings have just been&nbsp;<a href="http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Abstract/publishahead/Yoga_in_Pregnancy__An_Examination_of_Maternal_and.98897.aspx">published</a>&nbsp;in the journal&nbsp;Obstetrics &amp; Gynecology.</p><p>They recruited 25 healthy pregnant women in their third trimesters. All the women in the study had uncomplicated pregnancies; no high blood pressure or gestational diabetes.</p><p>During one-on-one yoga classes, the women were guided through 26 poses &mdash; everything from standing poses, to twisting poses to stretching.</p><div id="res455902432" previewtitle="Child's pose"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Child's pose" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/13/childs-pose-1_custom-96820bc7476f8105a27b63d659cdd4dae58a0029-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 412px; width: 620px;" title="Child's pose. (Chris Gahler/Jersey Shore University Medical Center/American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists)" /></div><div><p>&quot;We found these postures were really well-tolerated by women in our study,&quot; says Polis, who conducted the research while she was a resident at Jersey Shore University Medical Center. &quot;Women&#39;s vital signs, heart rates, blood pressure &mdash; these all remained normal.&quot;</p></div></div><p>In addition, there were no falls or injuries. And none of the women reported &quot;decreased fetal movement, contractions, leakage or fluid, or vaginal bleeding in the 24-hour follow-up,&quot; according to the study manuscript.</p><p>And very important, the fetal heart rate during all 26 poses remained normal.</p><p>&quot;Because we had them [the pregnant women] on continuous fetal monitoring, we could see that the fetal heart rate remained normal,&quot; says Polis.</p><p>During the study, the women avoided inversion poses such as handstand or headstand to reduce the risk of falls. And for obvious reasons they also avoided lying flat on their bellies.</p><p>But they did try poses that some yoga teachers have advised pregnant women to avoid. These include the downward-facing dog; the happy baby pose &mdash; that&#39;s a pose where you lie on your back and hold your toes like a baby; and the corpse pose, where you lie on your back. Pregnant women are often told to lie on their sides, not their backs, during the final stages of pregnancy.</p><div id="res455902596" previewtitle="Downward facing dog pose"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="Downward facing dog pose" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/13/downward-dog_custom-f1ffd73f19a89a34f4e6d97e8dfc4fdc4013c6ee-s800-c85.jpg" style="height: 494px; width: 620px;" title="Downward facing dog pose (Chris Gahler/Jersey Shore University Medical Center/American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists)" /></div><div><div><p>Polis says her study finds all of these four poses were well-tolerated.</p></div></div></div><p>So, the message here seems to be: Go for it!</p><p>&quot;This is preliminary information, but I think it&#39;s exciting and reassuring to know there were no adverse changes for both mom or baby,&quot; Polis says.</p><p>There is one caveat. Polis says it&#39;s important that every woman check with her ob/gyn to make sure that there are no complications before hitting the yoga mat.</p></p> Mon, 16 Nov 2015 14:57:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/say-yes-downward-dog-more-yoga-poses-are-safe-during-pregnancy-113807 Obesity and junk food: A tale of two studies http://www.wbez.org/news/obesity-and-junk-food-tale-two-studies-113785 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/junkfood1small-057b4ffe9afb81841b76e7e887bb74986059521a-s700-c85.jpg" alt="" /><p><div id="res455377053" previewtitle="What role do high-calorie, low-nutrition junk foods play in expanding waistlines? Two recent studies tackle that question."><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="What role do high-calorie, low-nutrition junk foods play in expanding waistlines? Two recent studies tackle that question." src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/09/junkfood1small-057b4ffe9afb81841b76e7e887bb74986059521a-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="What role do high-calorie, low-nutrition junk foods play in expanding waistlines? Two recent studies tackle that question. (Morgan McCloy/NPR)" /></div><div><p>More than 36 percent of American adults and 17 percent of youth under 19 are obese, according to the latest&nbsp;<a href="http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db219.htm">figures</a>&nbsp;from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</p></div></div><p>Scientists still don&#39;t fully understand what got us here. And sometimes, the answers they&#39;ve come up with turn out to be wrong. Consider the changing&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/06/25/416936527/farewell-low-fat-why-scientists-applaud-lifting-a-ban-on-fat">advice on fat</a>, which has been amended of late from its days as a dietary demon.</p><p>By now, it would seem that the link between the obesity epidemic and the consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrition foods like sodas, cookies and fries is well-established. But as two recent studies show, researchers are still probing the mechanics of that connection.</p><p>Broadly speaking, both studies explore the connection between junk food and weight &mdash; though they do so using different data sets from two different populations (adults and kids).</p><p>Let&#39;s start with the finding that seems most counterintuitive: For most of us, junk foods may not be what&#39;s driving weight gain. That&#39;s what behavioral economist David Just and his colleagues at the&nbsp;<a href="http://foodpsychology.cornell.edu/about">Cornell University Food and Brand Lab</a>&nbsp;concluded in a paper in the journal&nbsp;Obesity Science &amp; Practice.</p><p>The researchers looked at data collected in 2007-2008 from a nationally representative sample of roughly 5,000 U.S. adults as part of the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm" target="_blank">National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)</a>, including information on weight, height and eating habits. Junk food was defined as fast food, soda and sweets.</p><p>Some of that data set had been used in a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db114.htm#ref1">2013 CDC study</a>&nbsp;that found that heavier Americans were indeed getting more of their daily calories from fast food. But the Cornell researchers wondered what would happen if they excluded the people on the extreme ends of the weight spectrum &mdash; those who are clinically underweight and the very morbidly obese.</p><p>And they found that once those groups were eliminated, there was no association between body mass index and how much fast food, sugary sodas and sweets people consume.</p><p>The finding, which applies to 95 percent of the population, &quot;was really counterintuitive &mdash; not what we expected at all,&quot; Just tells The Salt.</p><p>But if fast food isn&#39;t driving the obesity epidemic, what is? &quot;I suspect we&#39;re eating too many calories from all foods,&quot; Just says. He points to data from the USDA&#39;s Economic Research Service showing that Americans, on average, now eat 500 calories more daily than they did around 1970, before the obesity epidemic took off.</p><div id="res455486233"><div id="responsive-embed-calories-20151110"><iframe frameborder="0" height="546px" marginheight="0" scrolling="no" src="http://apps.npr.org/dailygraphics/graphics/calories-20151110/child.html?initialWidth=675&amp;childId=responsive-embed-calories-20151110&amp;parentUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.npr.org%2Fsections%2Fthesalt%2F2015%2F11%2F12%2F455074815%2Fare-junk-food-habits-driving-obesity-a-tale-of-two-studies%3Fft%3Dnprml%26f%3D455074815" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 0px; border-style: initial; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;" width="620"></iframe></div></div><p>To be clear, Just isn&#39;t saying that you can eat all the junk food you want with no consequence. &quot;You increase your consumption of these things, yeah, you&#39;re going to put on weight,&quot; he says. &quot;But that&#39;s not to say that is the differentiator between those who are overweight and those who aren&#39;t.&quot; And if that&#39;s the case, Just says, instead of targeting junk foods in the war against obesity, maybe we should be preaching the gospel of moderation and portion control with&nbsp;all&nbsp;foods.</p><p>Sure, that&#39;s good advice in general &mdash; but it may not&nbsp;mean we can let junk foods off the hook.</p><p><a href="https://globalhealth.duke.edu/people/faculty/finkelstein-eric">Eric Finkelstein</a>, an associate professor at the Duke Global Health Institute at Duke University, notes that the data the Cornell researchers used is only a snapshot of what a cross-section of Americans were eating at a single moment in time. So it&#39;s possible, for example, that the overweight and obese people included in the study reported eating less junk foods because they were trying to lose weight.</p><p>&quot;I&#39;d lend a lot more credence to studies that follow change [in eating habits and weight] over time,&quot; Finkelstein tells The Salt.</p><p>And, over time, he says, the evidence suggests strongly that even modest increases in the consumption of certain foods will result in long-term weight gain. He points to a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1014296#t=article">2011 study</a>&nbsp;in the&nbsp;New England Journal of Medicine&nbsp;that looked at data gathered over decades on 120,000 U.S. adults. Over a four-year period, an extra daily serving of potato chips was associated with weight gain of 1.69 pounds, the study found. That may not sound like much, but for most adults, that&#39;s how the pounds add up &mdash; gradually, over time, at an average rate of about&nbsp;<a href="http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/diet-lifestyle-weight-gain/">a pound a year</a>.</p><div id="res455377505" previewtitle="junk food"><div data-crop-type=""><img alt="junk food" src="http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2015/11/09/junkfood2small-08e9280d5086435939078f831640552ab5136b36-s700-c85.jpg" style="height: 465px; width: 620px;" title="(Morgan McCloy/NPR)" /></div><div><div>&nbsp;</div></div></div><p>And problem foods will pack on the pounds for kids, too. Last week, Finkelstein and his colleagues published a similarly detailed breakdown of the links between weight gain and certain foods in children. The researchers turned to data on more than 4,600 kids from the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/">Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children</a>, an ongoing study in the U.K. that has tracked the same set of children &mdash; with records on their height, weight and food intake &mdash; since their birth in the early 1990s.</p><p>Once again, potato chips raised red flags.</p><p>As the researchers&nbsp;<a href="http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/34/11/1940.abstract">reported</a>&nbsp;in the journal&nbsp;Health Affairs, over a three-year period, every 25-gram serving of potato chips (a little under an ounce) that kids ate daily was linked to about a half-pound of excess weight gain. (Basically, that&#39;s defined as weight beyond what a child should weigh for his or her height and age.)</p><p>Again, half a pound doesn&#39;t sound alarming, &quot;but if you&#39;re also getting an extra half a pound from burgers, and half a pound from french fries, these things add up. And some kids are eating more than a serving&quot; daily, Finkelstein says.</p><p>Other foods the study linked to excessive weight gain included &quot;kid food&quot; staples &mdash; like breaded and coated fish and poultry (think fish sticks and chicken nuggets) and french fries &mdash; and processed meats, butter and margarine, desserts and sweets.</p><p>That&#39;s important, because some 31 percent of American and 38 percent of European kids are now overweight or obese &mdash; and the pounds we gain as kids often stay with us through adulthood.</p></p> Fri, 13 Nov 2015 14:26:00 -0600 http://www.wbez.org/news/obesity-and-junk-food-tale-two-studies-113785 New dietary guidelines will not include sustainability goal http://www.wbez.org/news/new-dietary-guidelines-will-not-include-sustainability-goal-113222 <p><p>When it comes to eating well, should we consider both the health of our bodies&nbsp;and&nbsp;of the planet?</p><p>Earlier this year, as we<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/02/26/389276051/will-the-dietary-guidelines-consider-the-planet-the-fight-is-on">&nbsp;reported</a>, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that a diet rich in plant-based foods promotes good health &mdash; and is also more&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/12/15/370427441/congress-to-nutritionists-dont-talk-about-the-environment">environmentally sustainable</a>. And, for the first time, the panel recommended that food system sustainability be incorporated into the federal government&#39;s dietary advice.</p><p>But, it turns out, the idea of marrying sustainability guidance with nutrition advice proved to be very controversial.</p><p>And now, President Obama&#39;s two cabinet secretaries who will oversee the writing of the guidelines say they will not include the goal of sustainability.</p><p>&quot;We will remain within the scope of our mandate ... which is to provide nutritional and dietary information,&quot; write U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack and Sylvia Burwell, secretary of Health and Human Services, in a&nbsp;<a href="http://blogs.usda.gov/2015/10/06/2015-dietary-guidelines-giving-you-the-tools-you-need-to-make-healthy-choices/">joint statement</a>.</p><p>The two secretaries went on to say that &quot;we do not believe that the 2015 DGA (Dietary Guidelines for Americans) are the appropriate vehicle for this important policy conversation about sustainability.&quot;</p><p>The statement came just one day in advance of a much-anticipated congressional hearing. Secretaries Vilsack and Burwell are scheduled to <a href="http://www.c-span.org/video/?328598-1/secretaries-tom-vilsack-sylvia-burwell-testimony-nutritional-guidelines#" target="_blank">testify before the House Agriculture Committee Wednesday morning</a> on the topic of the dietary guidelines.</p><p>Advocates have been pushing for inclusion of sustainability goals. The consulting group<a href="http://www.foodminds.com/">&nbsp;Food Minds</a>&nbsp;analyzed 26,643 written, public comments submitted to the federal government on the topic of the dietary guidelines. They found that write-in campaigns by the advocacy groups Friends of the Earth, Food Democracy Now and My Plate, My Planet were the top three sources of comments.</p><p>Last week, in an editorial&nbsp;<a href="https://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2015/09/30/science.aab2031.abstract">published</a>&nbsp;in&nbsp;Science&nbsp;magazine,&nbsp;<a href="http://gwtoday.gwu.edu/kathleen-merrigan-serve-executive-director-sustainability-institute">Kathleen Merrigan</a>&nbsp;of George Washington University and a group of co-authors wrote that adopting a reference to sustainability in the dietary guidelines would &quot;sanction and elevate the discussion of sustainable diets.&quot;</p><p>Merrigan argues that &quot;by acknowledging benefits of sustainability, the government would open itself up to greater demand for sustainability investments and would signal to consumers that such foods are preferred.&quot;</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/newdiet.jpg" style="height: 359px; width: 540px;" title="The debate about sustainable diets has focused on meat production, which requires lots of land and water to grow grain to feed livestock. It also contributes to methane emissions. But the cabinet secretaries with final authority say the 2015 dietary guidelines won't include sustainability goals. (David McNew/Getty Images)" /></p><p>The debate about sustainable diets has focused on meat production. As we&#39;ve&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2012/06/27/155527365/visualizing-a-nation-of-meat-eaters">reported</a>, meat production uses lots of land and water to grow grain to feed livestock. It also contributes to methane emissions.</p><p>&quot;There are a lot of complex issues around livestock production that suggest &mdash;quite strongly &mdash; that we need to reduce meat consumption for sustainability reasons,&quot;Merrigan told us.</p><p>And other foods also have an environmental footprint that we should not ignore. Take, for instance, almonds.</p><p>&quot;It takes up to 2.8 liters of water to produce a single &#39;heart-healthy&#39; almond,&quot; Merrigan and company write in the editorial.</p><p>&quot;With 80 percent of the world&#39;s almonds growing in drought-stricken California, should consumers be advised to limit almond consumption and consider alternatives that consume fewer resources?&quot; Merrigan and her co-authors ask.</p><div class="image-insert-image " style="text-align: center;"><img alt="" class="image-original_image" src="http://www.wbez.org/system/files/styles/original_image/llo/insert-images/AP_101497980202.jpg" style="height: 389px; width: 540px;" title="In this Tuesday, July 21, 2015 photo, decaying almonds hang from a dead tree in an almond orchard, in Newman, Calif., abandoned by a landowner who couldn't get enough water for irrigation. Due to California's epic drought, Central Valley farmers who depend on water pumped from the Sacramento San Joaquin River Delta to irrigate their crops, have seen their water allocations reduced or eliminated altogether. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli)" /></div><p>The meat industry has opposed the idea of including sustainability in the dietary guidelines. &quot;In our view, this is clearly out of scope,&quot;&nbsp;<a href="https://www.meatinstitute.org/ht/d/sp/i/237/pid/237">Janet Riley</a>&nbsp;of the North American Meat Institute told us.</p><p>She says experts need a more complete understanding of how food production impacts the environment.</p><p>&quot;If you compare 10 pounds of apples and 10 pounds of meat, the meat surely has the larger carbon footprint, but it also delivers more nutrition, it nourishes more people longer&quot; in terms of calories and protein, says Riley.</p><p>She says, going forward, if sustainability is going to be included in the dietary guidelines, there needs to be more data and more experts at the table.</p><p>In a statement, the meat institute&#39;s president and CEO,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.meatinstitute.org/ht/d/sp/i/237/pid/237">Barry Carpenter,</a>&nbsp;praised the secretaries&#39; decision. He called sustainability &quot;an important food issue,&quot; but one &quot;outside of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee&#39;s scope and expertise.&quot;</p><p>The dietary guidelines are updated every five years, so it&#39;s possible that this debate will continue.</p><p>&quot;The compelling science around the need to adjust dietary patterns to ensure long-term food security cannot be ignored,&quot; Merrigan told me after the secretaries issued their statement. &quot;If not [in] the 2015 DGA [Dietary Guidelines for Americans], then maybe the 2020 DGAs.&quot;</p><p>&mdash; <a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/10/06/446369955/new-dietary-guidelines-will-not-include-sustainability-goal?ft=nprml&amp;f=446369955" target="_blank"><em>via NPR</em></a></p></p> Wed, 07 Oct 2015 11:34:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/new-dietary-guidelines-will-not-include-sustainability-goal-113222 Surgeon General responds to questions about diet http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift/2015-10-05/surgeon-general-responds-questions-about-diet-113178 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/produce flickr rick.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Last month, US Surgeon General Vivek Murthy launched a walking initiative called Step It Up to combat chronic disease in America. On its face, that seems like a good thing, but health advocates charged that it&rsquo;s yet another health campaign that shifts the focus from what we eat to how we exercise. It&rsquo;s a message you often hear from the soda industry, not the surgeon general.</p><p>WBEZ food and health reporter <a href="https://twitter.com/monicaeng?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor">Monica Eng</a> got a call last week from Murthy, who said he wanted to clarify his stance. Eng joins us with what he said.</p></p> Mon, 05 Oct 2015 11:17:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift/2015-10-05/surgeon-general-responds-questions-about-diet-113178 Cooking up change in American medical schools http://www.wbez.org/news/cooking-change-american-medical-schools-112130 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Food as med manny.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>It&rsquo;s a stormy Friday night in Chicago and traffic is a mess. But, one by one, a group of damp medical students comes filing into a classroom at Chicago&rsquo;s Kendall College. They could be out drinking tonight or hunkered down with their anatomy books. But instead they&rsquo;ve traveled miles from the University of Chicago&#39;s campus to attend a voluntary 3-hour class that they&rsquo;re not even getting credit for.</p><p>The course is Culinary Medicine, which explores the intersection of food, science, medicine and nutrition. The idea is to learn how to help prevent and control some of our most pervasive chronic health conditions.</p><p>&ldquo;We don&rsquo;t get a lot of devoted curriculum to this issue,&rdquo; says Erik Kulenkamp.&nbsp; He&rsquo;s a first-year med student at University of Chicago&rsquo;s Pritzker Medical School.&nbsp; &ldquo;And I feel like it&rsquo;s one of the things patients are most curious about and have the most questions about &mdash; lifestyle changes and things they can do to prevent things from happening to them rather than treating them once they occur.&rdquo;</p><p><strong>Where&rsquo;s the nutrition training for doctors?</strong></p><p>Only about 30 institutions around the country teach culinary medicine. And according to a 2010 survey, only about 27 percent of all American medical schools teach the 25 hours of nutrition coursework recommended by the National Academy of Science.</p><p>This comes at a time when a recent <a href="http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1710486">Journal of the American Medical Association study</a> found that dietary quality is the single biggest risk factor for death and disability in the country.&nbsp;</p><p>This seems crazy to folks like Stephen Devries, who runs Chicago&rsquo;s <a href="http://www.gaplesinstitute.org/">Gaples Institute</a>. It&rsquo;s trying to expand more nutritional training in the medical field. When he spells out for people the current requirements for nutrition training among medical professions, &ldquo;they are shocked.&rdquo;</p><p>Last year, Devries wrote a<a href="http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343%2814%2900308-8/abstract"> commentary in The American Journal of Medicine </a>decrying the current lack of nutrition education among doctors. He noted that a recent study showed only 14 percent of physicians feel trained to provide nutritional counseling and yet 61 percent of patients turn to their doctors as &ldquo;very credible&rdquo; sources of nutrition information.</p><p>Dr. Geeta Maker Clark is a clinical instructor at the University of Chicago; she also runs an integrative family practice in the North Shore University Health system. She pursued culinary medicine studies after medical school, and has used them in her integrative practice as well as a class for non-med students that she teaches with a chef in Evanston.</p><p>But a couple of years ago she was approached by University of Illinois at Chicago doctoral student Sabira Taher with an idea to expand that teaching to future doctors. Things moved slowly. But last month, working with U of C&#39;s&nbsp; Dr. Sonia Oyola (who co-teaches the class) and Kendall&#39;s chef instructor Renee Zonka, they finally launched this pilot class. The pilot is funded by a grant from the U of C Women&rsquo;s Board, but the university stresses it will not give students credit for taking it.</p><p>At this point the University says, &quot;Instructors are just starting to review data that was collected on the nutritional medicine project to help them assess the class and make refinements if it&rsquo;s offered again. It&rsquo;s possible some iteration will be incorporated into the formal curriculum in the future, but it&rsquo;s too early to say.&rdquo;</p><p>This is not the case at <a href="http://tmedweb.tulane.edu/mu/teachingkitchen/">Tulane University</a>, where med students are required to study culinary medicine. Maker Clark is using teaching modules from the Tulane program in the 4-week&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; course that meets for three hours a session.&nbsp; Each class begin with case studies and clinical lectures. But for the second part of the class they put down the pens and pull on the chef hats.</p><p><strong>Breakfast tacos as medical care</strong></p><p>During a recent class, the University of Chicago medical students cooked up spinach and feta frittatas, quick granola, banana nut muffins and breakfast tacos.</p><p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s one of the only opportunities we have at Pritzker to combine treating with pills and things that are directly in the patient&rsquo;s control,&rdquo; says first-year student Maggie Montoya. &ldquo;Also, it will help me with my cooking skills because I can&rsquo;t cook for beans.&rdquo;</p><p>This is a common refrain among med students who said they were eating a lot of take-out and processed food before they took the class. They see it as a way to improve their own health and become examples to their patients.</p><p>That&rsquo;s a huge part of this kind of training, says Dr. David Eisenberg of the <a href="https://www.samueliinstitute.org/">Samueli Institute </a>and the<a href="http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2015/03/30/qa-with-dr-david-eisenberg-on-self-care-skills-teaching-kitchens-thinking-outside-of-the-box/"> Harvard School of Public Health.</a> For nearly a decade he&rsquo;s been leading a <a href="http://www.healthykitchens.org/">4-day culinary medicine class</a> for health professionals at the Culinary Institute of America in California.</p><p>Surveys from doctors who&#39;ve taken the class have convinced him that such personal experience is key to translating the information to a patient. He cites studies showing that&nbsp; doctors who exercise or have given up smoking are much better at counseling patients on the issues.<br /><br />In a recent <a href="http://academicmedicineblog.org/sneak-peek-nutrition-education-in-an-era-of-global-obesity-and-diabetes-thinking-outside-the-box/">article for Academic Medicine,</a> Eisenberg lamented that so few medical schools prepare their students to dispense dietary guidance, &ldquo;and more importantly there are really few if any requirements on the part of graduating medical students to be knowledgeable about nutrition and its translation into practical advice for patients,&rdquo; he said. &ldquo;And those competencies don&rsquo;t exist on the certification exams to become a licensed physician.&rdquo;</p><p>The accreditation body that decides standards for 4-year medical school training is called the <a href="http://www.lcme.org/">Liaison Committee for Medical Education.</a> Its co-chair, Dan Hunt, says that after four years of medical school, he might expect graduates to &quot;identify nutritional disorders, but I wouldn&rsquo;t expect them to be able to treat those disorders because they&rsquo;re going to get the management of the illness in the next set of [specialized residency] training.&quot;</p><p>But that&#39;s not really how it works. In fact, in its <a href="https://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/tabid/134/ProgramandInstitutionalAccreditation/MedicalSpecialties/InternalMedicine.aspx">34- and 35-page accreditation documents </a>for doctors of internal medicine or cardiology, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education never once mentions a need for any nutrition knowledge. When WBEZ contacted Dr. Mary Lieh-Lai, at the ACGME to ask her why, she initially said that she doubted this was true. Lieh-Lai is the senior vice president of medical accreditation at ACGME and she asked for time to go over the documents herself, and then speak to us.</p><p>When we called 30 minutes later she conceded that nutrition is never mentioned in the documents, but added, &ldquo;We don&rsquo;t dictate the detailed requirements. We leave that up to the programs and the programs make those detailed requirements at the local level because it depends on the local needs and things of that nature.&rdquo;</p><p>Asked if ACGME might ever consider including nutrition knowledge as a requirement for accreditation, Lieh-Lai said, &ldquo;No.&rdquo;</p><p><strong>&ldquo;Tsunami of obesity and diabetes&rdquo;</strong></p><p>Still, Eisenberg blames the current situation less on negligence by the accreditors than a slow response to the &ldquo;tsunami of obesity and diabetes&rdquo; that&rsquo;s hit this country.&nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;I don&rsquo;t think we could have predicted that health care professionals would need to know so much more about nutrition and its translation into shopping for and preparing healthy delicious foods,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;Nor did we expect that we would need to know more about movement and exercise or being mindful in the way we live our lives and eat or how to change behaviors. I think these are relatively new areas of expertise that (we) really must grapple with for the next generation of health professionals.&rdquo;</p><p>Back in the Kendall College kitchen Maker Clark aims to give her students some of that expertise. In just the last two hours her students have mastered 12 healthy dishes that they will be able to pass on to future patients.</p><p>Today, this class is just a small grant-funded pilot, but Maker Clark envisions a day when it&rsquo;s standard fare in local med schools.&nbsp;<br />&nbsp;<br />&ldquo;That would be absolutely fantastic,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;If we can get it to the point where they are getting credit for it and then incorporated into the curriculum, that is a goal.&rdquo;</p><p>A more immediate goal is for students to share what they&rsquo;ve learned with others. Later this month, they&rsquo;ll be expected to teach healthy cooking workshops in underserved Chicago communities as their final project.</p><p>WBEZ will check that out and report back on it here.</p><p><em>Monica Eng is a WBEZ producer and co-host of the Chewing The Fat podcast. Follow her at @monicaeng or write to her at meng@wbez.org</em></p></p> Wed, 03 Jun 2015 05:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/news/cooking-change-american-medical-schools-112130 Morning Shift: Open office space can threaten more than your privacy http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift-tony-sarabia/2013-07-26/morning-shift-open-office-space-can-threaten-more <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//main-images/Office-Flickr- Phillie Casablanca.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>Do offices need walls? One study shows that more privacy could mean more productivity at work. And, is it fair to blame Huma Abedin for supporting her husband Anthony Weiner during his latest scandal? Our panel and you weigh in.</p><script src="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-anthony-weiner-scandal-moves-blame-t.js?header=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/WBEZ/morning-shift-anthony-weiner-scandal-moves-blame-t" target="_blank">View the story "Morning Shift: Open office space can threaten more than your privacy" on Storify</a>]</noscript></p> Fri, 26 Jul 2013 08:20:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/programs/morning-shift-tony-sarabia/2013-07-26/morning-shift-open-office-space-can-threaten-more Coalition recommends first-ever nutrition and exercise standards for after school programs http://www.wbez.org/story/coalition-recommends-first-ever-nutrition-and-exercise-standards-after-school-programs-90346 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-August/2011-08-10/Kid at playground_Flickr_Phalinn Ooi.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>A coalition of groups, including the Chicago-based national YMCA, has issued the first-ever comprehensive national nutritonal and physical activity guidelines for camps and after school programs.&nbsp;</p><p>The standards were issued Tuesday by the Healthy Out-of-School Time Coalition and coordinated by the YMCA, the University of Massachusetts-Boston, and the National Institute on Out-of-School Time (NIOST) at the Wellesley Centers for Women at Wellesley College.</p><p>They include a common sense-approach including serving fruits and vegetables instead of more sugary, fatty treats; and offering water rather than juices or soda.&nbsp; Half-day programs should offer at least half an hour of physical activity; full-day programs should offer at least an hour.</p><p>“Energy balance and appropriate physical activity are critical to good health and preventing childhood obesity, which is reaching record numbers in this country,” says project co-leader Ellen S. Gannett, director of the National Institute on Out-of-School Time. “If out-of-school programs can influence smart choices for children when they’re away from home and out of the classroom, they will be an important component in the campaign to fight childhood obesity.”</p><p>The new standards have already been adopted by the National Afterschool Association (NAA), and local YMCA's will begin the process of adopting the standards this year.</p><p>According to the coalition, more than eight million children nationwide participate in out-of-school programs for at least three hours a day.</p></p> Wed, 10 Aug 2011 14:00:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/coalition-recommends-first-ever-nutrition-and-exercise-standards-after-school-programs-90346 Food industry and health experts face off over food package labeling http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-06-22/food-industry-and-health-experts-face-over-food-package-labeling-88212 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-June/2011-06-22/cereal_pops.jpg" alt="" /><p><p>For some of us, the regular trudge to the grocery store is a trial all by itself. But consumers trying to make healthier choices are often left scratching their heads in wonder at the sheer volume of food products with claims about less fat and more whole grain.</p><p>When first mom and food maven Michelle Obama called for some clearer guidance last year, the food industry proposed a simple, front-of-package label called <a href="http://www.gmaonline.org/news-events/newsroom/food-and-beverage-industry-launches-nutrition-keys-front-of-pack-nutrition-/">Nutrition Keys</a>. It has boxes with information on saturated fat, salt, sugar and calories, plus two optional ones for industry to decide what nutrients they would like to promote — such as potassium or fiber.</p><p>But <a href="http://www.yale.edu/psychology/FacInfo/Brownell.html">Kelly Brownell</a>, who heads the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale, says the industry proposal makes things worse for consumers instead of better.</p><p></p><p>For starters, the timing of the industry proposal is suspect, he says. "They've completely preempted the White House, the Food and Drug Administration, and an Institute of Medicine committee report that are all working on coming up with an ideal front-of-package system."</p><p>In fact, the independent IOM is expected to release its <a href="http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Examination-of-Front-of-Package-Nutrition-Rating-Systems-and-Symbols-Phase-1-Report.aspx">final recommendations</a> this fall. But the industry's Nutrition Keys program is already under way, and the hope is that it will soon reach 70 percent of packaged foods and beverages in the U.S.</p><p>Brownell isn't sure it will do much good. "If left to its own devices, it's pretty apparent that the industry will not come up with a system that works for consumers and will help guide healthy food choices," he says.</p><p>The <a href="http://www.gmaonline.org">Grocery Manufacturers Association</a> tells Shots that Nutrition Keys is "aligned with the <a href="http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12957#toc">IOM's 2010 nutrition labeling findings</a>" about which ingredients should be highlighted on packages. The GMA also argues that the results of <a href="http://www.gmaonline.org/file-manager/Health_Nutrition/nutritionkeys-consumerresearch.pdf">its own testing</a> show that consumers like the icons in part because they're simple.</p><p>But case in point, Brownell says, is the industry's previous effort at creating a simple labeling system. It allowed things like Froot Loops and Cocoa Krispies to be considered "<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/05/business/05smart.html">Smart Choices</a>" because they contain certain vitamins, nevermind the sugar. It was later discontinued after much criticism.</p><p>Another problem Brownell notes is that the industry would have a lot of leeway under its proposal to decide what nutrients to include — potentially causing another round of back-and-forth between industry and regulators. And besides that, on one package of Cocoa Krispies he picked up at the store, the Nutrition Keys only took up 1.5 percent of the surface area of the front of the box, he says.</p><p>"My guess is that consumers will be lucky if they even notice it, much less make use of it," he says.</p><p>Brownell and <a href="http://whsc.emory.edu/home/about/leadership/bio-jeffrey-koplan.html">Jeffrey Koplan</a>,vice president for Global Health at Emory University, published a <a href="http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1101033">perspective piece</a> in the <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em> today suggesting that so much is at stake on food labeling, the food industry should just wait for the IOM report.</p><p>The editorial says more research is needed, and it proposes labels that are simpler, colorful and less numbers driven — like the U.K.'s "<a href="http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/food-labelling.aspx#Tr">traffic light</a>" color-coded symbols.</p><p>That way, consumers could figure out with a glance what foods are a go, a go slow, or a stop. <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio. <img src="http://metrics.npr.org/b/ss/nprapidev/5/1308779828?&gn=Food+Industry+And+Health+Experts+Face+Off+Over+Food+Package+Labeling&ev=event2&ch=103537970&h1=Your+Health,Shots+-+Health+Blog,Health,Food,U.S.,Home+Page+Top+Stories,News&c3=D%3Dgn&v3=D%3Dgn&c4=137344357&c7=1128&v7=D%3Dc7&c18=1128&v18=D%3Dc18&c19=20110622&v19=D%3Dc19&c20=1&v20=D%3Dc20&c31=126567525,103537970&v31=D%3Dc31&c45=MDA0OTc2MjAwMDEyNjk0NDE4OTI2NmUwNQ001"/></div></p></p> Wed, 22 Jun 2011 16:54:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-06-22/food-industry-and-health-experts-face-over-food-package-labeling-88212 Junk food fight: Should ads stop targeting teens? http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-06-21/junk-food-fight-should-ads-stop-targeting-teens-88170 <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//npr_story/photo/2011-June/2011-06-22/doritos.gif" alt="" /><p><p>The government says junk food marketers shouldn't advertise to kids. Not just on TV, but also online, in schools and in stores.</p><p>The guidelines being proposed are voluntary; food companies can opt out. Still, with four powerful agencies, including the Federal Trade Commission and the Food and Drug Administration, throwing their weight behind the proposal, the food industry is taking the measure seriously.</p><p>One of the most contentious issues is whether the marketing limits should be applied to older kids, aged 12 to 17 — like 13-year-old Reed Weisenberger.</p><p>"I always want pizza whenever I see a pizza commercial," he says during a recent visit to Washington, D.C.'s Union Station with his mom Cindy and a group of his friends.</p><p>Cindy Weisenberger dodges such requests regularly. Earlier, it was for giant caffeinated energy drinks.</p><p>"These guys on the way here wanted to buy Monster drinks," she says. "And I said, 'I'm not taking any kids that are drinking Monster drinks.'"</p><p>To those who want to limit kids' exposure to billions of dollars worth of food ads, the stakes are much higher than one parent's ongoing battle. About a third of U.S. adolescents are obese, and many blame successful marketing campaigns for contributing to the problem.</p><p>The agencies drafting the guidelines call themselves the Interagency Working Group. In addition to the FTC and FDA, the group includes the Agriculture Department and the Centers for Disease Control.</p><p><strong>'Horrifying' Tactics</strong></p><p>This group broke from the past by seeking to include 12- to 17-year-olds in its guidelines. Traditionally, limits on marketing focused on the very young. But the government sought to expand them to older children, in part because they are heavy consumers of social media, cell phone messages and online games — the new frontier for ads.</p><p>"What we're talking about are very complicated and very subtle forms of marketing that aren't always clear as such," says Kathryn Montgomery, a professor of communications at American University and an advocate for limiting food ads to teens.</p><p>As an example, she cites <a href="http://www.myawardshows.com/2010/OneShowEntertainment/asylum626/">an online ad</a> sponsored by Doritos that mimics a horror movie, and which draws in users' friends using Facebook or Twitter.</p><p>Montgomery says such ads work subliminally and use friends to influence other friends.</p><p>But efforts to restrict ads to teens draw lots of opposition from the food and advertising industries. The industries say the overlap between teen and adult audiences makes the proposed restrictions impractical.</p><p><strong>Is It Feasible?</strong></p><p>Elaine Kolish directs an industry-funded program called the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative. For the past five years this initiative sponsored its own voluntary standards that focus only on the 12-and-under set.</p><p>"You know, we let kids drive and we let them hold jobs when they're 16. They can get married in some states, and they can join the military with permission, and they can be held criminally responsible for their actions in a number of situations," she says. "So I think that the notion that you'd have to have nutrition standards that say you can't let a kid see an ad for a french fry but you can let them join the military doesn't really make a lot of sense."</p><p>Advocates say whether the guidelines will include limits on teen marketing depends largely on how hard the government is willing to fight the industry.</p><p>Mary Engle, a director of advertising practices at the FTC, seems to suggest the government doesn't think it can win that fight.</p><p>"I think the application of the principles to teenagers was definitely a point of contention," she says. "And the working group has already signaled that by asking questions about limiting it to children under age 12, that we recognize that it may not be really feasible."</p><p>The deadline for public comments to the working group is July 14. The final guidelines are expected by the end of the year. <div class="fullattribution">Copyright 2011 National Public Radio.</p> Tue, 21 Jun 2011 23:01:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/story/2011-06-21/junk-food-fight-should-ads-stop-targeting-teens-88170 Unhealthy lunches? Some schools bet on salad bars. http://www.wbez.org/content/unhealthy-lunches-some-schools-bet-salad-bars <img typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://llnw.wbez.org//story/photo/2011-June/2011-06-10/salad bar.jpg" alt="" /><p><p><iframe src="http://player.vimeo.com/video/24929941?title=0&amp;byline=0&amp;portrait=0&amp;color=b30000" frameborder="0" height="338" width="601"></iframe></p><p>As parents, policy makers and educators in Chicago debate such issues as improving teacher quality and lengthening public school days, another battle has been brewing over what’s on students’ cafeteria plates.</p><p>Those battles have included debates over implementing <a href="http://abclocal.go.com/wpvi/story?section=news/local&amp;id=8034969">a new free breakfast in the classroom program</a> and <a href="http://www.cps.edu/About_CPS/The_Board_of_Education/Documents/BoardActions/2010_04/10-0428-PR9.pdf">last year’s decision</a> to renew the district’s $61 million food service contract with Chartwells/Thompson.</p><p>Nationally, the Obama administration is placing greater emphasis on improving the nutrition of school lunches.&nbsp; The U.S. Department of Agriculture, which manages school nutrition guidelines, wants more American schools to offer orange vegetables in their school lunches 3 or more days during the week. They also want to see more dark leafy greens on students’ plates, but are <a href="../../story/2011-06-07/lobbyists-want-fries-and-pizza-stay-school-87535">fending off advances from lobbyists</a> who want to keep items like pizza and fries in school cafeterias.</p><p>Chicago Public Schools CEO Jean-Claude Brizard and USDA officials were on hand Tuesday to honor Walsh Elementary School in Pilsen and 18 other Chicago schools for improving healthy food options and nutrition education in the classroom, and for providing more opportunities for its students to be physically active.&nbsp;The awards were given as part of the Go for the Gold program, a local version of the national <a href="http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/healthierus/index.html">HealthierUS Schools Challenge</a>.</p><p>In April of 2010, CPS adopted voluntary guidelines for school nutrition that were stricter than those mandated at the national level. These changes included serving a different vegetable every day, limiting starchy vegetables like potatoes, increasing whole grains, reducing sodium and eliminating overly sweet breakfast items.</p><div id="slideshow"><div class="cycle"><div class="slideshow-photo photo1"><span class="story-photo"><img alt="" class="imagecache imagecache-story_image_medium imagecache-default imagecache-story_image_medium_default" src="http://www.wbez.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/story_image_medium/story/photo/2011-June/2011-06-10/salad%20bar.jpg" title="(WBEZ/Robin Amer)" height="195" width="280"></span><p class="slideshow-photo-credit">(WBEZ/Robin Amer)</p><p class="slideshow-photo-description">Nutrition specialist Melody Hendricks, 46, prepares the salad bar at Walsh Elementary School in Chicago's Pilsen neighborhood.</p><span style="display: none;"><img alt="" class="imagecache imagecache-665x500" src="http://www.wbez.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/665x500/story/photo/2011-June/2011-06-10/salad%20bar.jpg" title="" height="500" width="665"></span></div></div></div><p>Walsh and a handful of other Chicago schools have gone even a step further. In addition to collards and sweet potatoes, Tuesday's menu included fresh fruit and cartons of skim and low-fat milk. &nbsp;There's also a salad bar stocked with lettuce, sliced cucumbers and tomatoes, available to the older students. The salad bar was installed in January. According to Mark Bishop from the Healthy Schools Campaign, there are 100 CPS schools with salad bars, 70 of which were installed during the 2010-2011 school year.</p><p>Still, there are complaints and challenges that CPS individual schools like Walsh still have to contend with. The district had originally said it wanted 100 of its 675 schools to earn the Go for the Gold award.&nbsp; Just 19 have met the criteria thus far.&nbsp;</p><p>Furthermore, like many Chicago schools, the hot food at Walsh is cooked off site and then warmed in the school's heating kitchen. And just because vegetables are served, it doesn’t necessarily mean kids will eat them. In fact, the students we spoke with said the favorite thing for lunch that day was the entrée: fried chicken.&nbsp;</p><p>You can see what some of Chicago’s youngest students are eating, and what they think of their lunches, in the video above.</p><p><em>Correction: An earlier version of this story incorrectly reported the number of Chicago Public Schools with salad bars installed in their cafeterias.</em></p></p> Fri, 10 Jun 2011 16:48:00 -0500 http://www.wbez.org/content/unhealthy-lunches-some-schools-bet-salad-bars